The article deals with the question of persuasion by comparing two passages taken from a text written by Victor Hugo entitled Claude Gueux The first passage is taken from the first part of the text in which Hugo tells the story of the murder of the director of the Clairvaux prison workshop perpetrated by a prisoner, Claude Gueux, followed by the latter’s trial and execution. The second passage studied is taken from the second part of the text in (...) which Hugo argues against the death penalty. This article begins with an intuitive sense that the styles of these passages are “different”: the second one clearly shows Hugo’s persuasive intention, which is to say his effort to make his position be accepted. That said, does this extract have semantic properties that the descriptive passage does not have? The hypothesis advanced is that the organization of contents is of a similar nature in both passages of Claude Gueux and that it is only in an enunciative way that the passages are distinguishable. This enunciative difference allows the militant passage’s locutor to portray himself in a favorable light and, herewith, to convince the reader to his point of view. It is, hence, but in an indirect manner that Hugo’s persuasive intention appears; as it is without a semantic mark. (shrink)
En Hugo de San Víctor, el amor es la raíz y el motivo fundamental del autoconocimiento. Con el conocimiento de sí no sólo procura el alma conocer lo que es, sino también y principalmente amar más. La confluencia del conocimiento y el amor expresan la estructura de la interioridad. Esta urdimbre interior es la que permite que las almas se eleven a las alturas de la mística. Sin autoconocimiento no sería posible recibir los dones del Espíritu Santo ni (...) la contemplación mística. (shrink)
In December 1851, French President Louis Bonaparte – the future Emperor Napoléon III – seized power in a coup d’état , in violation of his oath to uphold the Constitution. He arrested the legislature; imprisoned, deported, or executed his political opponents; and deterred future dissent by massacring civilians in the streets.
This article analyzes the role played by Immanuel Kant's defense of the death penalty, in the first and the second years of Jacques Derrida's Death Penalty Seminars, delivered from 1999 to 2001. Regarding the first year, the initial part of this article charts how Derrida introduces Kant's writings that purport to elaborate the categorical imperative of the death penalty, not by Kant's primary arguments but rather precisely through Kant's concession of an exception to this categorical imperative, concerning the impunity of (...) a mother's infanticide. Derrida's lectures juxtapose Kant's philosophy of the death penalty with Victor Hugo's claim for the inviolability of life, and in doing so, the sessions introduce other examples of the applicability of the death penalty to mothers who have killed their children. What is at stake is the status of philosophy relative to the death penalty. Concerning the second year, the latter part of this article isolates the logic of Kant's categorical imperative, as deconstructed by Derrida, through recourse to the additions that Kant was obliged to append to his initial argument—those involving precisely sex crimes. The article follows how Derrida thoroughly takes apart both the simplicity of Kant's categorical imperative of the death penalty by means of the complications that are its abyssal foundation and the phallogocentrism of Freud's sexual oppositions through the extraction of insights into another thinking of sexual difference that Freud's categories foreclosed. (shrink)
The study subjected to scrutiny the context of Rizal’s novel Noli Me Tangere and Hugo’s novel, Notre Dame de Paris in the search for confluence through the two novels’ use of rhetorical devices and imagery. It utilized Kolb’s Experiential Method, Phenomenology, and Interdisciplinary Approach. Primarily, a connection between Hugo and Rizal is established since no studies relating the two writers existed. Gathered evidences proved the historical and biographical connections: the phenomenology of both writers’ existence in the same Romantic (...) milieu, and of Rizal’s diary and bibliographic entries on Hugo. Thereafter, a focus on the two novels’ literary elements by character, setting, point of view, and conflict, as well as theme, confirmed textual confluence. Moreover, Hugolian symbols and rhetorical devices in Noli Me Tangere are conclusive in the establishment of confluence. Furthermore, evaluation of the Notre Dame de Paris as a historical novel, a poetic novel, a novel of ideas, and a dramatic novel are evident in Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere. Finally, a sharp phenomenology of confluence between Victor Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris and Jose Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere is concluded. Further studies on the novel Noli Me Tangere are recommended to take into account the influence of Victor Hugo. Keywords - Hugo, Rizal, France, Philippines, novel, phenomenology, imagery, criticism. (shrink)
A Filosofla moderna tem prestado considerável atençao aos enigmas da percepçao sensível. Particularmente tratados tém sido a rela~io entre os objectos materiais percepcionados, os dados sensiveis e a representa~io dos objectos. Menos aten~io tem sido dada á percepçao de entidades imateriais bem como ao sentido mais amplo de 'sentido', ai se incluindo nilo apenas os cinco sentidos exteriores, mas também os sentidos interiores que organizam aquilo que é percebido bem como o sentido último das nossas vidas o qual pode funcionar (...) como um principio organizacional para as actividades da nossa mente. Os teólogos medievais tinham em mente sobretudo este amplo significado da palavra sentido quando se dedicavam á investigaçao da percepçao sensível. Hugo de 5. Victor concentrou-se na percepçao visual do mundo e compreendeu os sentidos internos com base na metáfora do olhar Bernardo de Claraval viu o olhar interno na sua condi~ío de afectado peía queda. Para ele, o ouvido é o primeiro dos sentidos através do qual a verdade pode entrar e gerarfé, a qual por sua vez pode ser usada para ver Deus face-a-face depois da ressurrei~io. A concentraçao moderna na percepçaoo de objectos materiais conduziu a uma subestima~io da percepçao de informa~io imaterial, a qual é vital para a busca de sentido nas nossas vidas, algo que para os autores medievais era considerado óbvio. (shrink)
The paper examines a recent proposal of substitution of classic (normative) philosophy of science by a post-positivist and pluralistic axiology governed by aesthetic or formal values. The author of the paper proposes a different set of values that can enconpass not only “internal” values, but is also open to the examination of the ethical limits of tecnoscience and the principles that can govern scientific development in oru “risk societies”, which depends heavily on the general evolution of science.