Results for 'Bioethics Islam'

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  1.  22
    Some Perils and Pitfalls of “Missionary Bioethics” and Ethics “Capacity Building” in the Developing World and “Eastern” World.Globalizing Western Bioethics - 2011 - In Catherine Myser (ed.), Bioethics Around the Globe. Oxford University Press.
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  2.  83
    Islam and Bioethics in the Context of “Religion and Science”.Willem B. Drees - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):732-744.
    This paper places “Islam and bioethics” within the framework of “religion and science” discourse. It thus may be seen as a complement to the paper by Henk ten Have () with which this thematic section in Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science opens, which places “Islam and bioethics” in the context of contemporary bioethics. It turns out that in Zygon there have been more submitted articles on Islam and bioethics than on any other (...)
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  3. Islam and Bioethics.Berna Arda & Vardit Rispler-Chaim (eds.) - 2011 - Ankara Üniversitesi Basımevi.
     
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  4.  14
    Islam and Bioethics.Jonathan E. Brockopp - 2008 - Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (1):3-12.
    Muslim theologians, jurists, and healthcare workers have been addressing the challenges of modern biotechnology for years. Major textbooks on religion and bioethics cover Islam in one or two articles, offering only a general introduction to these important discussions. The five articles in this issue of the "Journal of Religious Ethics", originating from a conference at Pennsylvania State University, are unusual in the specificity of their topics-brain death, feeding tubes, sex selection, spiritual counseling, and organ transplantation-and in their engagement (...)
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  5.  52
    Maqasid Al-Shariah as a Complementary Framework to Conventional Bioethics.Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen, Noor Naemah Abdul Rahman, Noor Munirah Isa & Azizan Baharuddin - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):317-327.
    With the rapid advancements made in biotechnology, bioethical discourse has become increasingly important. Bioethics is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field that goes beyond the realm of natural sciences, and has involved fields in the domain of the social sciences. One of the important areas in bioethical discourse is religion. In a country like Malaysia, where Muslims make up the majority of the population, Islam plays a crucial role in providing the essential guidelines on the permissibility and acceptability of (...)
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  6.  53
    Religio-Ethical Discussions on Organ Donation Among Muslims in Europe: An Example of Transnational Islamic Bioethics[REVIEW]Mohammed Ghaly - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (2):207-220.
    This article analyzes the religio-ethical discussions of Muslim religious scholars, which took place in Europe specifically in the UK and the Netherlands, on organ donation. After introductory notes on fatwas (Islamic religious guidelines) relevant to biomedical ethics and the socio-political context in which discussions on organ donation took place, the article studies three specific fatwas issued in Europe whose analysis has escaped the attention of modern academic researchers. In 2000 the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) issued a fatwa (...)
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  7.  8
    Islamic Bioethics and Animal Research: The Case of Iran.Robert Tappan - 2017 - Journal of Religious Ethics 45 (3):562-578.
    Despite growing interest in Islamic bioethics, little work has been done on research ethics in Islam, and even less on animal research ethics. This essay explores religious and scientific insights into the lives of animals used as research subjects, particularly in Iran. The inner lives of animals and their relationship to their Creator as relayed by the Qur'an, ethological research on animal minds, and neuroethical reflection on painience are brought together to question the current, relatively unrestricted use of (...)
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  8.  22
    The Features of a “Mediterranean” Bioethics.Salvino Leone - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (4):431-436.
    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of “Mediterranean” Bioethics that could distinguish it from a “Northern-European and Northern-American” one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the “father” of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on (...)
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  9. Islam Und Bioethik: Eine Kritische Analyse der Modernen Diskussion Im Islamischen Recht.Thomas Eich - 2005 - Reichert.
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  10.  87
    Islamic Bioethics in the Twenty‐First Century.Mohammed Ghaly - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):592-599.
    Islamic bioethics is in good health, this article argues. During the twentieth century, academic researchers had to deal with a number of difficulties including the scarcity of available Islamic sources. However, the twenty-first century witnessed significant breakthroughs in the field of Islamic bioethics. A growing number of normative works authored by Muslim religious scholars and studies conducted by academic researchers have been published. This nascent field also proved to be appealing for research-funding institutions in the Muslim world and (...)
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  11.  72
    Global Bioethics: Transnational Experiences and Islamic Bioethics.Henk Have - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):600-617.
    In the 1970s “bioethics” emerged as a new interdisciplinary discourse on medicine, health care, and medical technologies, primarily in Western, developed countries. The main focus was on how individual patients could be empowered to cope with the challenges of science and technology. Since the 1990s, the main source of bioethical problems is the process of globalization, particularly neo-liberal market ideology. Faced with new challenges such as poverty, inequality, environmental degradation, hunger, pandemics, and organ trafficking the bioethical discourse of empowering (...)
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  12.  97
    Womb Transplantation and the Interplay of Islam and the West.Amel Alghrani - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):618-634.
    In Saudi Arabia in 2000 the world's first human uterus transplant was attempted with some success. In 2011 the second successful human uterus transplant took place in Turkey. Doctors in the United Kingdom have recently announced that uterus transplants will be carried out in the UK if doctors can raise enough funds to complete their research. As scientists continue to make progress in this domain this is anticipated to be the next breakthrough in the arena of assisted reproductive technologies. The (...)
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  13.  75
    Law and Ethics in Islamic Bioethics: Nonmaleficence in Islamic Paternity Regulations.Ayman Shabana - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):709-731.
    In Islamic law paternity is treated as a consequence of a licit sexual relationship. Since DNA testing makes a clear distinction between legal and biological paternity possible, it challenges the continued correlation between paternity and marriage. This article explores the foundations of paternity regulations in the Islamic ethico-legal tradition, with a particular focus on what is termed here “the licit sex principle,” and investigates the extent to which a harm-based argument can be made either by appeal to or against Islamic (...)
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  14.  63
    Collective Religio‐Scientific Discussions on Islam and Hiv/Aids: I. Biomedical Scientists.Mohammed Ghaly - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):671-708.
    During the 1990s, biomedical scientists and Muslim religious scholars collaborated to construe Islamic responses for the ethical questions raised by the AIDS pandemic. This is the first of a two-part study examining this collective legal reasoning (ijtihād jamā‘ī). The main thesis is that the role of the biomedical scientists is not limited to presenting scientific information. They engaged in the human rights discourse pertinent to people living with HIV/AIDS, gave an account of the preventive strategy adopted by the World Health (...)
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  15.  93
    The Beginning of Human Life: Islamic Bioethical Perspectives.Mohammed Ghaly - 2012 - Zygon 47 (1):175-213.
    Abstract. In January 1985, about 80 Muslim religious scholars and biomedical scientists gathered in a symposium held in Kuwait to discuss the broad question “When does human life begin?” This article argues that this symposium is one of the milestones in the field of contemporary Islamic bioethics and independent legal reasoning (Ijtihād). The proceedings of the symposium, however, escaped the attention of academic researchers. This article is meant to fill in this research lacuna by analyzing the proceedings of this (...)
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  16.  78
    The Interplay Between Religious Leaders and Organ Donation Among Muslims.Shoaib A. Rasheed & Aasim I. Padela - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):635-654.
    Bioethics and health researchers often turn to Islamic jurisconsults (fuqahā’) and their verdicts (fatāwā) to understand how Islam and health intersect. Yet when using fatwā to promote health behavior change, researchers have often found less than ideal results. In this article we examine several health behavior change interventions that partnered with Muslim religious leaders aiming at promoting organ donation. As these efforts have generally met with limited success, we reanalyze these efforts through the lens of the theory of (...)
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  17.  16
    Reexamining the Prohibition of Gestational Surrogacy in Sunni Islam.A. Muaygil Ruaim - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (2):112-120.
    Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements (...)
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  18.  49
    Islamic Biomedical Ethics: Principles and Application.Abdulaziz Abdulhussein Sachedina - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    In search of principles of health care in Islam -- Health and suffering -- Beginning of life -- Terminating early life -- Death and dying -- Organ donation and cosmetic enhancement -- Recent developments -- Epilogue.
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  19.  14
    Food Ethics: A Critique of Some Islamic Perspectives on Genetically Modified Food.Mariam al-Attar - 2017 - Zygon 52 (1):53-75.
    This article critiques some Islamic approaches to food ethics and the debate over genetically modified food. Food ethics is a branch of bioethics, and is an emerging field in Islamic bioethics. The article critically analyzes the arguments of the authors who wrote in favor of genetically modified organisms from an Islamic perspective, and those who wrote against GMOs, also from an Islamic perspective. It reveals the theological and the epistemological foundations of the two main approaches. Moreover, it provides (...)
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  20.  12
    The Public Debate on the Religiosity of the Public Debate of Bioethics in the USA.Lehel Balogh - 2009 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 8 (23):3-12.
    Despite the fact that bioethics is, basically, an interdisciplinary scientific field, it is deeply intertwined with less objectivistic, yet important, threads of morality and religion. From the beginning, in the United States, the language of bioethics has been shaped by theologians and people who do not neglect the religious approaches of particular scientific issues. This paper examines the possibility of using religious and nonreligious terminologies in the bioethical discourse, paying close attention to the American bioethical debate. I shall (...)
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  21.  16
    No Harm, No Harrassment" : Major Principles of Health Care Ethics in Islam.Abdulaziz Sachedina - 2006 - In David E. Guinn (ed.), Handbook of Bioethics and Religion. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter poses the quiestions: how do Muslims solve their ethical problems in biomedicine? Are there any distinctive theories or principles in Islamic ethics that Muslims apply in deriving moral judgments in bioethics? Is the sacred law, the Shari'a, which is regarded as an integral part of Islamic ethics, the only recognized source of ethical judgments in Islam? What is the role of human experience/intuitive reasoning in moral justification? This chapter explores these questions and their answers.
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  22.  60
    Wilāyah (Authority and Governance) and its Implications for Islamic Bioethics: A Sunni Māturīdi Perspective.Ahsan M. Arozullah & Mohammed Amin Kholwadia - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (2):95-104.
    Juridical councils that render rulings on bioethical issues for Muslims living in non-Muslim lands may have limited familiarity with the foundational concept of wilāyah (authority and governance) and its implications for their authority and functioning. This paper delineates a Sunni Māturīdi perspective on the concept of wilāyah, describes how levels of wilāyah correlate to levels of responsibility and enforceability, and describes the implications of wilāyah when applied to Islamic bioethical decision making. Muslim health practitioners and patients living in the absence (...)
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  23.  25
    What Do Islamic Institutional Fatwas Say About Medical and Research Confidentiality and Breach of Confidentiality?Ghiath Alahmad & Kris Dierickx - 2012 - Developing World Bioethics 12 (2):104-112.
    Protecting confidentiality is an essential value in all human relationships, no less in medical practice and research.1 Doctor-patient and researcher-participant relationships are built on trust and on the understanding those patients' secrets will not be disclosed.2 However, this confidentiality can be breached in some situations where it is necessary to meet a strong conflicting duty.3Confidentiality, in a general sense, has received much interest in Islamic resources including the Qur'an, Sunnah and juristic writings. However, medical and research confidentiality have not been (...)
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  24.  26
    'They Say Islam has a Solution for Everything, so Why Are There No Guidelines for This?' Ethical Dilemmas Associated with the Births and Deaths of Infants with Fatal Abnormalities From a Small Sample of Pakistani Muslim Couples in Britain.Alison Shaw - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (9):485-492.
    This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior (...)
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  25.  42
    Do Motives Matter in Male Circumcision? 'Conscientious Objection' Against the Circumcision of a Muslim Child with a Blood Disorder.Ayesha Ahmad - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (2):67-75.
    Whilst there have been serious attempts to locate the practice of male circumcision for religious motives in the context of the (respective) religion's narrative and community, the debate, when referring to a clinical context, is often more nuanced. This article will contribute further to the debate by contextualising the Islamic practice of male circumcision within the clinical setting typical of a contemporary hospital. It specifically develops an additional complication; namely, the child has a pre-existing blood disorder. As an approach to (...)
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  26.  31
    Darurah and Its Application in Islamic Ethical Assessment of Medical Applications: A Review on Malaysian Fatwa.Noor Munirah Isa - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (5):1319-1332.
    The discovery and invention of new medical applications may be considered blessings to humankind. However, some applications which might be the only remedy for certain diseases may contain ingredients or involve methods that are not in harmony with certain cultural and religious perspectives. These situations have raised important questions in medical ethics; are these applications completely prohibited according to these perspectives, and is there any room for mitigation? This paper explores the concept of darurah and its deliberation in the formulation (...)
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  27.  75
    Islam and End-of-Life Practices in Organ Donation for Transplantation: New Questions and Serious Sociocultural Consequences. [REVIEW]Mohamed Y. Rady, Joseph L. Verheijde & Muna S. Ali - 2009 - HEC Forum 21 (2):175-205.
    Islam and End-of-Life Practices in Organ Donation for Transplantation: New Questions and Serious Sociocultural Consequences Content Type Journal Article Pages 175-205 DOI 10.1007/s10730-009-9095-8 Authors Mohamed Y. Rady, Mayo Clinic Hospital in Phoenix 5777 East Mayo Boulevard Phoenix Arizona USA 85054 Joseph L. Verheijde, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine 5777 East Mayo Boulevard Phoenix Arizona USA 85054 Muna S. Ali, Arizona State University Phoenix Arizona USA Journal HEC Forum Online ISSN 1572-8498 Print ISSN 0956-2737 Journal Volume Volume 21 Journal Issue (...)
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  28.  84
    Paternity Between Law and Biology: The Reconstruction of the Islamic Law of Paternity in the Wake of Dna Testing.Ayman Shabana - 2012 - Zygon 47 (1):214-239.
    Abstract: The discovery of DNA paternity tests has stirred a debate concerning the definition of paternity and whether the grounds for such a definition are legal or biological. According to the classical rules of Islamic law, paternity is established and negated on the basis of a valid marriage. Modern biomedical technology raises the question of whether paternity tests can be the sole basis for paternity, even independently of marriage. Although on the surface this technology seems to challenge the authority of (...)
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  29.  43
    The Duty to Feed in Cases of Advanced Dementia.Shabbir M. H. Alibhai - 2008 - Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (1):37-52.
    Cases of dementia present us with difficult ethical dilemmas as we strive to care for those unable to care for themselves. In this article, I review the relevant Islamic texts on caring for the ill, alleviating suffering, and feeding the hungry-all in light of the modern clinical environment. I find that the ethical appropriateness of tube feeding at the end of life is not as clear-cut as it may seem. My analysis, however, suggests that Muslim scholars ought to favor insertion (...)
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  30.  45
    Two Shi‘I Jurisprudential Methodologies to Address Medical and Bioethical Challenges: TraditionalIjtihādand FoundationalIjtihād.Hamid Mavani - 2014 - Journal of Religious Ethics 42 (2):263-284.
    The legal-ethical dynamism in Islamic law which allows it to respond to the challenges of modernity is said to reside in the institution of ijtihād (independent legal thinking and hermeneutics). However, jurists like Mohsen Kadivar and Ayatollah Faḍlalla have argued that the “traditional ijtihād” paradigm has reached its limits of flexibility as it allows for only minor adaptations and lacks a rigorous methodology because of its reliance on vague and highly subjective juridical devices such as public welfare (maṣlaḥa), imperative necessity (...)
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  31.  34
    Dire Necessity and Transformation: Entry‐Points for Modern Science in Islamic Bioethical Assessment of Porcine Products in Vaccines.Aasim I. Padela, Steven W. Furber, Mohammad A. Kholwadia & Ebrahim Moosa - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (2):59-66.
    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a ‘good’ that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived (...)
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  32.  19
    Ahmed Rashid, Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. [REVIEW]Amitrajeet A. Batabyal - 2003 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (1):93-96.
  33.  96
    Climate Change in Africa and the Middle East in Light of Health, Ubuntu and Islam (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2016 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 9 (2):88-92.
    Reprint of a chapter initially published in _Bioethical Insights into Values and Policy: Climate Change and Health_ (2016).
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  34.  61
    Islam and Informed Consent: Notes From Doha.Pablo Rodríguez Del Pozo & Joseph J. Fins - 2008 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (3):273-279.
    Informed consent is a perennial topic in bioethics. It has given the field a place in clinical practice and the law and is often the starting point for introductory instruction in medical ethics. One would think that nearly everything has been said and done on this well-worn topic.
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  35.  34
    The Determination of Quality of Life and Medical Futility in Disorders of Consciousness: Reinterpreting the Moral Code of Islam.Mohamed Y. Rady & Joseph L. Verheijde - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (1):14-16.
  36. Islam and New Kinship, Reproductive Technologies and the Shariah in Lebanon – By Morgan Clarke.Vardit Rispler-Chaim - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (3):171-172.
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  37.  10
    Adapting the Principles of Biomedical Ethics to Islamic Principles and Values in the Context of Public Health Policy.Forouzan Akrami, Abbas Karimi, Mahmoud Abbasi & Akbar Shahrivari - 2018 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 17 (49):46-59.
    Public health ethics is a subfield of bioethics that focuses on population health. This study aims to conform the principles of biomedical ethics to Islamic values in the context of public health. It culturally helps to optimize health care delivery. The approach is based on the method of immanent critique. The principle of the common good in Islam has a rational justification to draw public interests and ward off harms. The rule of “no harm”, with an emphasis on (...)
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  38.  13
    Comparison of Medical Ethics in Islam and Secularism.Fatemeh Sefidi, Mohammad Mahdi Bandarchi & Masoomeh Seidi - 2013 - Journal of Bioethics 2 (6):93-119.
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  39.  12
    La concezione della famiglia nell'Islàm.B. Pirone - 1992 - Global Bioethics 5 (2-3):147-156.
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  40. Hak: Islam a Religion of Ethics.Gad El-Hak Ali Gad El - forthcoming - Proceedings of the First International Conference on Bioethics in Human Reproduction Research in the Muslim World, Gi Serour (Ed). Iicpsr, Cairo, Egypt.
     
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  41. Islam a Religion of Ethics.A. G. E. Gad El Hak - forthcoming - Proceedings of the First International Conference on Bioethics in Human Reproduction in Research in the Muslim World.
     
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  42.  49
    AI Methods in Bioethics.Joshua August Skorburg, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong & Vincent Conitzer - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics: Empirical Bioethics 1 (11):37-39.
    Commentary about the role of AI in bioethics for the 10th anniversary issue of AJOB: Empirical Bioethics.
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  43. Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics.Onora O'Neill - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    Why has autonomy been a leading idea in philosophical writing on bioethics, and why has trust been marginal? In this important book, Onora O'Neill suggests that the conceptions of individual autonomy so widely relied on in bioethics are philosophically and ethically inadequate, and that they undermine rather than support relations of trust. She shows how Kant's non-individualistic view of autonomy provides a stronger basis for an approach to medicine, science and biotechnology, and does not marginalize untrustworthiness, while also (...)
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  44. Global Bioethics and Political Theory.Joseph Millum - 2012 - In Joseph Millum & Ezekiel J. Emanuel (eds.), Global Justice and bioethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 17-42.
    Most bioethicists who address questions to which global justice matters have not considered the significance of the disputes over the correct theory of global justice. Consequently, the significance of the differences between theories of global justice for bioethics has been obscured. In this paper, I consider when and how these differences are important. I argue that certain bioethical problems can be resolved without addressing disagreements about global justice. People with very different views about global justice can converge on the (...)
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  45. The Birth of Bioethics.Albert R. Jonsen - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Bioethics represents a dramatic revision of the centuries-old professional ethics that governed the behavior of physicians and their relationships with patients. This venerable ethics code was challenged in the years after World War II by the remarkable advances in the biomedical sciences and medicine that raised questions about the definition of death, the use of life-support systems, organ transplantation, and reproductive interventions. In response, philosophers and theologians, lawyers and social scientists joined together with physicians and scientists to rethink and (...)
  46.  69
    The Future of Bioethics: Three Dogmas and a Cup of Hemlock.Angus Dawson - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (5):218-225.
    In this paper I argue that bioethics is in crisis and that it will not have a future unless it begins to embrace a more Socratic approach to its leading assumptions. The absence of a critical and sceptical spirit has resulted in little more than a dominant ideology. I focus on three key issues. First, that too often bioethics collapses into medical ethics. Second, that medical ethics itself is beset by a lack of self-reflection that I characterize here (...)
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  47. Rethinking Informed Consent in Bioethics.Neil C. Manson - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    Informed consent is a central topic in contemporary biomedical ethics. Yet attempts to set defensible and feasible standards for consenting have led to persistent difficulties. In Rethinking Informed Consent in Bioethics Neil Manson and Onora O'Neill set debates about informed consent in medicine and research in a fresh light. They show why informed consent cannot be fully specific or fully explicit, and why more specific consent is not always ethically better. They argue that consent needs distinctive communicative transactions, by (...)
  48.  69
    Appropriate Methodologies for Empirical Bioethics: It's All Relative.Jonathan Ives & Heather Draper - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (4):249-258.
    In this article we distinguish between philosophical bioethics (PB), descriptive policy orientated bioethics (DPOB) and normative policy oriented bioethics (NPOB). We argue that finding an appropriate methodology for combining empirical data and moral theory depends on what the aims of the research endeavour are, and that, for the most part, this combination is only required for NPOB. After briefly discussing the debate around the is/ought problem, and suggesting that both sides of this debate are misunderstanding one another (...)
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  49.  83
    Solidarity in Contemporary Bioethics – Towards a New Approach.Barbara Prainsack & Alena Buyx - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (7):343-350.
    This paper, which is based on an extensive analysis of the literature, gives a brief overview of the main ways in which solidarity has been employed in bioethical writings in the last two decades. As the vagueness of the term has been one of the main targets of critique, we propose a new approach to defining solidarity, identifying it primarily as a practice enacted at the interpersonal, communal, and contractual/legal levels. Our three-tier model of solidarity can also help to explain (...)
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  50. Bioethics and the Question of Human Dignity.Adam Schulman - 2008 - In Human Dignity and Bioethics: Essays Commissioned by the President's Council on Bioethics. [President's Council on Bioethics.
    Human dignity—is it a useful concept in bioethics, one that sheds important light on the whole range of bioethical issues, from embryo research and assisted reproduction, to biomedical enhancement, to care of the disabled and the dying? Or is it, on the contrary, a useless concept—at best a vague substitute for other, more precise notions, at worst a mere slogan that camouflages unconvincing arguments and unarticulated biases?
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