Results for 'Black hole'

999 found
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  1. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Lorentz Symmetry.Ted Jacobson & Aron C. Wall - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (8):1076-1080.
    Recent developments point to a breakdown in the generalized second law of thermodynamics for theories with Lorentz symmetry violation. It appears possible to construct a perpetual motion machine of the second kind in such theories, using a black hole to catalyze the conversion of heat to work. Here we describe and extend the arguments leading to that conclusion. We suggest the inference that local Lorentz symmetry may be an emergent property of the macroscopic world with origins in a (...)
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  2.  55
    Remarks on Black Hole Instabilities and Closed String Tachyons.J. L. F. Barbón & E. Rabinovici - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (1):145-165.
    Physical arguments stemming from the theory of black-hole thermodynamics are used to put constraints on the dynamics of closed-string tachyon condensation in Scherk–Schwarz compactifications. A geometrical interpretation of the tachyon condensation involves an effective capping of a noncontractible cycle, thus removing the very topology that supports the tachyons. A semiclassical regime is identified in which the matching between the tachyon condensation and the black-hole instability flow is possible. We formulate a generalized correspondence principle and illustrate it (...)
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  3.  45
    On Clifford Space Relativity, Black Hole Entropy, Rainbow Metrics, Generalized Dispersion and Uncertainty Relations.Carlos Castro - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (9):990-1008.
    An analysis of some of the applications of Clifford space relativity to the physics behind the modified black hole entropy-area relations, rainbow metrics, generalized dispersion and minimal length stringy uncertainty relations is presented.
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  4.  45
    Interior of a Schwarzschild Black Hole Revisited.Rosa Doran, Francisco S. N. Lobo & Paulo Crawford - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (2):160-187.
    The Schwarzschild solution has played a fundamental conceptual role in general relativity, and beyond, for instance, regarding event horizons, spacetime singularities and aspects of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. However, one still encounters the existence of misconceptions and a certain ambiguity inherent in the Schwarzschild solution in the literature. By taking into account the point of view of an observer in the interior of the event horizon, one verifies that new conceptual difficulties arise. In this work, besides providing a (...)
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  5.  13
    Hiding Information in Theories Beyond Quantum Mechanics, and It’s Application to the Black Hole Information Problem.Markus P. Müller, Jonathan Oppenheim & Oscar C. O. Dahlsten - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (8):829-842.
    The black hole information problem provides important clues for trying to piece together a quantum theory of gravity. Discussions on this topic have generally assumed that in a consistent theory of gravity and quantum mechanics, quantum theory is unmodified. In this review, we discuss the black hole information problem in the context of generalisations of quantum theory. In this preliminary exploration, we examine black holes in the setting of generalised probabilistic theories, in which quantum theory (...)
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  6.  45
    Two Purposes of Black Hole Production.Clément Vidal - 2012 - Foundations of Science 17 (1):13-15.
    Crane envisions the speculative conjecture that intelligent civilizations might want and be able to produce black holes in the very far future. He implicitly suggests two main purposes of this enterprise: (i) energy production and (ii) universe production. We discuss those two options. The commentary is obviously highly speculative and should be read accordingly.
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  7.  80
    Interacting Bosons at Finite Temperature: How Bogolubov Visited a Black Hole and Came Home Again. [REVIEW]S. A. Fulling, B.-G. Englert & M. D. Pilloff - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (1):87-110.
    The structure of the thermal equilibrium state of a weakly interacting Bose gas is of current interest. We calculate the density matrix of that state in two ways. The most effective method, in terms of yielding a simple, explicit answer, is to construct a generating function within the traditional framework of quantum statistical mechanics. The alternative method, arguably more interesting, is to construct the thermal state as a vector state in an artificial system with twice as many degrees of freedom. (...)
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  8.  35
    What Can the Quantum Liquid Say on the Brane Black Hole, the Entropy of an Extremal Black Hole, and the Vacuum Energy?G. E. Volovik - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (2):349-368.
    Using quantum liquids one can simulate the behavior of the quantum vacuum in the presence of the event horizon. The condensed matter analogs demonstrate that in most cases the quantum vacuum resists formation of the horizon, and even if the horizon is formed different types of the vacuum instability develop, which are faster than the process of Hawking radiation. Nevertheless, it is possible to create the horizon on the quantum-liquid analog of the brane, where the vacuum life-time is long enough (...)
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  9.  66
    Regular Self-Consistent Geometries with Infinite Quantum Backreaction in 2D Dilaton Gravity and Black Hole Thermodynamics: Unfamiliar Features of Familiar Models. [REVIEW]O. B. Zaslavskii - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (1):1-35.
    We analyze the rather unusual properties of some exact solutions in 2D dilaton gravity for which infinite quantum stresses on the Killing horizon can be compatible with regularity of the geometry. In particular, the Boulware state can support a regular horizon. We show that such solutions are contained in some well-known exactly solvable models (for example, RST). Formally, they appear to account for an additional coefficient B in the solutions (for the same Lagrangian which contains also “traditional” solutions) that gives (...)
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  10.  30
    The Case for Black Hole Thermodynamics Part I: Phenomenological Thermodynamics.David Wallace - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 64:52-67.
    I give a fairly systematic and thorough presentation of the case for regarding black holes as thermodynamic systems in the fullest sense, aimed at students and non-specialists and not presuming advanced knowledge of quantum gravity. I pay particular attention to the availability in classical black hole thermodynamics of a well-defined notion of adiabatic intervention; the power of the membrane paradigm to make black hole thermodynamics precise and to extend it to local-equilibrium contexts; the central role (...)
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  11.  58
    The Black Hole Information Paradox and the Collapse of the Wave Function.Elias Okon & Daniel Sudarsky - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (4):461-470.
    The black hole information paradox arises from an apparent conflict between the Hawking black hole radiation and the fact that time evolution in quantum mechanics is unitary. The trouble is that while the former suggests that information of a system falling into a black hole disappears, the latter implies that information must be conserved. In this work we discuss the current divergence in views regarding the paradox, we evaluate the role that objective collapse theories (...)
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  12. Black-Hole Entropy as Causal Links.Djamel Dou & Rafael D. Sorkin - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (2):279-296.
    We model a black hole spacetime as a causal set and count, with a certain definition, the number of causal links crossing the horizon in proximity to a spacelike or null hypersurface Σ. We find that this number is proportional to the horizon's area on Σ, thus supporting the interpretation of the links as the “horizon atoms” that account for its entropy. The cases studied include not only equilibrium black holes but ones far from equilibrium.
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  13.  72
    Black Hole Fluctuations and Backreaction in Stochastic Gravity.Sukanya Sinha, Alpan Raval & B. L. Hu - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (1):37-64.
    We present a framework for analyzing black hole backreaction from the point of view of quantum open systems using influence functional formalism. We focus on the model of a black hole described by a radially perturbed quasi-static metric and Hawking radiation by a conformally coupled massless quantum scalar field. It is shown that the closed-time-path (CTP) effective action yields a non-local dissipation term as well as a stochastic noise term in the equation of motion, the Einstein–Langevin (...)
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  14.  60
    Extended Scale Relativity, P-Loop Harmonic Oscillator, and Logarithmic Corrections to the Black Hole Entropy.Carlos Castro & Alex Granik - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (3):445-466.
    An extended scale relativity theory, actively developed by one of the authors, incorporates Nottale's scale relativity principle where the Planck scale is the minimum impassible invariant scale in Nature, and the use of polyvector-valued coordinates in C-spaces (Clifford manifolds) where all lengths, areas, volumes⋅ are treated on equal footing. We study the generalization of the ordinary point-particle quantum mechanical oscillator to the p-loop (a closed p-brane) case in C-spaces. Its solution exhibits some novel features: an emergence of two explicit scales (...)
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  15.  36
    Coordinates with Non-Singular Curvature for a Time Dependent Black Hole Horizon.James Lindesay - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (8):1181-1196.
    A naive introduction of a dependency of the mass of a black hole on the Schwarzschild time coordinate results in singular behavior of curvature invariants at the horizon, violating expectations from complementarity. If instead a temporal dependence is introduced in terms of a coordinate akin to the river time representation, the Ricci scalar is nowhere singular away from the origin. It is found that for a shrinking mass scale due to evaporation, the null radial geodesics that generate the (...)
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  16.  6
    Joint Detection of Gravitational Waves From Binary Black Hole and Binary Neutron Star Mergers by LIGO and Virgo.Andrzej Królak & Mandar Patil - 2018 - Philosophical Problems in Science 64:95-115.
    Advanced Virgo detector joined advanced LIGO twin detectors on 1st August 2017 in the quest to look for the gravitational waves. The global network of three detectors was operational for 25 days until the LIGO shut down on 25th August 2017. Two gravitational wave events were registered during this period. One of them was the binary black hole merger dubbed as GW170814 and other one is binary neutron star merger referred to as GW170817. Electromagnetic counterpart associated with binary (...)
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  17.  37
    Black Hole Thermodynamics: More Than an Analogy?John Dougherty & Craig Callender - unknown
    Black hole thermodynamics is regarded as one of the deepest clues we have to a quantum theory of gravity. It motivates scores of proposals in the field, from the thought that the world is a hologram to calculations in string theory. The rationale for BHT playing this important role, and for much of BHT itself, originates in the analogy between black hole behavior and ordinary thermodynamic systems. Claiming the relationship is “more than a formal analogy,” (...) holes are said to be governed by deep thermodynamic principles: what causes your tea to come to room temperature is said additionally to cause the area of black holes to increase. Playing the role of philosophical gadfly, we pour a little cold water on the claim that BHT is more than a formal analogy. First, we show that BHT is often based on a kind of caricature of thermodynamics. Second, we point out an important ambiguity in what systems the analogy is supposed to govern, local or global ones. Finally, and perhaps worst, we point out that one of the primary motivations for the theory arises from a terribly controversial understanding of entropy. BHT may be a useful guide to future physics. Only time will tell. But the analogy is not nearly as good as is commonly supposed. (shrink)
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  18.  21
    The Case for Black Hole Thermodynamics, Part II: Statistical Mechanics.David Wallace - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 66:103-117.
    I present in detail the case for regarding black hole thermodynamics as having a statistical-mechanical explanation in exact parallel with the statistical-mechanical explanation believed to underly the thermodynamics of other systems. I focus on three lines of argument: zero-loop and one-loop calculations in quantum general relativity understood as a quantum field theory, using the path-integral formalism; calculations in string theory of the leading-order terms, higher-derivative corrections, and quantum corrections, in the black hole entropy formula for extremal (...)
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  19.  18
    Black Hole Unitarity and Antipodal Entanglement.Gerard ’T. Hooft - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (9):1185-1198.
    Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. It was discovered that spherical partial waves of in-going and out-going matter can be described by unitary evolution operators independently, which allows for studies of space-time properties that were not possible before. Unitarity dictates space-time, as seen by a distant observer, to be topologically non-trivial. Consequently, Hawking particles are only locally thermal, (...)
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  20.  16
    Losing Stuff Down a Black Hole.Elias Okon & Daniel Sudarsky - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (4):411-428.
    Over the years, the so-called black hole information loss paradox has generated an amazingly diverse set of proposals. However, 40 years after the introduction of Hawking’s radiation, there continues to be a debate regarding whether the effect does, in fact, lead to an actual problem. In this paper we try to clarify some aspect of the discussion by describing two possible perspectives regarding the landscape of the information loss issue. Moreover, we advance a fairly conservative point of view (...)
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  21.  31
    The Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole: How Good a Case Is It?: A Challenge for Astrophysics & Philosophy of Science.Andreas Eckart, Andreas Hüttemann, Claus Kiefer, Silke Britzen, Michal Zajaček, Claus Lämmerzahl, Manfred Stöckler, Monica Valencia-S., Vladimir Karas & Macarena García-Marín - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (5):553-624.
    The compact and, with \ M\, very massive object located at the center of the Milky Way is currently the very best candidate for a supermassive black hole in our immediate vicinity. The strongest evidence for this is provided by measurements of stellar orbits, variable X-ray emission, and strongly variable polarized near-infrared emission from the location of the radio source Sagittarius A* in the middle of the central stellar cluster. Simultaneous near-infrared and X-ray observations of SgrA* have revealed (...)
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  22.  13
    Why Black Hole Information Loss is Paradoxical.David Wallace - unknown
    I distinguish between two versions of the black hole information-loss paradox. The first arises from apparent failure of unitarity on the spacetime of a completely evaporating black hole, which appears to be non-globally-hyperbolic; this is the most commonly discussed version of the paradox in the foundational and semipopular literature, and the case for calling it `paradoxical' is less than compelling. But the second arises from a clash between a fully-statistical-mechanical interpretation of black hole evaporation (...)
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  23. Truth by Convention: A Symposium by A. J. Ayer, C. H. Whiteley, M. Black.A. J. Ayer, C. H. Whiteley & M. Black - 1936 - Analysis 4 (2/3):17 - 32.
  24. Does Black Hole Complementarity Answer Hawking’s Information Loss Paradox?Peter Bokulich - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1336-1349.
    A proper understanding of black hole complementarity as a response to the information loss paradox requires recognizing the essential role played by arguments for the applicability and limitations of effective semiclassical theories. I argue that this perspective sheds important light on the arguments advanced by Susskind, Thorlacius, and Uglum—although ultimately I argue that their position is unsatisfactory. I also consider the argument offered by ’t Hooft for the breakdown of microcausality around black holes, and conclude that it (...)
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  25.  15
    The Black Hole Challenge: Precaution, Existential Risks and the Problem of Knowledge Gaps.Christian Munthe - 2019 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (1):49-60.
    ABSTRACTSo-called ‘existential risks’ present virtually unlimited reasons for probing them and responses to them further. The ensuing normative pull to respond to such risks thus seems to present us with reasons to abandon all other projects and commit all time, efforts and resources to the management of each existential risk scenario. Advocates of the urgency of attending to existential risk use arguments that seem to lead to this paradoxical result, while they often hold out a wish to avoid it. This (...)
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  26.  4
    Black Hole Remnants and Classical Vs. Quantum Gravity.Peter Bokulich - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (S3):S407-S423.
    Belot, Earman, and Ruetsche dismiss the black hole remnant proposal as an inadequate response to the Hawking information loss paradox. I argue that their criticisms are misplaced and that, properly understood, remnants do offer a substantial reply to the argument against the possibility of unitary evolution in spacetimes that contain evaporating black holes. The key to understanding these proposals lies in recognizing that the question of where and how our current theories break down is at the heart (...)
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  27.  31
    Paradox Regained? A Brief Comment on Maudlin on Black Hole Information Loss.J. B. Manchak & James Owen Weatherall - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (6):611-627.
    We discuss some recent work by Tim Maudlin concerning Black Hole Information Loss. We argue, contra Maudlin, that there is a paradox, in the straightforward sense that there are propositions that appear true, but which are incompatible with one another. We discuss the significance of the paradox and Maudlin's response to it.
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  28.  41
    The Moral Black Hole.Per Sandin & Misse Wester - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (3):291-301.
    It is commonly believed that people become selfish and turn to looting, price gouging, and other immoral behaviour in emergencies. This has been the basis for an argument justifying extraordinary measures in emergencies. It states that if emergencies are not curtailed, breakdown of moral norms threaten (‘the moral black hole’). Using the example of natural disasters, we argue that the validity of this argument in non-antagonistic situations, i.e. situations other than war and armed conflict, is highly questionable. Available (...)
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  29.  44
    Black Hole Remnants and Classical Vs. Quantum Gravity.Peter Bokulich - 2001 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S407-.
    Belot, Earman, and Ruetsche (1999) dismiss the black hole remnant proposal as an inadequate response to the Hawking information loss paradox. I argue that their criticisms are misplaced and that, properly understood, remnants do offer a substantial reply to the argument against the possibility of unitary evolution in spacetimes that contain evaporating black holes. The key to understanding these proposals lies in recognizing that the question of where and how our current theories break down is at the (...)
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  30.  44
    Conrad Black Defends His Friend Ann Coulter.Conrad Black - 2009 - The Chesterton Review 35 (1/2):264-267.
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  31.  44
    A Letter From Conrad Black.Conrad Black - 2009 - The Chesterton Review 35 (1/2):257-258.
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  32.  47
    Extensible Embeddings of Black-Hole Geometries.Aharon Davidson & Uzi Paz - 2000 - Foundations of Physics 30 (5):785-794.
    Removing a black hole conic singularity by means of Kruskal representation is equivalent to imposing extensibility on the Kasner–Fronsdal local isometric embedding of the corresponding black hole geometry. Allowing for globally non-trivial embeddings, living in Kaluza–Klein-like M 5 × S 1 (rather than in standard Minkowski M 6 ) and parametrized by some wave number k, extensibility can be achieved for apparently “forbidden” frequencies ω in the range ω 1 (k) ≤ ω ≤ ω 2 (k). (...)
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  33.  12
    Black Hole Perturbations: A Review of Recent Analytical Results. [REVIEW]Donato Bini & Andrea Geralico - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (10):1349-1363.
    We review the gravitational self-force program to analytically compute first-order metric perturbations in a Schwarzschild black hole spacetime in the case of a perturbing mass moving on a slightly eccentric equatorial orbit. The perturbed metric components should then be combined into gauge-invariant quantities to be associated with physical observables. In this way, for example, one determines the various “potentials” entering the Effective-One-Body model, i.e., a powerful formalism for the description of the gravitational interaction of two masses, which is (...)
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  34.  39
    Interview with Conrad Black.Conrad Black & William Kauffman - 1997 - The Chesterton Review 23 (3):376-385.
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  35.  55
    Physical Laws Collide in a Black Hole Bet.George Johnson - manuscript
    o an outsider, nothing might seem more ridiculous than the spectacle of grown men and women sitting around a conference table soberly discussing what would happen if a volume of the Encyclopedia Britannica were dropped down a black hole. Yet this very question lies at the heart of the "information paradox," a seeming contradiction to the laws of physics that is causing scientists to re-examine some of their most basic assumptions about how the universe is made.
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  36.  16
    Problems of Pure Form: An Editorial Discussion with L. Arréat and G. A. Black.Paul Carus, G. A. Black & M. Lucien Arréat - 1913 - The Monist 23 (4):611-613.
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  37.  11
    Black Wind, White Snow: The Rise of Russia’s New Nationalism. [REVIEW]Antony Black - 2017 - The European Legacy 22 (3):353-356.
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  38.  1
    On a Possibly Pure Set-Theoretic Contribution to Black Hole Entropy.Gábor Etesi - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-14.
    Continuity as appears to us immediately by intuition differs from its current formalization, the arithmetical continuum or equivalently the set of real numbers used in modern mathematical analysis. Motivated by the known mathematical and physical problems arising from this formalization of the continuum, our aim in this paper is twofold. Firstly, by interpreting Chaitin’s variant of Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem as an inherent uncertainty or fuzziness of the arithmetical continuum, a formal set-theoretic entropy is assigned to the arithmetical continuum. Secondly, (...)
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  39.  25
    Interactions and the Consistency of Black Hole Complementarity.Peter Bokulich - 2011 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (4):371-386.
    Presentations of black hole complementarity by van Dongen and de Haro, as well as by 't Hooft, suffer from a mistaken claim that interactions between matter falling into a black hole and the emitted Hawking-like radiation should lead to a failure of commutativity between space-like-related observables localized inside and outside the black hole. I show that this conclusion is not supported by our standard understanding of quantum interactions. We have no reason to believe that (...)
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  40.  18
    A Pulsar Model From an Oscillating Black Hole.Mendel Sachs - 1982 - Foundations of Physics 12 (7):689-708.
    The first part of this paper examines conditions in accord with Einstein's criterion of regularity on the field solutions everywhere that would correspond to the existence of a black hole star, following from solutions of his (nonvacuum) field equations. ‘Black hole’ is defined here as a star whose matter is so condensed as to correspond to a complete family of spatially closed geodesics. The condition imposed is that the angular momentum of a test body in each (...)
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  41.  4
    The X-Ray Chirp of a Compact Black Hole Binary: A Phase Template for the Gravitational Wave Inspiral.Zoltán Haiman - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (10):1430-1445.
    The gravitational waves from a binary black hole with masses \ can be detected with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna once their orbital frequency exceeds 10\–10\ Hz. The binary separation at this stage is \R_{\mathrm{g}}\), and the orbital speed is \\). I argue that at this stage, the binary will be producing bright electromagnetic radiation via gas bound to the individual BHs. Both BHs will have their own photospheres in X-ray and possibly also in optical bands. Relativistic Doppler (...)
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  42.  11
    Jacques Madignier, Les Chanoines du Chapitre Cathédral D’Autun: Du XIe Siècle À la Fin du XIVe Siècle. Langres, France: D. Guéniot, 2011. Paper. Pp. 575; 24 Color Plates, 8 Black-and-White Figures, 20 Maps, and 23 Tables. €34. ISBN: 978-287-825-5010. [REVIEW]Winston Black - 2014 - Speculum 89 (2):513-516.
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  43. Philosophy for Aliens: Discovering the Philosophical Black Hole.Geoffrey Berg - 2013 - Intellect Publishing.
    Geoffrey Berg finds a previously undiscovered 'black hole' at the very core of Philosophy. This must cause extensive 'universal uncertainty' that is insurmountable by any human or any intelligence.This book strips away common human delusions about 'goodness', God and the ultimate knowability of the Universe. It focuses on the logical limitations to knowledge for humans, aliens and even artificial intelligences.The book is original and radical, yet entirely logical in its approach. It presents and justifies in quite simple language (...)
     
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  44. Formal Contributions to the Theory of Public Choice the Unpublished Works of Duncan Black.Duncan Black, Gordon L. Brady & Gordon Tullock - 1996
     
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  45. Ghosts of the Black Chamber: Experimental, Dada and Surrealist Photography 1918-1948.Candice Black (ed.) - 2010 - Solar Books.
     
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  46.  8
    The Many Definitions of a Black Hole.Erik Curiel - 2019 - Nature Astronomy 3:27-34.
    Although black holes are objects of central importance across many fields of physics, there is no agreed upon definition for them, a fact that does not seem to be widely recognized. Physicists in different fields conceive of and reason about them in radi- cally different, and often conflicting, ways. All those ways, however, seem sound in the relevant contexts. After examining and comparing many of the definitions used in practice, I consider the problems that the lack of a universally (...)
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  47.  16
    What Is a Black Hole?Erik Curiel - unknown
    Although black holes are objects of central importance across many fields of physics, there is no agreed upon definition for them, a fact that does not seem to be widely recognized. Physicists in different fields conceive of and reason about them in radically different, and often conflicting, ways. All those ways, however, seem sound in the relevant contexts. After examining and comparing many of the definitions used in practice, I consider the problems that the lack of a universally accepted (...)
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  48. Black Hole Versus Cosmological Horizon Entropy.Tamara M. Davis & P. C. W. Davies - unknown
    The generalized second law of thermodynamics states that entropy always increases when all event horizons are attributed with an entropy proportional to their area. We test the generalized second law by investigating the change in entropy when dust, radiation and black holes cross a cosmological event horizon. We generalize for flat, open and closed Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universes by using numerical calculations to determine the cosmological horizon evolution. In most cases, the loss of entropy from within the cosmological horizon is more (...)
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  49.  8
    Optimization of Consignment-Store-Based Supply Chain with Black Hole Algorithm.Ágota Bányai, Tamás Bányai & Béla Illés - 2017 - Complexity:1-12.
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  50. Believing Bullshit: How Not to Get Sucked Into an Intellectual Black Hole.Stephen Law - 2011 - Prometheus Books.
    Playing the mystery card -- "But it fits!" -- Going nuclear -- Moving the semantic goalposts -- "But I just know!" -- Pseudo-profundity -- Piling up the anecdotes -- Pressing your buttons -- Conclusion -- The Tapescrew letters.
     
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