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  1. Information science and its core concepts: levels of disagreement.Birger Hjørland - 2014 - In Fidelia Ibekwe-SanJuan & Thomas Mark Dousa (eds.), Theories of information, communication and knowledge: a multidisciplinary approach. New York: Springer.
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    Uncovering epistemological assumptions underlying research in information studies.Steve Fuller, Birger Hjørland, Fidelia Ibekwe-SanJuan, Lai Ma, Jens Erik Mai, Joseph Tennis & Julian Warner - 2013 - Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 50 (1):1-4.
    There have been several calls from LIS researchers for practical or applied research not to ignore the epistemological assumptions underlying the systems and artifacts they design lest they showcase only the dominant theory at a given time. Others have also deplored the "epistemological promiscuity" or "eclecticism" of the field, its incessant borrowing of theories and models from elsewhere and the fact that the field has largely neglected the contributions that philosophy and epistemology could have made in its research. This problem (...)
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    Citation Indexing and Indexes. Castanha, Birger Hjørland, Renata Cristina Gutierres & Paula Carina de Araújo - 2021 - Knowledge Organization 48 (1):72-101.
    A citation index is a bibliographic database that provides citation links between documents. The first modern citation index was suggested by the researcher Eugene Garfield in 1955 and created by him in 1964, and it represents an important innovation to knowledge organization and information retrieval. This article describes citation indexes in general, considering the modern citation indexes, including Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, Crossref, Dimensions and some special citation indexes and predecessors to the modern citation index like (...)
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    Science, Part I: Basic Conceptions of Science and the Scientific Method.Birger Hjørland - 2022 - Knowledge Organization 48 (7-8):473-498.
    This article is the first in a trilogy about the concept “science”. Section 1 considers the historical development of the meaning of the term science and shows its close relation to the terms “knowl­edge” and “philosophy”. Section 2 presents four historic phases in the basic conceptualizations of science science as representing absolute certain of knowl­edge based on deductive proof; science as representing absolute certain of knowl­edge based on “the scientific method”; science as representing fallible knowl­edge based on “the scientific method”; (...)
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    Data Documents. Joachim, Schöpfel, Birger Hjørland, Antonella Zane, Hélène Prost & Dominic Farace - 2021 - Knowledge Organization 48 (4):307-328.
    This article presents and discusses different kinds of data documents, including data sets, data studies, data papers and data journals. It provides descriptive and bibliometric data on different kinds of data documents and discusses the theoretical and philosophical problems by classifying documents according to the DIKW model (data documents, information documents, knowl­edge documents and wisdom documents). Data documents are, on the one hand, an established category today, even with its own data citation index (DCI). On the other hand, data documents (...)
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