BackgroundDespite the implementation of codes and declarations of medical research ethics, unethical behavior is still reported among researchers. Most of the medical faculties have included topics related to medical research ethics and developed ethical committees; yet, in some cases, unethical behaviors are still observed, and many obstacles are still conferring to applying these guidelines.MethodsThis cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted by interviewing randomly selected 331 Lebanese physicians across Lebanon, to assess their awareness, knowledge and attitudes on practice regarding international and national (...) research ethics guidelines and scientific misconduct and misbehaviors.ResultsOur results revealed that although majority of participants declared familiar with ethical principles governing research that involves human subjects, the overall mean score achieved on their knowledge questions was 46%. Only 27.4% are aware of the presence of the Lebanese National Consultative Committee on Ethics, with only half of them aware of its functions and only 25.7% know about the charter of ethics and guiding principles of scientific research in Lebanon. Significant higher levels of research ethics knowledge were recorded among Ph.D. degree-holding subjects, higher university positions as in professors, research ethics trainings-attendees, and physicians with prior research experience. A significant correlation was observed between knowledge of research ethics principles and positive attitudes toward research ethics principles. Noteworthy, we found that more than one third of participants have reported witnessing scientific misconduct and misbehaviors at some period of their careers.ConclusionsThe presence of low mean awareness levels regarding research ethical principles among the study population of physicians and high levels of perception of scientific misconduct raises concern on the importance of implementing proper training for physicians on research ethics. (shrink)
This study focuses on determining the number of children considered ideal by Pakistani husbands and identifying the factors associated with this, with a special emphasis on family type. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among married males residing in four areas of Khairpur district. An equal number of study participants were selected systematically from each field site to achieve the required sample size of 500. Interviews were conducted by trained fieldworkers using a structured questionnaire to obtain information on background socioeconomic characteristics, (...) family structure and reproductive health knowledge and practices, in particular family planning. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the hypothesis that family type has an independent association with husbands opinions regarding ideal number of children can help strengthen population control efforts in Pakistan. (shrink)
There is an immense need for muslim countries to recognize the importance of women especially in education and their well-being in order to establish a prosperous society from economic perspective. A cross-section data of 1forty-nine muslim countries was analyzed along with theoretical and empirical explanation of few outlier muslim countries who were economically robust but paradoxically showed low gender-equality profile. The results in few cases showed very different results than expected however those cases in general belonged to oil-rich countries, where (...) their strong economy stands only on the export of oil and its derivatives. The extreme case of Qatar, which has a big per-capita income however its gender inequality profile was comparable to Pakistan, whose per-capita income was only three percent as that of Qatar. Moreover, Saudi Arab’s per capita income is ten times more as that of Pakistan but its gender equality profile much less than Pakistan’s. Apart from these few cases, the variable explaining the robustness of an economy, roughly regressed negatively with the gender inequality profile, showing that observing gender equality will have positive effects on the economy of muslim countries. (shrink)
An endeavor has been made in this paper to ascertain the reasons behind the bleak performance of the economy of Pakistan in spite of the fact that the country possesses cheaper labor as compared to many countries of the world. With a big portion of our labor force – comprising of women has been neglected even from unemployment alleviation planning. The data used in this study was available from December 2007 to September 2010. Looking up to neighboring China and its (...) economic progress as the most populated country of the world brought its population in the economic fold, Pakistani government also needs to come up with some similar strategy but related to its own society norms. Pakistan could also bring a big part of its population by strengthening microfinance sector and subsequently small sector of the country. There is great scope in the microfinance industry in Pakistan provided that the government objectively patronizes the activities of the microfinance banks and institutions. (shrink)
ABSTRACTDuring the second Intifada which started in 2000 and ended sometime in mid 2000s, Palestinian male and female martyrs used video testimonies, records and documents of death, using the first person pronoun so as to articulate their missions and justifications for carrying out their acts of martyrdom. This study, which focuses on Palestinian female martyrs’ video-testimonies, investigates the elusive relationship between martyrdom and witness. I contend that the female martyr is a witness to the Israeli occupation of Palestine and to (...) the oppression and dehumanisation to which Palestinians are subject. Palestinian female martyrs are also witnesses to Arab leaders’ weakness and their inability to defend Palestine. The act of martyrdom is a collective one, involving the martyr, the agent of narration and the audience. The audience, who bears witness to the martyr, is necessary for martyrdom to be recognised and to take place. I argue that the end of the martyr’s speech marks out her silence and her tra... (shrink)
The thesis examines the origins and function of legal theory within the context of the development of early Islamic law. I argue against the depiction of the development of law as a series of compromises between traditionalism and rationalism. Rather, by evading the demands of traditionalism, law evolved into a complex doctrinal entity rooted in the social structures of third-century Abbasid society. This revision of the development of law provides a context to evaluate early works of legal theory. Moreover, in (...) context of my analysis of the development of law, I attempt to explain the emergence of legal theory as an independent discipline and its function within the greater structure of law. (shrink)
In this timely and outstanding contribution, Andreas Lammer tackles central concepts and problems in Avicenna's Physics of the Healing. The analysis provides a wide-ranging but cohesive study of Avicenna's approach and ideas. The philological and philosophical analysis of the historical context of Avicenna's arguments pays dividends. Avicenna's—often radical—reworking of Aristotle's approach in the Physics critically engages a long tradition of Peripatetic and Neoplatonic philosophy in Greek and Arabic. Lammer's contribution, based on his doctoral dissertation, lays fertile ground for future work. (...) Given the limitations of this review, I focus in the following on the results and fruitful questions raised by chapters... (shrink)
The Cuckoo search algorithm is an efficient evolutionary algorithm inspired by the nesting and parasitic reproduction behaviors of some cuckoo species. Mutation is an operator used in evolutionary algorithms to maintain the diversity of the population from one generation to the next. The original CS algorithm uses the Lévy flight method, which is a special mutation operator, for efficient exploration of the search space. The major goal of the current paper is to experimentally evaluate the performance of the CS algorithm (...) after replacing the Lévy flight method in the original CS algorithm with seven different mutation methods. The proposed variations of CS were evaluated using 14 standard benchmark functions in terms of the accuracy and reliability of the obtained results over multiple simulations. The experimental results suggest that the CS with polynomial mutation provides more accurate results and is more reliable than the other CS variations. (shrink)
En la historia del pensamiento político musulmán ŷihād e iŷtihād siempre van unidos. Pero es en el pensamiento combativo donde más se manifiesta esa unión de un modo transcendente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es plantear el aspecto transhistórico del iŷtihād y del ŷihād, y con ello, exponer de manifiesto el siempre fracasado proceso de emancipación histórica y teológica del proyecto ŷihadístico basado sobre la mistificación de lo sustancialmente humano.
La presente seleccion de textos, contiene los principales aspectos de la tesis del pensador egipcio Ali Sami Nash.r destacado miembro de la escuela "fundamentalista" defensora de la "originalidad de la filosofia islamica" en la historia del pensamiento arabe moderno. En estos textos, se llega a afirmar que la filosofia islamica tuvo su propia y especial estructura y por consiguiente, su peculiar personalidad, y que los filosofos dichos "islamicos" no eran nada mas que filosofos peripateticos seguidores de Aristoteles mientras que los (...) verdaderos filosofos del Islam eran los mutakallim.n, autenticos representantes del espiritu musulman. Con esta seleccion de textos traducidos directamente del arabe, se pretende realizar una reflexion sobre el destino que tomo una de las aproximaciones mas especificas sobre la filosofia peripatetica en el mundo islamico, que, por razones desconocidos, permanecio desconocida en Occidente y parte del mundo islamico. (shrink)
Con la publicación de al-�Aqida al-burhaniyya al-as,ariyya, una joya más del legado as,ari marroquí ha visto la luz. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la importancia de esa edición científica y aportar algunas reflexiones acerca de su contenido y forma.
Max Weber and Charles Peirce: At the Crossroads of Science, Philosophy, and Culture marks the first time that the leading European social scientist, Max Weber has been brought into conversation with the leading American philosopher, Charles Peirce. This conversation helps us to not only better understand the challenges that are facing global modernity at the beginning of the 21st century but also points to creative ways to redress them.
This paper contributes to the evolving body of literature diagnosing the ‘business-like’ transformation of American medicine by historicising and recuperating the concepts of medical leadership and the corporation. In an analysis of the evolving uses of ‘leadership’ in medical literature, we argue that the term’s appeal derives from its ability to productively articulate the inevitable conflicts that arise between competing values in corporations, and so should be understood as a response to the neoliberal corporation’s false resolutions of conflict according to (...) the single value of profit. Drawing on mid-century theories of the corporation to reframe dominant social histories of medical corporatisation, we go on to argue that large medical institutions are productive sites for deliberation over the medical profession’s social contract. Our primary case study for this longer historical and broader theoretical argument is the MD Anderson Cancer Center, the world’s foremost treatment hospital for patients with cancer. We hold that the historical trajectory that led to MD Anderson’s exceptional but exemplary place in the evolution of American corporate medicine is reflective of historical trends in the practice. (shrink)
Health care ethics is a sensitive domain, which if ignored, can lead to patient dissatisfaction, weakened doctor–patient interaction and episodes of violence. Little importance has been paid to medical ethics within undergraduate medical education in developing countries such as Pakistan. Three doctors in Pakistan are currently facing an official police complaint and arrest charges, following the death of a sanitary worker, who fell unconscious while cleaning a drain and was allegedly refused treatment as he was covered in sewage filth. The (...) medical license of the doctors in question should be cancelled, if found guilty following a thorough investigation into the case. The ‘right to life’ has been universally assured by all moral, cultural and legal codes and no society can ever argue against the sacredness of a human life. It is quite clear that the aforesaid doctors’ actions are not only against the core principles of the physicians’ code, but also go against the doctrine of human rights. If serious efforts on an urgent basis are not made by the regulatory and governing bodies, one can definitely expect similar incidents for at least a few more decades before any noticeable change is seen. (shrink)