71 found
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  1. Perception and Its Objects.Bill Brewer - 2011 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Early modern empiricists thought that the nature of perceptual experience is given by citing the object presented to the mind in that experience. Hallucination and illusion suggest that this requires untenable mind-dependent objects. Current orthodoxy replaces the appeal to direct objects with the claim that perceptual experience is characterized instead by its representational content. This paper argues that the move to content is problematic, and reclaims the early modern empiricist insight as perfectly consistent, even in cases of illusion, with the (...)
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  2. Perception and Reason.Bill Brewer - 1999 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Bill Brewer presents an original view of the role of conscious experience in the acquisition of empirical knowledge. He argues that perceptual experiences must provide reasons for empirical beliefs if there are to be any determinate beliefs at all about particular objects in the world. This fresh approach to epistemology turns away from the search for necessary and sufficient conditions for knowledge and works instead from a theory of understanding in a particular area.
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  3. Perception and its objects.Bill Brewer - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 132 (1):87-97.
    Physical objects are such things as stones, tables, trees, people and other animals: the persisting macroscopic constituents of the world we live in. therefore expresses a commonsense commitment to physical realism: the persisting macroscopic constituents of the world we live in exist, and are as they are, quite independently of anyone.
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  4. Perception and content.Bill Brewer - 2006 - European Journal of Philosophy 14 (2):165-181.
    It is close to current orthodoxy that perceptual experience is to be characterized, at least in part, by its representational content, roughly, by the way it represents things as being in the world around the perceiver. Call this basic idea the content view.
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  5. Perceptual experience has conceptual content.Bill Brewer - 2013 - In Matthias Steup & John Turri (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Epistemology. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Blackwell.
    I take it for granted that sense experiential states provide reasons for empirical beliefs; indeed this claim forms the first premise of my central argument for (CC). 1 The subsequent stages of the argument are intended to establish that a person has such a reason for believing something about the way things are in the world around him only if he is in some mental state or other with a conceptual content: a conceptual state. Thus, given that sense experiential states (...)
     
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  6. The Object View of Perception.Bill Brewer - 2017 - Topoi 36 (2):215-227.
    We perceive a world of mind-independent macroscopic material objects such as stones, tables, trees, and animals. Our experience is the joint upshot of the way these things are and our route through them, along with the various relevant circumstances of perception; and it depends on the normal operation of our perceptual systems. How should we characterise our perceptual experience so as to respect its basis and explain its role in grounding empirical thought and knowledge? I offered an answer to this (...)
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  7. How to account for illusion.Bill Brewer - 2008 - In Adrian Haddock & Fiona Macpherson (eds.), Disjunctivism: perception, action, knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 168-180.
    The question how to account for illusion has had a prominent role in shaping theories of perception throughout the history of philosophy. Prevailing philosophical wisdom today has it that phenomena of illusion force us to choose between the following two options. First, reject altogether the early modern empiricist idea that the core subjective character of perceptual experience is to be given simply by citing the object presented in that experience. Instead we must characterize perceptual experience entirely in terms of its (...)
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  8. Discussion of Bill Brewer's “Perceptual Experience and Empirical Reason”.Bill Brewer, David de Bruijn, Chris Hill, Adam Pautz, T. Raja Rosenhagen, Miloš Vuletić & Wayne Wu - 2018 - Analytic Philosophy 59 (1):19-32.
    What is the role of conscious experience in the epistemology of perceptual knowledge: how should we characterise what is going on in seeing that o is F in order to illuminate the contribution of seeing o to their status as cases of knowing that o is F? My proposal is that seeing o involves conscious acquaintance with o itself, the concrete worldly source of the truth that o is F, in a way that may make it evident to the subject (...)
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  9.  23
    Consciousness, colour, and content. Michael Tye.Bill Brewer - 2001 - Mind 110 (439):869-874.
  10. Bodily awareness and the self.Bill Brewer - 1995 - In José Luis Bermúdez, Anthony Marcel & Naomi Eilan (eds.), The Body and the Self. MIT Press. pp. 291-€“303.
    In The Varieties of Reference (1982), Gareth Evans claims that considerations having to do with certain basic ways we have of gaining knowledge of our own physical states and properties provide "the most powerful antidote to a Cartesian conception of the self" (220). In this chapter, I start with a discussion and evaluation of Evans' own argument, which is, I think, in the end unconvincing. Then I raise the possibility of a more direct application of similar considerations in defence of (...)
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  11.  5
    The Rational Role of Perceptual Experiences.Bill Brewer - 1999 - In Perception and Reason. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Asks how exactly perceptual experiences do provide reasons for empirical beliefs. My answer is that they furnish the subject with certain essentially experiential demonstrative contents—‘that is thus’ —his grasp of which provides him with a reason to endorse them in belief. For a person's grasp of such contents, as referring to the mind‐independent objects that they do, and predicating the mind‐independent properties that they do, essentially involves his appreciation of them as the joint upshot of the way things are anyway, (...)
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  12.  81
    Spatial representation: problems in philosophy and psychology.Naomi Eilan, Rosaleen A. McCarthy & Bill Brewer (eds.) - 1993 - Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell.
    Spatial Representation presents original, specially written essays by leading psychologists and philosophers on a fascinating set of topics at the intersection of these two disciplines. They address such questions as these: Do the extraordinary navigational abilities of birds mean that these birds have the same kind of grip on the idea of a spatial world as we do? Is there a difference between the way sighted and blind subjects represent the world 'out there'? Does the study of brain-injured subjects, such (...)
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  13. Mental causation: Compulsion by reason.Bill Brewer - 1995 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 69:237-253.
    The standard paradigm for mental causation is a person’s acting for a reason. Something happens - she intentionally φ’s - the occurrence of which we explain by citing a relevant belief or desire. In the present context, I simply take for granted the following two conditions on the appropriateness of this explanation. First, the agent φ’s _because_ she believes/desires what we say she does, where this is expressive of a _causal_ dependence.1 Second, her believing/desiring this gives her a _reason_ for (...)
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  14.  50
    Replies.Bill Brewer - 2001 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (2):449-464.
    In his comments, Richard Fumerton carefully develops two fundamental concerns with my views, which he interprets sympathetically, and almost entirely correctly. Before turning to these concerns, though, I must make one point about his concise opening statement of my principal claims. As I hope is clear from my précis, perceptual experiences provide reasons for empirical beliefs not simply in virtue of sharing demonstrative content with them. The key idea is that a person cannot properly grasp the objective content of these (...)
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  15. Realism and the nature of perceptual experience.Bill Brewer - 2004 - Philosophical Issues 14 (1):61-77.
    Realism concerning a given domain of things is the view that the things in that domain exist, and are as they are, quite independently of anyone.
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  16.  52
    Empirical reason: Questions for Gupta, McDowell, and Siegel.Bill Brewer - 2019 - Philosophical Issues 29 (1):311-323.
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  17.  23
    I—The Presidential Address: The Objectivity of Perception.Bill Brewer - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 121 (1):1-20.
    We believe that the ordinary physical objects that we perceive continue to exist unperceived; and this is intuitively an aspect of any authentic characterization of how the world appears to us in perception. But how can experience present its objects as continuing to exist beyond that very experience of them? Here I aim to explain this phenomenon. I start with an insight from Evans (1985). Familiar attempts to implement this insight fail, in my opinion. Here I introduce, motivate, defend, and (...)
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  18. Attention and Direct Realism.Bill Brewer - 2013 - Analytic Philosophy 54 (4):421-435.
  19. Self-location and agency.Bill Brewer - 1992 - Mind 101 (401):17-34.
    We perceive things in the external world as spatially located both with respect to each other and to ourselves, such that they are in principle accessible from where we seem to be. I hear the door bang behind me; I feel the pen on the desk over to my right; and I see you walking beneath the line of pictures, from left to right in front of me. By displaying these spatial relations between its objects and us, the perceivers, perception (...)
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  20. Attention and direct realism.Bill Brewer - 2018 - In Adam Pautz & Daniel Stoljar (eds.), Blockheads! Essays on Ned Block’s Philosophy of Mind and Consciousness. new york: MIT Press.
     
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  21.  19
    Perception and Content.Bill Brewer - 2008-03-17 - In Jakob Lindgaard (ed.), John McDowell. Blackwell. pp. 15–31.
    This chapter contains sections titled: The Possibility of Falsity The Involvement of Generality Notes References.
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  22. Do Sense Experiential States Have Conceptual Content?Bill Brewer - 2013 - In Matthias Steup & John Turri (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Epistemology. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Blackwell. pp. 217--230.
  23.  47
    Empirical reason: Answers to Gupta, McDowell, and Siegel.Bill Brewer - 2019 - Philosophical Issues 29 (1):366-377.
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  24. Spatial Representation. Problems in philosophy and psychology.Naomi Eilan, Rosaleen Mccarthy & Bill Brewer - 2001 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 191 (1):119-120.
     
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  25. The integration of spatial vision and action.Bill Brewer - 1993 - In Naomi Eilan, Rosaleen A. McCarthy & Bill Brewer (eds.), Spatial representation: problems in philosophy and psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell.
     
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  26. Externalism and A Priori knowledge of empirical facts.Bill Brewer - 2000 - In Paul Artin Boghossian & Christopher Peacocke (eds.), New Essays on the A Priori. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press. pp. 415.
    I want to discuss the possibility of combining a so-called.
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  27. Emotion and other minds.Bill Brewer - 2002 - In Understanding Emotions: Mind and Morals. Brookfield: Ashgate.
    What is the relation between emotional experience and its behavioural expression? As very preliminary clarification, I mean by ‘emotional experience’ such things as the subjective feeling of being afraid of something, or of being angry at someone. On the side of behavioural expression, I focus on such things as cowering in fear, or shaking a fist or thumping the table in anger. Very crudely, this is behaviour intermediate between the bodily changes which just happen in emotional arousal, such as sweating (...)
     
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  28. Susanna Siegel: The Rationality of Perception.Bill Brewer - 2018 - Journal of Philosophy 115 (2):106-110.
  29. Understanding Emotions: Mind and Morals.Bill Brewer - 2002 - Brookfield: Ashgate.
  30.  38
    Internalism and Perceptual Knowledge.Bill Brewer - 1996 - European Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):259-275.
  31.  91
    Perception of continued existence unperceived.Bill Brewer - 2020 - Philosophical Issues 30 (1):24-38.
    Philosophical Issues, Volume 30, Issue 1, Page 24-38, October 2020.
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  32. Foundations of perceptual knowledge.Bill Brewer - 1997 - American Philosophical Quarterly 34 (1):41-55.
  33. Realism and explanation in perception.Bill Brewer - 2011 - In Johannes Roessler, Hemdat Lerman & Naomi Eilan (eds.), Perception, Causation, and Objectivity. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press. pp. 68.
    Suppose that wc identify physical objccts, in thc first instance, by extension, as things like stones, tables, trees, people and other animals: the persisting macroscopic constituents of the world in which we live. Of course, there is a substantive question of what it is to be y such things in the way relevant to categorization as a physical object. So this can hardly be the final word on the matter. Still, it is equally clear that this gives us all a (...)
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  34.  49
    The Nature of Ordinary Objects.Javier Cumpa & Bill Brewer (eds.) - 2018 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    The metaphysics of ordinary objects is an increasingly vibrant field of study for philosophers. This volume gathers insights from a number of leading authors, who together tackle the central issues in contemporary debates about the subject. Their essays engage with topics including composition, persistence, perception, categories, images, artifacts, truthmakers, metaontology, and the relationship between the manifest and scientific images. Exploring the nature of everyday things, the contributors situate their arguments and the latest research against the background of the field's development. (...)
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  35. Objects and the explanation of perception.Bill Brewer - 2018 - In Johan Gersel, Rasmus Thybo Jensen, Morten S. Thaning & Søren Overgaard (eds.), In the light of experience: new essays on perception and reasons. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
     
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  36. Consciousness and content in perception.Bill Brewer - 2017 - Philosophical Perspectives 31 (1):41-54.
    Normal perception involves conscious experience of the world. What I call the Content View, (CV), attempts to account for this in terms of the representational content of perception (Brewer, 2011, esp. ch. 4). I offer a new argument here against this view. Ascription of personal level content, either conceptual or nonconceptual, depends on the idea that determinate predicational information is conveyed to the subject. This determinate predication depends upon the exercise of certain personal level capacities for categorization and discrimination. Exercise (...)
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  37. Precis of perception and reason, and response to commentator (michael ayers).Bill Brewer - 2001 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (2):405.
    What is the role of conscious perceptual experience in the acquisition of empirical knowledge? My central claim is that a proper account of the way in which perceptual experiences contribute to our understanding of the most basic beliefs about particular things in the mind-independent world around us reveals how such experiences provide peculiarly fundamental reasons for such beliefs. There are, I claim, epistemic requirements upon the very possibility of empirical belief. The crucial epistemological role of experiences lies in their essential (...)
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  38.  39
    Experience and reason in perception.Bill Brewer - 1998 - In Anthony O'Hear (ed.), Current Issues in Philosophy of Mind. Oxford University Press. pp. 203-227.
    The question I am interested in is this. What exactly is the role of conscious experience in the acquisition of knowledge on the basis of perception? The problem here, as I see it, is to solve simultaneously for the nature of this experience, and its role in acquiring and sustaining the relevant beliefs, in such a way as to vindicate what I regard as an undeniable datum, that perception is a basic source of knowledge about the mind-independent world, in a (...)
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  39. Thoughts about objects, places and times.Bill Brewer - 1994 - In Objectivity, Simulation and the Unity of Consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press.
     
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  40.  73
    Material Objects and Their Parts.Bill Brewer - 2017 - Metaphysica (1).
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  41.  18
    How to account for illusion.Bill Brewer - 2008 - In Adrian Haddock & Fiona Macpherson (eds.), Disjunctivism: perception, action, knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press.
    The question how to account for illusion has had a prominent role in shaping theories of perception throughout the history of philosophy. Prevailing philosophical wisdom today has it that phenomena of illusion force us to choose between the following two options. First, reject altogether the early modern empiricist idea that the core subjective character of perceptual experience is to be given simply by citing the object presented in that experience. Instead we must characterize perceptual experience entirely in terms of its (...)
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  42. Levels of explanation and the individuation of events: A difficulty for the token identity theory.Bill Brewer - 1998 - Acta Analytica 13:7-24.
    We make how a person acts intelligible by revealing it as rational in the light of what she perceives, thinks, wants and so on. For example, we might explain that she reached out and picked up a glass because she was thirsty and saw that it contained water. In doing this, we are giving a causal explanation of her behaviour in terms of her antecedent beliefs, desires and other attitudes. Her wanting a drink and realizing that the glass contained one (...)
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  43.  74
    II—Exclusive Individuals.Bill Brewer - 2015 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 89 (1):125-142.
    I agree with a great deal in Helen Steward's paper. I am especially sympathetic to her suggestion that we gain metaphysical illumination by considering various ways in which we arrive at ideas of certain kinds of individuals by abstraction from those of more basic kinds. My aim is to pursue that suggestion by exploring the proposal that a grounding node in this form of abstraction may be characterized by Exclusivity in spatial location. Steward claims that we arrive at our ideas (...)
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  44. Workshop participants.Janette Atkinson, Edoardo Bisiach, Oliver Braddick, Bill Brewer, Michele Brouchon, Peter Bryant, George Butterworth, John Campbell, Bill Child & Lynn A. Cooper - 1993 - In Naomi Eilan, Rosaleen A. McCarthy & Bill Brewer (eds.), Spatial representation: problems in philosophy and psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell. pp. 400.
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  45. Unilateral neglect and the objectivity of spatial representation.Bill Brewer - 1992 - Mind and Language 7 (3):222-39.
    Patients may show a more-or-less complete deviation of the head and eyes towards the right (ipsilesional) side [that is, to the same side of egocentric space as the brain lesion responsible for their disorder]. If addressed by the examiner from the left (contralesional) side [the opposite side to their lesion], patients with severe extrapersonal neglect may fail to respond or may look for the speaker in the right side of the room, turning head and eyes more and more to the (...)
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  46.  38
    Editorial: Issue Devoted to the Work of David Wiggins.Maria Alvarez & Bill Brewer - 2022 - Philosophy 97 (3):267-268.
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  47. Berkeley and modern metaphysics.Bill Brewer - manuscript
    Notoriously, Berkeley combines his denial of the existence of mind-independent matter with the insistence that most of what common sense claims about physical objects is perfectly true (1975a, 1975b).1 As I explain (§ 1), he suggests two broad strategies for this reconciliation, one of which importantly subdivides. Thus, I distinguish three Berkeleyian metaphysical views. The subsequent argument is as follows. Reflection, both upon Berkeley’s ingenious construal of science as approaching towards an essentially indirect identification of the causal-explanatory ground of the (...)
     
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  48. Experience and reason in perception.Bill Brewer - 1998 - In Anthony O'Hear (ed.), Current Issues in Philosophy of Mind. Oxford University Press. pp. 203-227.
    The question I am interested in is this. What exactly is the role of conscious experience in the acquisition of knowledge on the basis of perception? The problem here, as I see it, is to solve simultaneously for the nature of this experience, and its role in acquiring and sustaining the relevant beliefs, in such a way as to vindicate what I regard as an undeniable datum, that perception is a basic source of knowledge about the mind-independent world, in a (...)
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  49. Self-knowledge and externalism.Bill Brewer - 2004 - In J.M. Larrazabal & L.A Perez Miranda (eds.), Language, Knowledge, and Representation. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 39-47.
    I want to discuss the possibility of combining a so-called.
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  50.  4
    Editorial: from the new Editors.Maria Alvarez & Bill Brewer - 2020 - Philosophy 95 (1):1-2.
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