Results for 'Biological function'

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  1.  23
    The Biological Function Paradigm Applied to the Immunological Self-Non-Self Discrimination: Critique of Tauber's Phenomenological Analysis. [REVIEW]Wilfried Allaerts - 1999 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 30 (1):155-171.
    Biological self reference idioms in brain-centered or nervous-system-centered self determination of the consious Self reveal an interesting contrast with biological self-determination by immunological self/non-self discrimination. This contrast is both biological and epistemological. In contrast to the consciousness conscious of itself, the immunological self-determination imposes a protective mechanism against self-recognition (Coutinho et al. 1984), which adds to a largely unconscious achievement of the biological Self (Popper 1977; Medawar 1959). The latter viewpoint is in contrast with the immunological (...)
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  2. Proper Environment and the SEP Account of Biological Function.Michael Bertrand - 2013 - Synthese 190 (9):1503-1517.
    The survival enhancing propensity (SEP) account has a crucial role to play in the analysis of proper function. However, a central feature of the account, its specification of the proper environment to which functions are relativized, is seriously underdeveloped. In this paper, I argue that existent accounts of proper environment fail because they either allow too many or too few characters to count as proper functions. While SEP accounts retain their promise, they are unworkable because of their inability to (...)
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  3.  1
    A Unifying Theory of Biological Function.J. H. van Hateren - 2017 - Biological Theory 12 (2):112-126.
    A new theory that naturalizes biological function is explained and compared with earlier etiological and causal role theories. Etiological theories explain functions from how they are caused over their evolutionary history. Causal role theories analyze how functional mechanisms serve the current capacities of their containing system. The new proposal unifies the key notions of both kinds of theories, but goes beyond them by explaining how functions in an organism can exist as factors with autonomous causal efficacy. The goal-directedness (...)
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  4.  86
    Four Notions of Biological Function.Arno G. Wouters - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (4):633-668.
    I argue that there are at least four different ways in which the term ‘function’ is used in connection with the study of living organisms, namely: function as activity, function as biological role, function as biological advantage, and function as selected effect. Notion refers to what an item does by itself; refers to the contribution of an item or activity to a complex activity or capacity of an organism; refers to the value for (...)
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  5. Burge on Representation and Biological Function.Agustín Vicente - 2012 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):125-133.
    In Origins of Objectivity, Burge presents three arguments against what he calls ‘deflationism’: the project of explaining the representational function in terms of the notion of biological function. I evaluate these arguments and argue that they are not convincing.
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  6.  79
    Biological Function, Adaptation, and Natural Design.Colin Allen & Marc Bekoff - 1995 - Philosophy of Science 62 (4):609-622.
    Recently something close to a consensus about the best way to naturalize the notion of biological function appears to be emerging. Nonetheless, teleological notions in biology remain controversial. In this paper we provide a naturalistic analysis for the notion of natural design. Many authors assume that natural design should be assimilated directly to function. Others find the notion problematic because it suggests that evolution is a directed process. We argue that both of these views are mistaken. Our (...)
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  7. Fitness “Kinematics”: Biological Function, Altruism, and Organism–Environment Development.Marshall Abrams - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (4):487-504.
    It’s recently been argued that biological fitness can’t change over the course of an organism’s life as a result of organisms’ behaviors. However, some characterizations of biological function and biological altruism tacitly or explicitly assume that an effect of a trait can change an organism’s fitness. In the first part of the paper, I explain that the core idea of changing fitness can be understood in terms of conditional probabilities defined over sequences of events in an (...)
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  8.  6
    Re-Evaluating Concepts of Biological Function in Clinical Medicine: Towards a New Naturalistic Theory of Disease.Benjamin Chin-Yee & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (4):245-264.
    Naturalistic theories of disease appeal to concepts of biological function, and use the notion of dysfunction as the basis of their definitions. Debates in the philosophy of biology demonstrate how attributing functions in organisms and establishing the function-dysfunction distinction is by no means straightforward. This problematization of functional ascription has undermined naturalistic theories and led some authors to abandon the concept of dysfunction, favoring instead definitions based in normative criteria or phenomenological approaches. Although this work has enhanced (...)
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  9.  16
    Does Representational Content Arise From Biological Function?Richard J. Hall - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:193 - 199.
    In virtue of what does a representational state have the content it does? Several philosophers have recently proposed that a representational state gets its content from its biological function. After explaining the sense of biological function used in these views, I criticise the proposal. I argue that biological function only determines representational content up to extensional equivalence. I maintain that this holds even if biological function is defined in terms of an intensional (...)
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  10.  32
    Four Notions of Biological Function.Arno Wouters - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (4):633-668.
    I argue that there are at least four different ways in which the term ‘function’ is used in connection with the study of living organisms, namely: function as activity, function as biological role, function as biological advantage, and function as selected effect. Notion refers to what an item does by itself; refers to the contribution of an item or activity to a complex activity or capacity of an organism; refers to the value for (...)
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  11.  17
    Generalised Biological Function.Jacques Viret - 2005 - Acta Biotheoretica 53 (4):393-409.
    A physiological function can be described as a cycle based on a cusp bifurcation set in catastrophe theory. This cycle involves four phases that are successively developed along a functional potential, which is used to perform a given physiological act. The work we present is firstly based on a detailed study of the global function of vision, which covers a vast field extending from the molecular to cerebral scale. We then present other examples of generalised functions by expanding (...)
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  12.  9
    Biological Function and Epistemic Normativity.Ema Sullivan-Bissett - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (1):94-110.
    I give a biological account of epistemic normativity. My account explains the sense in which it is true that belief is subject to a standard of correctness, and reduces epistemic norms to there being doxastic strategies which guide how best to meet that standard. Additionally, I give an explanation of the mistakes we make in our epistemic discourse, understood as either taking epistemic properties and norms to be sui generis and irreducible, and/or as failing to recognize the reductive base (...)
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  13.  37
    Two Arguments for the Etiological Theory Over the Modal Theory of Biological Function.Brian Leahy & Maximilian Huber - 2017 - Synthese 194 (4).
    This paper contains a positive development and a negative argument. It develops a theory of function loss and shows how this undermines an objection raised against the etiological theory of function in support of the modal theory of function. Then it raises two internal problems for the modal theory of function.
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  14.  80
    Structure and Biological Function of Ribonucleic Acid From Tobacco Mosaic Virus.Alfred Gierer - 1957 - Nature 179:1297-1299.
    Within the sedimentation diagram of infective RNA preparations isolated from Tobacco Mosaic Virus, undegraded molecules form a sharp peak with a molecular weight corresponding to the total RNA content of the virus particle. Degradation kinetics by ribonuclease is of the linear, single-target type, indicating that the RNA is single-stranded. The intact RNA of a virus particle thus forms one big single-stranded molecule. Quantitative evaluation of the effect degradation by RNA-ase on the infectivity of the RNA shows that the integrity of (...)
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  15.  77
    Biological Function and Normativity.Kenneth G. Ferguson - 2007 - Philo 10 (1):17-26.
    Ruth Millikan and others adopt a normative definition of biological functions that is heavily used in areas such as Millikan’s teleosemantics, and also for emerging efforts to naturalize other areas of philosophy. I propose an experiment called the Lapse Test to determine exactly what form of normativity, if any, truly applies to biological functions. Millikan has not gone far enough in playing down as “impersonal” or “quasi” the precise mode of normativity that she attributes to biological functions. (...)
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  16.  1
    Four Notions of Biological Function.Arno G. Wouters - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (4):633-668.
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  17.  24
    Biological Function, Selection, and Reduction.Richard N. Manning - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (1):69-82.
    It is widely assumed that selection history accounts of function can support a fully reductive naturalization of functional properties. I argue that this assumption is false. A problem with the alternative causal role account of function in this context is that it invokes the teleological notion of a goal in analysing real function. The selection history account, if it is to have reductive status, must not do the same. But attention to certain cases of selection history in (...)
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  18. What is Wrong with Etiological Accounts of Biological Function?Elizabeth W. Prior - 1985 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 66 (3-4):310.
     
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  19.  5
    The Biological Function of Consciousness.Brian Earl - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  20. The Self and its Biological Function: Contrasts Between Popper and Sartre.Wilfried Allaerts - 1997 - Logique Et Analyse 40:189-214.
  21.  12
    Perceptual Presentations and Biological Function: A Comment on Matthen.Alexander Rosenberg - 1989 - Journal of Philosophy 86 (January):38-44.
  22.  8
    Biological Function.A. C. Purton - 1979 - Philosophical Quarterly 29 (114):10-24.
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  23. Perceptual Presentations and Biological Function: A Comment on Matthen.Alexander Rosenberg - 1989 - Journal of Philosophy 86 (1):38-44.
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  24.  2
    Ethical Belief as a Biological Function.C. H. Waddington - 1949 - Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Philosophy 1:482-484.
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  25. 7. A Hypothetical Biological Function of Feeling.Snider Pietro - 2017 - In Pietro Snider (ed.), The Natural Problem of Consciousness. De Gruyter. pp. 155-190.
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  26.  64
    Functional Homology and Homology of Function: Biological Concepts and Philosophical Consequences.Alan C. Love - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (5):691-708.
    “Functional homology” appears regularly in different areas of biological research and yet it is apparently a contradiction in terms—homology concerns identity of structure regardless of form and function. I argue that despite this conceptual tension there is a legitimate conception of ‘homology of function’, which can be recovered by utilizing a distinction from pre-Darwinian physiology (use versus activity) to identify an appropriate meaning of ‘function’. This account is directly applicable to molecular developmental biology and shares a (...)
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  27.  3
    Function and Malfunction in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences and Social Sciences.Thomas Bonnin, Paola Hernández-Chávez, Michal Hladky & C. David Suárez Pascal - forthcoming - Biological Theory:1-5.
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  28.  6
    Function as a Causal Role in a Biological Model.Maël Lemoine - manuscript
    Philosophers of biology usually distinguish historical and systemic accounts of functions. In many areas of experimental biology the "systemic" account is often the most relevant. Yet there are problems this account does admittedly not face up to very well. My contention is that, though two minor problems are irredeemably unsolvable for the systemic account of function, the major ones can be solved by assuming that 'function' denotes (directly) a causal role in a model and (indirectly) the corresponding process (...)
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  29. Mechanism Discovery and Design Explanation: Where Role Function Meets Biological Advantage Function.Dingmar van Eck & Julie Mennes - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-22.
    In the recent literature on explanation in biology, increasing attention is being paid to the connection between design explanation and mechanistic explanation, viz. the role of design principles and heuristics for mechanism discovery and mechanistic explanation. In this paper we extend the connection between design explanation and mechanism discovery by prizing apart two different types of design explanation and by elaborating novel heuristics that one specific type offers for mechanism discovery across species. We illustrate our claims in terms of two (...)
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  30. A Modal Theory of Function.Bence Nanay - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy 107 (8):412-431.
    The function of a trait token is usually defined in terms of some properties of other (past, present, future) tokens of the same trait type. I argue that this strategy is problematic, as trait types are (at least partly) individuated by their functional properties, which would lead to circularity. In order to avoid this problem, I suggest a way to define the function of a trait token in terms of the properties of the very same trait token. To (...)
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  31. Function, Modality, Mental Content.Bence Nanay - 2011 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 32 (2):84-87.
    I clarify some of the details of the modal theory of function I outlined in Nanay (2010): (a) I explicate what it means that the function of a token biological trait is fixed by modal facts; (b) I address an objection to my trait type individuation argument against etiological function and (c) I examine the consequences of replacing the etiological theory of function with a modal theory for the prospects of using the concept of (...) function to explain mental content. (shrink)
     
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  32.  18
    3‐Methyladenine DNA Glycosylases: Structure, Function, and Biological Importance.Michael D. Wyatt, James M. Allan, Albert Y. Lau, Tom E. Ellenberger & Leona D. Samson - 1999 - Bioessays 21 (8):668-676.
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  33.  1
    Membrane Biochemistry By Edith Sim, And: Dynamics of Biological Membranes: Influence on Synthesis, Structure and Function By Miles D. Houslan and Keith K. Stanley.Angelo M. Scanu - 1984 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 27 (2):317-319.
  34. ""Biology 78, 79; Biological Complexity 73, 133; Function 88, 266" Blind Watchmaker" Hypothesis 133 Buddhism 204 Cambridge Platonists 81, 88. [REVIEW]Big Bang - 2003 - In Paul K. Moser & Paul Copan (eds.), The Rationality of Theism. Routledge. pp. 78--80.
     
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  35. Human Brain Function (Biological and Philosophical Considerations).J. C. Dupont - 2004 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de L Etranger 129 (3):307-313.
     
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  36. Biological Organization and the Role of Theoretical Biology : Function and Autonomy.Arantza Etxeberria & Jon Umerez - 2009 - In González Recio & José Luis (eds.), Philosophical Essays on Physics and Biology. G. Olms.
     
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  37. Biological Influences on Cognitive Function.Doreen Kimura - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (2):200.
  38. Radiation Biological Techniques in the Study of Thyroid Function.P. N. Srivastava - 1968 - In Peter Koestenbaum (ed.), Proceedings. [San Jose? Calif.. pp. 36--82.
     
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  39. Review of Consciousness and Biological Evolution , The Religious Instinct, and The Function of Religious Expression. [REVIEW]Hiram M. Stanley - 1897 - Psychological Review 4 (4):420-421.
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  40. 3-Methyladenine DNA Glycosylases: Structure, Function, and Biological Importance.Michael D. Wyatt, James M. Allan, Albert Y. Lau, Tom E. Ellenberger & Leona D. Samson - 1999 - Bioessays 21 (8):668-676.
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  41.  96
    Function Attribution Depends on the Explanatory Context: A Reply to Neander and Rosenberg's Reply to Nanay.Bence Nanay - 2012 - Journal of Philosophy 109 (10):623-627.
    In ‘A modal theory of function’, I gave an argument against all existing theories of function and outlined a new theory. Karen Neander and Alex Rosenberg argue against both my negative and my positive claim. My aim here is not merely to defend my account from their objections, but to (a) very briefly point out that the new account of etiological function they propose in response to my criticism cannot avoid the circularity worry either and, more importantly, (...)
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  42.  97
    Have Elephant Seals Refuted Aristotle? Nature, Function, and Moral Goodness.Micah Lott - 2012 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (3):353-375.
    An influential strand of neo-Aristotelianism, represented by writers such as Philippa Foot, holds that moral virtue is a form of natural goodness in human beings, analogous to deep roots in oak trees or keen vision in hawks. Critics, however, have argued that such a view cannot get off the ground, because the neo-Aristotelian account of natural normativity is untenable in light of a Darwinian account of living things. This criticism has been developed most fully by William Fitzpatrick in his book (...)
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  43.  34
    Junk or Functional DNA? ENCODE and the Function Controversy.Pierre-Luc Germain, Emanuele Ratti & Federico Boem - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (6):807-831.
    In its last round of publications in September 2012, the Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) assigned a biochemical function to most of the human genome, which was taken up by the media as meaning the end of ‘Junk DNA’. This provoked a heated reaction from evolutionary biologists, who among other things claimed that ENCODE adopted a wrong and much too inclusive notion of function, making its dismissal of junk DNA merely rhetorical. We argue that this criticism rests on (...)
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  44.  28
    The Biological Significance of Substrate Inhibition: A Mechanism with Diverse Functions.Michael C. Reed, Anna Lieb & H. Frederik Nijhout - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (5):422-429.
  45.  48
    Getting the Most Out of Shannon Information.Oliver M. Lean - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):395-413.
    Shannon information is commonly assumed to be the wrong way in which to conceive of information in most biological contexts. Since the theory deals only in correlations between systems, the argument goes, it can apply to any and all causal interactions that affect a biological outcome. Since informational language is generally confined to only certain kinds of biological process, such as gene expression and hormone signalling, Shannon information is thought to be unable to account for this restriction. (...)
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  46.  18
    Biological Pathology From an Organizational Perspective.Cristian Saborido & Alvaro Moreno - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):83-95.
    In contrast to the “normativist” view, “naturalist” theorists claim that the concept of health refers to natural or normal states and propose different characterizations of healthy and diseased conditions that are meant to be objectivist and biologically grounded. In this article, we examine the core concept of these naturalist accounts of disease, i.e., the concept of biological malfunction, and develop a new formulation of the notion of malfunction following the recent organizational approach to functions in the philosophy of biology. (...)
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  47.  65
    The Misuse of Sober's Selection for/Selection of Distinction.R. Goode & P. E. Griffiths - 1995 - Biology and Philosophy 10 (1):99-108.
    Elliott Sober''s selection for/selection of distinction has been widely used to clarify the idea that some properties of organisms are side-effects of selection processes. It has also been used, however, to choose between different descriptions of an evolutionary product when assigning biological functions to that product. We suggest that there is a characteristic error in these uses of the distinction. Complementary descriptions of function are misrepresented as mutually excluding one another. This error arises from a failure to appreciate (...)
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  48. Functions as Based on a Concept of General Design.Ulrich Krohs - 2009 - Synthese 166 (1):69-89.
    Looking for an adequate explication of the concept of a biological function, several authors have proposed to link function to design. Unfortunately, known explications of biological design in turn refer to functions. The concept of general design I will introduce here breaks up this circle. I specify design with respect to its ontogenetic role. This allows function to be based on design without making reference to the history of the design, or to the phylogeny of (...)
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  49. The Reinterpretation of Dreams: An Evolutionary Hypothesis of the Function of Dreaming.Antti Revonsuo - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):877-901.
    Several theories claim that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural function. Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in which certain types of elements, when compared to waking life, are underrepresented whereas others are over represented. Furthermore, dream content is (...)
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  50.  86
    Biological Functions and Perceptual Content.Mohan P. Matthen - 1988 - Journal of Philosophy 85 (January):5-27.
    Perceptions "present" objects as red, as round, etc.-- in general as possessing some property. This is the "perceptual content" of the title, And the article attempts to answer the following question: what is a materialistically adequate basis for assigning content to what are, after all, neurophysiological states of biological organisms? The thesis is that a state is a perception that presents its object as "F" if the "biological function" of the state is to detect the presence of (...)
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