64 found
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  1.  11
    The New Holism: P4 Systems Medicine and the Medicalization of Health and Life Itself.Henrik Vogt, Bjørn Hofmann & Linn Getz - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):307-323.
    The emerging concept of systems medicine is at the vanguard of the post-genomic movement towards ‘precision medicine’. It is the medical application of systems biology, the biological study of wholes. Of particular interest, P4 systems medicine is currently promised as a revolutionary new biomedical approach that is holistic rather than reductionist. This article analyzes its concept of holism, both with regard to methods and conceptualization of health and disease. Rather than representing a medical holism associated with basic humanistic ideas, we (...)
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  2.  18
    Human Enhancement: Enhancing Health or Harnessing Happiness?Bjørn Hofmann - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (1):87-98.
    Human enhancement is ontologically, epistemologically, and ethically challenging and has stirred a wide range of scholarly and public debates. This article focuses on some conceptual issues with HE that have important ethical implications. In particular it scrutinizes how the concept of human enhancement relates to and challenges the concept of health. In order to do so, it addresses three specific questions: Q1. What do conceptions of HE say about health? Q2. Does HE challenge traditional conceptions of health? Q3. Do concepts (...)
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  3.  58
    Limits to human enhancement: nature, disease, therapy or betterment?Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):56.
    New technologies facilitate the enhancement of a wide range of human dispositions, capacities, or abilities. While it is argued that we need to set limits to human enhancement, it is unclear where we should find resources to set such limits. Traditional routes for setting limits, such as referring to nature, the therapy-enhancement distinction, and the health-disease distinction, turn out to have some shortcomings. However, upon closer scrutiny the concept of enhancement is based on vague conceptions of what is to be (...)
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  4.  38
    Stuck in the Middle: The Many Moral Challenges With Bariatric Surgery.Bjørn Hofmann - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (12):3-11.
    Bariatric surgery is effective on short- and medium-term weight loss, reduction of comorbidities, and overall mortality. A large and increasing portion of the population is eligible for bariatric surgery, which increases instant health care costs. A review of the literature identifies a series of ethical challenges: unjust distribution of bariatric surgery, autonomy and informed consent, classification of obesity and selecting assessment endpoints, prejudice among health professionals, intervention in people's life-world, and medicalization of appearance. Bariatric surgery is particularly interesting because it (...)
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  5.  16
    Medicalization and Overdiagnosis: Different but Alike.Bjørn Hofmann - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):253-264.
    Medicalization is frequently defined as a process by which some non-medical aspects of human life become to be considered as medical problems. Overdiagnosis, on the other hand, is most often defined as diagnosing a biomedical condition that in the absence of testing would not cause symptoms or death in the person’s lifetime. Medicalization and overdiagnosis are related concepts as both expand the extension of the concept of disease. They are both often used normatively to critique unwarranted or contested expansion of (...)
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  6.  40
    Obesity as a Socially Defined Disease: Philosophical Considerations and Implications for Policy and Care.Bjørn Hofmann - 2016 - Health Care Analysis 24 (1):86-100.
    Obesity has generated significant worries amongst health policy makers and has obtained increased attention in health care. Obesity is unanimously defined as a disease in the health care and health policy literature. However, there are pragmatic and not principled reasons for this. This warrants an analysis of obesity according to standard conceptions of disease in the literature of philosophy of medicine. According to theories and definitions of disease referring to internal processes, obesity is not a disease. Obesity undoubtedly can result (...)
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  7.  11
    Priority Setting in Health Care: Trends and Models From Scandinavian Experiences. [REVIEW]Bjørn Hofmann - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):349-356.
    The Scandinavian welfare states have public health care systems which have universal coverage and traditionally low influence of private insurance and private provision. Due to raises in costs, elaborate public control of health care, and a significant technological development in health care, priority setting came on the public agenda comparatively early in the Scandinavian countries. The development of health care priority setting has been partly homogeneous and appears to follow certain phases. This can be of broader interest as it may (...)
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  8. Scientific Dishonesty—a Nationwide Survey of Doctoral Students in Norway.Bjørn Hofmann, Anne Ingeborg Myhr & Søren Holm - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):3-.
    Background: The knowledge of scientific dishonesty is scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore this study investigates the experiences with and the attitudes towards various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD-students at the medical faculties of all Norwegian universities.MethodAnonymous questionnaire distributed to all post graduate students attending introductory PhD-courses at all medical faculties in Norway in 2010/2011. Descriptive statistics. Results: 189 of 262 questionnaires were returned (72.1%). 65% of the respondents had not, during the last year, heard or read about researchers who committed (...)
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  9.  30
    How Medical Technologies Shape the Experience of Illness.Bjørn Hofmann & Fredrik Svenaeus - 2018 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 14 (1):1-11.
    In this article we explore how diagnostic and therapeutic technologies shape the lived experiences of illness for patients. By analysing a wide range of examples, we identify six ways that technology can form the experience of illness. First, technology may create awareness of disease by revealing asymptomatic signs or markers. Second, the technology can reveal risk factors for developing diseases. Third, the technology can affect and change an already present illness experience. Fourth, therapeutic technologies may redefine our experiences of a (...)
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  10.  16
    The Overdiagnosis of What? On the Relationship Between the Concepts of Overdiagnosis, Disease, and Diagnosis.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (4):453-464.
    Overdiagnosis and disease are related concepts. Widened conceptions of disease increase overdiagnosis and vice versa. This is partly because there is a close and complex relationship between disease and overdiagnosis. In order to address the problems with overdiagnosis, we may benefit from a closer understanding this relationship. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to elucidate the relationship between disease and overdiagnosis. To do so, the article starts with scrutinizing how overdiagnosis can explain the expansion of the concept of disease. (...)
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  11.  64
    Ethical Challenges with Welfare Technology: A Review of the Literature. [REVIEW]Bjørn Hofmann - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):389-406.
    Demographical changes in high income counties will increase the need of health care services but reduce the number of people to provide them. Welfare technology is launched as an important measure to meet this challenge. As with all types of technologies we must explore its ethical challenges. A literature review reveals that welfare technology is a generic term for a heterogeneous group of technologies and there are few studies documenting their efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. Many kinds of welfare technology break (...)
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  12. On the Triad Disease, Illness and Sickness.Bjørn Hofmann - 2002 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (6):651 – 673.
    The point of departure for this article is a review of the discussion between Twaddle and Nordenfelt on the concepts of disease, illness, and sickness, and the objective is to investigate the fruitfulness of these concepts. It is argued that disease, illness, and sickness represent different perspectives on human ailment and that they can be applied to analyze both epistemic and normative challenges to modern medicine. In particular the analysis reveals epistemic and normative differences between the concepts. Furthermore, the article (...)
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  13.  32
    The Encompassing Ethics of Bariatric Surgery.Bjørn Hofmann - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (12):W1-W2.
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  14.  6
    Looking for Trouble? Diagnostics Expanding Disease and Producing Patients.Bjørn Hofmann - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):978-982.
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  15.  20
    ‘You Are Inferior!’ Revisiting the Expressivist Argument.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (7):505-514.
    According to the expressivist argument the choice to use biotechnologies to prevent the birth of individuals with specific disabilities is an expression of disvalue for existing people with this disability. The argument has stirred a lively debate and has recently received renewed attention. This article starts with presenting the expressivist argument and its core elements. It then goes on to present and examine the counter-arguments before it addresses some aspects that have gained surprisingly little attention. The analysis demonstrates that the (...)
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  16.  88
    Complexity of the Concept of Disease as Shown Through Rival Theoretical Frameworks.Bjørn Hofmann - 2001 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (3):211-236.
    The concept of disease has been the subject ofa vast, vivid and versatile debate. Categoriessuch as ``realist'', ``nominalist'', ``ontologist'',``physiologist'', ``normativist'' and``descriptivist'' have been applied to classifydisease concepts. These categories refer tounderlying theoretical frameworks of thedebate. The objective of this review is toanalyse these frameworks. It is argued that thecategories applied in the debate refer toprofound philosophical issues, and that thecomplexity of the debate reflects thecomplexity of the concept itself: disease is acomplex concept, and does not easily lenditself to definition.
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  17.  15
    Smart-Glasses: Exposing and Elucidating the Ethical Issues.Bjørn Hofmann, Dušan Haustein & Laurens Landeweerd - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):701-721.
    The objective of this study is to provide an overview over the ethical issues relevant to the assessment, implementation, and use of smart-glasses. The purpose of the overview is to facilitate deliberation, decision making, and the formation of knowledge and norms for this emerging technology. An axiological question-based method for human cognitive enhancement including an extensive literature search on smart-glasses is used to identify relevant ethical issues. The search is supplemented with relevant ethical issues identified in the literature on human (...)
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  18.  14
    The Gene-Editing of Super-Ego.Bjørn Hofmann - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (3):295-302.
    New emerging biotechnologies, such as gene editing, vastly extend our ability to alter the human being. This comes together with strong aspirations to improve humans not only physically, but also mentally, morally, and socially. These conjoined ambitions aggregate to what can be labelled “the gene editing of super-ego.” This article investigates a general way used to argue for new biotechnologies, such as gene-editing: if it is safe and efficacious to implement technology X for the purpose of a common good Y, (...)
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  19.  4
    Ethical Issues with Colorectal Cancer Screening-a Systematic Review.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (3):631-641.
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  20.  33
    Medicine as Techne - a Perspective From Antiquity.Bjørn Hofmann - 2003 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (4):403 – 425.
    The objective of this article is to investigate whether the concept of techne is fruitful as a framework to analyze some of the pressing challenges inmodernmedicine. To do this, the concept of techne is scrutinized, and it is argued that it is a concept that integrates theoretical, practical and evaluative aspects, and that this makes it particularly suitable to analyze the complex activity of modern medicine. After applying this technical framework in relation to modern medicine, some of its general consequences (...)
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  21.  38
    Analogical Reasoning in Handling Emerging Technologies: The Case of Umbilical Cord Blood Biobanking.Bjørn Hofmann, Jan Helge Solbakk & Søren Holm - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (6):49 – 57.
    How are we individually and as a society to handle new and emerging technologies? This challenging question underlies much of the bioethical debates of modern times. To address this question we need suitable conceptions of the new technology and ways of identifying its proper management and regulation. To establish conceptions and to find ways to handle emerging technologies we tend to use analogies extensively. The aim of this article is to investigate the role that analogies play or may play in (...)
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  22.  45
    On Value-Judgements and Ethics in Health Technology Assessment.Bjørn Hofmann - 2005 - Poiesis and Praxis 3 (4):277-295.
    The widespread application of technology in health care has imposed a broad range of challenges. The field of health technology assessment (HTA) is developed in order to face some of these challenges. However, this strategy has not been as successful as one could hope. One of the reasons for this is that social and ethical considerations have not been integrated in the HTA process. Nowadays however, such considerations have been included in many HTAs. Still, the conclusions and recommendations of the (...)
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  23.  61
    Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks: The Role of Analogies in Bioethical Analysis and Argumentation Concerning New Technologies. [REVIEW]Bjørn Hofmann, Jan Helge Solbakk & Søren Holm - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (5):397-413.
    New medical technologies provide us with new possibilities in health care and health care research. Depending on their degree of novelty, they may as well present us with a whole range of unforeseen normative challenges. Partly, this is due to a lack of appropriate norms to perceive and handle new technologies. This article investigates our ways of establishing such norms. We argue that in this respect analogies have at least two normative functions: they inform both our understanding and our conduct. (...)
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  24.  11
    Toward a Method for Exposing and Elucidating Ethical Issues with Human Cognitive Enhancement Technologies.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):413-429.
    To develop a method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues with human cognitive enhancement. The intended use of the method is to support and facilitate open and transparent deliberation and decision making with respect to this emerging technology with great potential formative implications for individuals and society. Literature search to identify relevant approaches. Conventional content analysis of the identified papers and methods in order to assess their suitability for assessing HCE according to four selection criteria. Method development. Amendment after pilot (...)
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  25.  81
    The Concept of Disease—Vague, Complex, or Just Indefinable?Bjørn Hofmann - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (1):3-10.
    The long ongoing and partly heated debate on the concept of disease has not led to any consensus on the status of this apparently essential concept for modern health care. The arguments range from claims that the disease concept is vague, slippery, elusive, or complex, and to statements that the concept is indefinable and unnecessary. The unsettled status of the concept of disease is challenging not only to health care where diagnosing, treating, and curing disease are core aims, but also (...)
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  26. Bariatric Surgery for Obese Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Moral Challenges. [REVIEW]Bjørn Hofmann - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):18.
    BackgroundBariatric surgery for children and adolescents is becoming widespread. However, the evidence is still scarce and of poor quality, and many of the patients are too young to consent. This poses a series of moral challenges, which have to be addressed both when considering bariatric surgery introduced as a health care service and when deciding for treatment for young individuals. A question based (Socratic) approach is applied to reveal underlying moral issues that can be relevant to an open and transparent (...)
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  27.  5
    Filosofiens rolle i det offentlige ordskifte.Bjørn Hofmann & Siri Granum Carson - 2018 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 2:87-103.
    _Filosofi og etikk har fått en stadig større plass i det offentlige rom i Norge. 2017 ble et år der filosofer sørget for overskrifter i en rekke norske medier. En av sakene som fikk størst oppmerksomhet, var debatten om sorteringssamfunnet og Aksel Braanen Sterris påstand om at personer med Downs syndrom ikke kan leve fullverdige liv. Utsagnet skapte en voldsom debatt og kraftige reaksjoner. Temaet for debatten er interessant i seg selv, men den reiser også spørsmål om hvordan slike debatter (...)
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  28.  8
    Getting Personal on Overdiagnosis: On Defining Overdiagnosis From the Perspective of the Individual Person.Bjørn Hofmann - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):983-987.
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  29.  20
    Personalized Medicine: Evidence of Normativity in its Quantitative Definition of Health.Henrik Vogt, Bjørn Hofmann & Linn Getz - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (5):401-416.
    Systems medicine, which is based on computational modelling of biological systems, is emerging as an increasingly prominent part of the personalized medicine movement. It is often promoted as ‘P4 medicine’. In this article, we test promises made by some of its proponents that systems medicine will be able to develop a scientific, quantitative metric for wellness that will eliminate the purported vagueness, ambiguity, and incompleteness—that is, normativity—of previous health definitions. We do so by examining the most concrete and relevant evidence (...)
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  30.  16
    Ethical analysis in HTA of complex health interventions.Kristin Bakke Lysdahl, Wija Oortwijn, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Pietro Refolo, Dario Sacchini, Kati Mozygemba, Ansgar Gerhardus, Louise Brereton & Bjørn Hofmann - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1.
    In the field of health technology assessment, there are several approaches that can be used for ethical analysis. However, there is a scarcity of literature that critically evaluates and compares the strength and weaknesses of these approaches when they are applied in practice. In this paper, we analyse the applicability of some selected approaches for addressing ethical issues in HTA in the field of complex health interventions. Complex health interventions have been the focus of methodological attention in HTA. However, the (...)
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  31.  7
    Defining and Evaluating Overdiagnosis.Bjørn Hofmann - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (11):715-716.
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  32.  12
    Incidental Findings of Uncertain Significance: To Know or Not to Know - That is Not the Question.Bjørn Hofmann - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundAlthough the “right not to know” is well established in international regulations, it has been heavily debated. Ubiquitous results from extended exome and genome analysis have challenged the right not to know. American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Recommendations urge to inform about incidental findings that pretend to be accurate and actionable. However, ample clinical cases raise the question whether these criteria are met. Many incidental findings are of uncertain significance. The eager to feedback information appears to enter the (...)
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  33.  12
    Progress Bias Versus Status Quo Bias in the Ethics of Emerging Science and Technology.Bjørn Hofmann - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (3):252-263.
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  34.  2
    Etiske utfordringer med non-invasive prenatale tester.Bjørn Hofmann - 2014 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 8 (1).
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  35.  53
    The Myth of Technology in Health Care.Bjørn Hofmann - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (1):17-29.
    Technology is believed to have liberated health care from dogmas, myths and speculations of earlier times. However, we are accused of using technology in an excessive, futile and even detrimental way, as if technology is compelling our actions. It appears to be like the monster threatening Dr. Frankenstein or like the socerer’s broom in the hand of the apprentice. That is, the same technology that should liberate us from myths, appears to be mythical. The objective of this article is to (...)
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  36.  49
    Technological Paternalism: On How Medicine has Reformed Ethics and How Technology Can Refine Moral Theory.Bjørn Hofmann - 2003 - Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (3):343-352.
    The objective of this article is to investigate ethical aspects of technology through the moral term “paternalism”. The field of investigation is medicine. The reason for this is twofold. Firstly, “paternalism” has gained moral relevance through modern medicine, where physicians have been accused of behaving paternalistic and threatening patients’ autonomy. Secondly, medicine is a brilliant area to scrutinise the evaluative aspects of technology. It is argued that paternalism is a morally relevant term for the ethics of technology, but that its (...)
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  37.  1
    Complexity of the Concept of Disease As Shown Through Rival Theoretical Frameworks.Bjørn Hofmann - 2001 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics: Philosophy of Medical Research and Practice 22 (3):211-236.
    The concept of disease has been the subject of a vast, vivid and versatile debate. Categories, such as "realist", "nominalist", "ontologist", "physiologist", "normativist" and "descriptivist", have been applied to classify disease concepts. These categories refer to underlying theoretical frameworks of the debate. The objective of this review is to analyze these frameworks. It is argued that the categories applied in the debate refer to profound philosophical issues, and that the complexity of the debate reflects the complexity of the concept itself: (...)
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  38.  30
    On the Value-Ladenness of Technology in Medicine.Bjørn Hofmann - 2001 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (3):335-345.
    The objective of this article is to analyse the value-ladenness of technology in the context of medicine. To address this issue several characteristics of technology are investigated: i) its interventive capacity, ii) its expansiveness and iii) its influence on the concept of disease, iv) its generalising character, v) its independence of the subjective experience of the patient. By this analysis I hope to unveil the double face of technology: Technology has a Janus-face in modern medicine, and the opposite of its (...)
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  39.  37
    On the Downplay of Suffering in Nordenfelt’s Theory of Illness.Bjørn Hofmann - 2013 - Health Care Analysis 21 (4):283-297.
    In his influential theory of health Nordenfelt bases the concepts of health and illness on the notions of ability and disability. A premise for this is that ability and disability provide a more promising, adequate, and useful basis than well-being and suffering. Nordenfelt uses coma and manic episodes as paradigm cases to show that this is so. Do these paradigm cases (and thus the premise) hold? What consequences does it have for the theory of health and illness if it they (...)
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  40. The Concept of Disease -- Vague, Complex, or Just Indefinable?Bjørn Hofmann - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy: A European Journal 13 (1):3-10.
    The long ongoing and partly heated debate on the concept of disease has not led to any consensus on the status of this apparently essential concept for modern health care. The arguments range from claims that the disease concept is vague, slippery, elusive, or complex, and to statements that the concept is indefinable and unnecessary. The unsettled status of the concept of disease is challenging not only to health care where diagnosing, treating, and curing disease are core aims, but also (...)
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  41. Simplified Models of the Relationship Between Health and Disease.Bjørn Hofmann - 2005 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (5):355-377.
    The concepts of health and disease are crucial in defining the aim and the limits of modern medicine. Accordingly it is important to understand them and their relationship. However, there appears to be a discrepancy between scholars in philosophy of medicine and health care professionals with regard to these concepts. This article investigates health care professionals’ concepts of health and disease and the relationship between them. In order to do so, four different models are described and analyzed: the ideal model, (...)
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  42.  24
    Too Much of a Good Thing is Wonderful? A Conceptual Analysis of Excessive Examinations and Diagnostic Futility in Diagnostic Radiology.Bjørn Hofmann - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (2):139-148.
    It has been argued extensively that diagnostic services are a general good, but that it is offered in excess. So what is the problem? Is not “too much of a good thing wonderful”, to paraphrase Mae West? This article explores such a possibility in the field of radiological services where it is argued that more than 40% of the examinations are excessive. The question of whether radiological examinations are excessive cries for a definition of diagnostic futility. However, no such definition (...)
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  43.  27
    Technological Medicine and the Autonomy of Man.Bjørn Hofmann - 2002 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (2):157-167.
    Is technology value-free or is it value-laden? How does technology affect human autonomy? These questions, viewed within the context of medicine, are the focus of attention in this article. The central argument is that we need neither to subscribe to the value-neutrality dictum nor to the all-encompassing value-ladenness thesis to explain the pertinent position of technology in medicine. Technology is constitutive of and strongly implicated in difficult questions of value. This, however, does not mean that technology is identical to (or (...)
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  44.  10
    Categorical Mistakes and Moral Biases in the Withholding-Versus-Withdrawal Debate.Bjørn Hofmann - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (3):29-31.
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  45.  17
    The Paradox of Health Care.Bjørn Hofmann - 2001 - Health Care Analysis 9 (4):369-386.
    The term "paradox'' signifies a contradiction of some sort. Modern health care appears to be rich in contradictions, and it is claimed to be paradoxical in a number of ways.In particular health care is held to be a paradox itself: it is supposed to do good, but is accused of doing harm. The objective of this article is to investigate whether the concept of paradox can serve as a framework for analysing pressing problems in modern healthcare. To pursue this, three (...)
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  46.  26
    Do health professionals have a prototype concept of disease? The answer is no.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2017 12:1 12 (1):6.
    Health and disease are core concepts in health care and have attracted substantial interest and controversy. In recent and interesting contributions to the debate it has been argued that the challenges with the concept of disease can be resolved by a prototype concept of disease. As a robin is a more prototypical of a bird than a penguin, some diseases are more prototypical than others. If disease is a prototype concept, it would change nosology, but also health care and the (...)
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  47.  16
    Forensic Uses and Misuses of DNA: A Case Report From Norway.Bjørn Hofmann - 2006 - Genomics, Society and Policy 2 (1):129-131.
    New technology generates fantastic possibilities which challenge traditional distinctions between good and bad. Genetic analysis of DNA for forensic purposes is but one example of this. Here society’s need for convicting criminals can conflict with the same society’s need to assure the confidentiality of information about its members and their trust in its institutions. In order to illustrate the complexity of such challenges, a case report from Norway is presented. The point is to reflect on the way we handle trailblazing (...)
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  48.  2
    The Collateral Finding of What?Bjørn Hofmann - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (1):26-28.
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  49.  3
    Informing About Mammographic Screening: Ethical Challenges and Suggested Solutions.Bjørn Hofmann - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (5):483-492.
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  50.  16
    Fake Facts and Alternative Truths in Medical Research.Bjørn Hofmann - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):4.
    Fake news and alternative facts have become commonplace in these so-called “post-factual times.” What about medical research - are scientific facts fake as well? Many recent disclosures have fueled the claim that scientific facts are suspect and that science is in crisis. Scientists appear to engage in facting interests instead of revealing interesting facts. This can be observed in terms of what has been called polarised research, where some researchers continuously publish positive results while others publish negative results on the (...)
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