V članku poskušam analizirati nekatere značilne diskurze posvečene »neuspehu avantgarde« ter tako osvetliti latentno strukturo zanikanja / potlačitve / izključitve, na kateri leži temelj zahodne moderne umetnosti, se pravi strukturo, ki je bila razvita kot druga plat samooblikovanja umetnosti v dobi, ko je nastal mit o njeni avtonomiji. Odkar so moderne »umetnosti« padle v rodovno kategorijo »Umetnost«, ta daje videz, da je postajala vedno bolj obrobna, da pa je hkrati pridobivala v zameno več privilegijev. Da bi se lahko vzpostavila v (...) sublimiranem območju visoke kulture, je bila umetnost morda prisiljena zavreči vse, česar ni bilo mogoče udobno uskladiti z njeno samodefinicijo. Medtem ko so dualizem med »visoko« in »nizko« kulturo prenehali utemeljevati v realnosti, so izumili nov pripomoček, da bi zavaroval navidezne meje, ter da bi pospešil proces avtonomizacije umetnosti. Modernizem v tem primeru služi kot bolj izpopolnjen ter okrepljeni vzvod potlačitve; vsebuje tudi uporniško avantgardo, ki služi za začasno sprostitev potlačenega. Medsebojna povezanost med modernizmom in avantgardo se bo tako pokazala kot spopad med estetiko nadzora in estetiko anarhije. (shrink)
V domnevno Platonovem dialogu Alkibiadu I je postavljena trditev, da je del duše, ki skriva naše pravo sebstvo, naš jaz, podoben Bogu: nekdo, ki ga uvidi in je spoznal božansko – boga in razumnost, bo tako najbolje dojemal tudi samega sebe. Vprašanje sebstva v dialogu nastopi kot smiselno nadaljevanje poprejšnjih izpeljav, po katerih se določa, da mi nismo ne telo, ne naše lastne stvari, temveč duša. S tem, ko sebstvo poistovetimo z Bogom, nekako uidemo problemu samonanašanja in postavimo vprašanje samovédenja (...) v novo dimenzijo. Članek obravnava nekatere nejasnosti definicije sebstva , torej vključujočega telo in dušo, ali le kot duše, kot v Alkibiadu Prvem , ki uporablja telo in mu vlada , v odnosu do božanskega.In Alcibiades I, for many interpreters still a spurious dialogue, Plato claims that our true self resembles the divine. Someone who looked at it and grasped everything divine, God and intelligence, would have the best grasp of himself as well. The question of the self comes as the natural consequence of previous claims showing we are neither our possessions nor our bodies, but our souls. By making the self similar to God, we can tackle the problem of reflexivity differently, putting the question of self-knowledge into new perspective. The article discusses some unclear questions concerning the definition of the self, defined as »the whole man« in Charmides , i.e. including body as integral part, or as excluding it in Alcibiades I, where the self is the soul , since the soul uses the body and rules it , and its relations to the divine. (shrink)
Izhodišče analize, kot njeno vlogo dojema Bertrand Russell, še zlasti v obdobju, ko izdela teorijo opisov, je vselej nekaj enostavnega. Od sežete, zapletene strukture nas analiza kot znanstveni model vodi k njenim porizlikovanim, dobro pregledanim delom. Doseči enostavnost na takih osnovah pa pomeni prevzeti nekaj izhodišč: na ontološki predpostavki utemeljeni spoznavni model, razlikovanje med popolnim ter nepopolnimi simboli, itd. Vselej imamo razdelitev med ravnijo enostavnega ter med ravnijo izvedenega, in odločilni model je reprezentacionalističen. Takšen idilični pričetek pa kmalu zadane ob (...) svojo mejo, ki ni nič drugega kot pripoznanje komunikacijske vloge govorice. Se več, paradoks analize bo moral najti svoj ključ v subjektovi izreki: v družbeni vezi. (shrink)
This book addresses the metaphysics of Armstrongian states of affairs, i.e. instantiations of naturalist universals by particulars. The author argues that states of affairs are the best candidate for truthmakers and, in the spirit of logical atomism, that we need no molecular truthmakers for positive truths. In the book's context, this has the pleasing result that there are no molecular states of affairs. Following this account of truthmaking, the author first shows that the particulars in (first-order) states of affairs are (...) bare particulars. He then argues that the properties in states of affairs are simple, non-relational and concrete universals. Next, he argues that (material) relations in states of affairs are external relations. Lastly, he argues that a state of affairs is unified by a distinctive formal relation without giving rise to Bradley’s regress. (shrink)
This paper defends the case against (sparse) disjunctive properties by means of four Armstrongian arguments. The first of these is a logical atomist argument from truthmaking, which is, broadly speaking, ‘Armstrongian’ (Armstrong 1997). This argument is strong – although it stands or falls with the relevant notion of truthmaking, as it were. However, three arguments, which are prima facie independent of truthmaking, can be found explicitly early in Armstrong’s middle period. Two of these early arguments face a serious objection put (...) forward forcefully by Louise Antony (2003) and Alan Penczek (1997), respectively. I consider these objections and argue that they fail. Thus, even if the argument from truthmaking is indecisive, disjunctive properties should be rejected. (shrink)
In this paper, I relate key features of Adolf Reinach’s abundant ontology of propositional states of affairs of his (1911) to Armstrong’s – or an Armstrongian – state of affairs ontology, with special regard to finding out how sparse or abundant the latter is with respect to negative states of affairs. After introducing the issue, I clarify the notion of a propositional state of affairs, paying special attention to the notion of abstract vs. concrete. I show how Reinach’s states of (...) affairs are propositional, and how they compare with Chisholm’s well-known propositional states of affairs. In the next section, I outline Reinach’s five roles for states of affairs and show that only one of them is relevant to Armstrongian state of affairs ontology. In the following section, I utilize this role to create a ranking of state of affairs ontologies according to how abundant (sparse) they are. It is, however, unclear which level Armstrongian state of affairs ontology is at, since it is unclear if, like Reinach’s ontology, it includes negative states of affairs. In the final section, I argue that the answer is a qualified ‘yes’, i.e. it does not occupy the sparsest level. (shrink)
We describe a corpus of speech taking place between 30 Korean mother–child pairs, divided in three groups of Prelexical, Early-Lexical, and Advanced-Lexical. In addition to the child-directed speech, this corpus includes two different formalities of adult-directed speech, i.e., family-directed ADS and experimenter-directed ADS. Our analysis of the MLU in CDS, family-, and experimenter-directed ADS found significant differences between CDS and ADS_Fam, and between ADS_Fam and ADS_Exp, but not between CDS and ADS_Exp. Our finding suggests that researchers should pay more attention (...) to controlling the level of formality in CDS and ADS when comparing the two registers for their speech characteristics. The corpus was transcribed in the CHAT format of the CHILDES system, so users can easily extract data related to verbal behavior in the mother–child interaction using the CLAN program of CHILDES. (shrink)
Formal epistemologists criticise the Conciliatory View of peer disagreement for being non-commutative with conditionalisation, path dependent and does not preserve the independence between propositions. Failing to commute with conditionalisation, one may switch the order between conciliating and conditionalising and obtain different outcomes. Failing to be path independent, the outcome of conciliation varies with the order of the acquisition of new testimonies. Failing to preserve the independence between propositions, one may suffer from a sure-loss and hence be deemed irrational. The three (...) formal deficiencies urge people to abandon the Conciliatory View. This paper aims to show that one may save the Conciliatory View by conciliating with nonlinear functions. Research in the study of opinion pooling shows that the three deficiencies are not problems of the Conciliatory View, but problems of linear averaging. Hence, one can get rid of these formal deficiencies by making conciliation with nonlinear averaging functions. After showing how the three deficiencies can be avoided, I will explore the features of nonlinear averaging functions and argue that they have properties that correctly capture people’s intuition concerning disagreement. The conclusion, therefore, is to suggest epistemologists develop a more fine-grained taxonomy for cases of disagreement. With a deliberate categorisation of different kinds of disagreement, epistemologists can pick the proper averaging rule to apply in each specific case, and get rid of possible formal deficiencies. (shrink)
This book offers an Arabic edition, English translation, study and glossaries of ʿUbaidallāh Ibn Buḫtīšūʿ’s important work on apparent death; an appendix moreover provides the Arabic and Hebrew recensions of ʿUbaidallāh’s lost Greek _Vorlage_.
Gila Sher interviewed by Chen Bo: -/- I. Academic Background and Earlier Research: 1. Sher’s early years. 2. Intellectual influence: Kant, Quine, and Tarski. 3. Origin and main Ideas of The Bounds of Logic. 4. Branching quantifiers and IF logic. 5. Preparation for the next step. -/- II. Foundational Holism and a Post-Quinean Model of Knowledge: 1. General characterization of foundational holism. 2. Circularity, infinite regress, and philosophical arguments. 3. Comparing foundational holism and foundherentism. 4. A post-Quinean model of knowledge. (...) 5. Intellect and figuring out. 6. Comparing foundational holism with Quine’s holism. 7. Evaluation of Quine’s Philosophy -/- III. Substantive Theory of Truth and Relevant Issues: 1. Outline of Sher’s substantive theory of truth. 2. Criticism of deflationism and treatment of the Liar. 3. Comparing Sher’s substantive theory of truth with Tarski’s theory of truth. -/- IV. A New Philosophy of Logic and Comparison with Other Theories: 1. Foundational account of logic. 2. Standard of logicality, set theory and logic. 3. Psychologism, Hanna’s and Maddy’s conceptions of logic. 4. Quine’s theses about the revisability of logic. -/- V. Epilogue. (shrink)
What I call Mellor’s Question is the problem of whether determinables are properties of their determinates or properties of the particulars that possess these determinates. One can distinguish two basic competing theories of determinables that address the issue, implicitly if not explicitly. On the second-order theory, determinables are second-order properties of determinate properties; on the second-level theory, determinables are first-order properties of the particulars with these determinate properties. Higher-order properties are prima facie ontologically uneconomical, and in line with my general (...) view that ontological parsimony is vital to metaphysics, I consider it highly important which of the two theories is true. Firstly, I argue that the second-level theory offers the best explanation of the explananda (though the race is close), including the important but neglected phenomenon of ‘intermediate determinables’. Secondly, by paying attention to intermediate determinables and instantiation of higher-order properties, I argue that the second-level theory also is more ontologically economical. For these two reasons, this theory is preferable. (shrink)
This paper investigates the observability of first-order, second-order, and high-order leader-based multiagent systems with fixed topology, respectively. Some new algebraic and graphical characterizations of the observability for the first-order MASs are established based on agreement protocols. Moreover, under the same leader-following framework with the predefined topology and leader assignment, the observability conditions for systems of double-integrator and high-integrator agents are also obtained. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is verified by numerical examples and simulations.
Daniel Dennett is arguably one of the most influential yet radical philosophers in America today. In this volume, Dennett is confronted by colleagues and critics, from philosophy, biology and psychology. His reply constitutes an extensive essay which clarifies, and develops further, central themes in his philosophy. The debate ranges over Dennett's whole corpus, but special attention is given to his major work on consciousness, Consciousness Explained. The volume includes a critical assessement of Dennett's views on behaviouralism and the subjectivity of (...) consciousness, the nature of perception and mental representation, intentional laws and computational psychology, the rationality of thought, culture as a virus, the architecture of mind, and the role of artifacts in thinking. Also included is an introduction to Dennett's philosophy and a full bibliography of his publications. (shrink)
The main considerations for well planning and hydraulic fracturing in unconventional resources plays include the amount of total organic carbon and how much hydrocarbon can be extracted. Brittleness is the direct measurement of a formation about the ability to create avenues for hydrocarbons when applying hydraulic fracturing. Brittleness can be directly estimated from laboratory stress-strain measurements, rock-elastic properties, and mineral content analysis using petrophysical analysis on well logs. However, the estimated brittleness using these methods only provides “cylinder” estimates near the (...) borehole. We proposed a workflow to estimate brittleness of resource plays in 3D by integrating the petrophysics and seismic data analysis. The workflow began by brittleness evaluation using mineral well logs at the borehole location. Then, we used a proximal support vector machine algorithm to construct a classification pattern between rock-elastic properties and brittleness for the selected benchmark well. The pattern was validated using well-log data that were not used for constructing the classification. Next, we prestack inverted the fidelity preserved seismic gathers to generate a suite of rock-elastic properties volumes. Finally, we obtained a satisfactory brittleness index of target formations by applying the trained classification pattern to the inverted rock-elastic-property volumes. (shrink)
The work _De spiritu_ is an important but neglected work by Aristotle. It clearly shows for the first time that Aristotle assumed a special body as the ‘instrument’ of the soul. By means of this soul/body the soul forms the visible body of plants, animals and human beings.
In this paper, we study the diversity of interaction solutions of a shallow water wave equation, the generalized Hirota–Satsuma–Ito equation. Using the Hirota direct method, we establish a general theory for the diversity of interaction solutions, which can be applied to generate many important solutions, such as lumps and lump-soliton solutions. This is an interesting feature of this research. In addition, we prove this new model is integrable in Painlevé sense. Finally, the diversity of interactive wave solutions of the gHSI (...) is graphically displayed by selecting specific parameters. All the obtained results can be applied to the research of fluid dynamics. (shrink)
It is a common view that arguments from analogy can only be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. However, while this reflects an important insight, I propose instead a relatively simple method for their evaluation based on just (i) their general form and (ii) four core questions. One clear advantage of this proposal is that it does not depend on any substantial (and controversial) view of similarity, unlike influential current alternative methods, such as Walton’s. Following some initial clarification of the notion (...) of analogy and similarity, I demonstrate the strength of this method by analysing and evaluating three prominent arguments from analogy. (shrink)
This paper is concerned with what I call the ‘problem of unity’ . This is the puzzle of how Armstrong‐like states of affairs are unified. The general approach is ‘relational internalism’: the unifier of such a state of affairs is a relation of some sort in it. A view commonly associated with relational internalism is that if such a relation satisfies a certain ‘naive’ expectation to a relation – that it is related to its relata – then Bradley's regress results. (...) As I argue, for one very natural species of relational internalism, this is indeed the case. Influential writers on the topic have therefore maintained that this relation is not related to its relata. But, as we shall see, while this ‘classic’ relational internalism obviously avoids Bradley's regress, intuitively, it fails completely to solve the problem of unity. I argue, however, that given the rejection of a natural, but unfounded, assumption of conventional relational internalism, a unique relation can unify states of affairs without leading to Bradley's regress. I consequently propose a novel version of relational internalism on which states of affairs are unified by such an entity. (shrink)
A technoeconomic optimization problem for a domestic grid-connected PV-battery hybrid energy system is investigated. It incorporates the appliance time scheduling with appliance-specific power dispatch. The optimization is aimed at minimizing energy cost, maximizing renewable energy penetration, and increasing user satisfaction over a finite horizon. Nonlinear objective functions and constraints, as well as discrete and continuous decision variables, are involved. To solve the proposed mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem at a large scale, a competitive swarm optimizer-based numerical solver is designed and employed. (...) The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified by simulation results. (shrink)
In this journal theme introduction, first, I explain how comparative philosophy as explored in the journal Comparative Philosophy is understood and how it is intrinsically related to the constructive engagement strategy. Second, to characterize more clearly and accurately some related methodological points of the constructive-engagement strategy, and also to explain how constructive engagement is possible, I introduce some needed conceptual and explanatory resources and a meta-methodological framework and endeavor to identify adequacy conditions for methodological guiding principles in comparative studies. Third, (...) as a case analysis, I show how the constructive-engagement reflective practice bears on recent studies of Chinese and comparative Chinese-Western philosophy, especially in the past decade, for two purposes: to illustrate the foregoing theoretic characterization of the constructive engagement strategy, and to identify and explain some constructive morals that might have general significance for comparative studies. (shrink)
The history of a European identity is the history of a concept and a discourse. A European identity is an abstraction and a fiction without essential proportions. Identity as a fiction does not undermine but rather helps to explain the power that the concept exercises. The concept since its introduction on the political agenda in 1973 has been highly ideologically loaded and in that capacity has been contested. There has been a high degree of agreement on the concept as such, (...) but deep disagreement on its more precise content and meaning. The concept of a European identity is an idea expressing contrived notions of unity rather than an identity in the proper sense of the word and even takes on the proportion of an ideology. In this sense the concept is inscribed in a long history of philosophical and political reflection on the concept of Europe. On these grounds the analytical use of `identity' in social sciences can be questioned. (shrink)
Over the past decade, ethical leadership has increasingly become one of the most popular topics in the areas of leadership and business ethics. As a result, there now exists a substantial body of empirical research addressing ethical leadership issues, but the findings reported by this body of research are highly fragmented. The topic has advanced to the stage where a review and synthesis of existing literature can provide great value and help move the scholarly conversation forward. The primary purposes of (...) this article are to review empirical findings from the ethical leadership literature utilizing a framework consisting of the antecedents, mediators, moderators and outcomes of ethical leadership, and suggest a set of interesting research opportunities, thereby facilitating future investigation. We base our synthesis on a review of 62 empirical studies on ethical leadership that were published between 2005 and mid-2015. (shrink)
This paper focuses on the problem of event-triggered control for a class of uncertain nonlinear strict-feedback systems with zero dynamics via backstepping technique. In the design procedure, the adaptive controller and the triggering event are designed at the same time to remove the assumption of the input-to-state stability with respect to the measurement errors. Besides, we propose an assumption to deal with the problem of zero dynamics. Three different event-triggered control strategies are designed, which guarantees that all the closed-loop signals (...) are globally bounded. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is illustrated and compared using simulation examples. (shrink)
Prestack seismic inversion techniques provide valuable information of rock properties, lithology, and fluid content for reservoir characterization. The confidence of inverted results increases with increasing incident angle of seismic gathers. The most accurate result of simultaneous prestack inversion of P-wave seismic data is P-impedance. S-impedance estimation becomes reliable with incident angles approaching 30°, whereas density evaluation becomes reliable with incident angles approaching 45°. As the offset increases, we often encounter “hockey sticks” and severe stretch at large offsets. Hockey sticks and (...) stretch not only lower the seismic resolution but also hinder long offset prestack seismic inversion analysis. The inverted results are also affected by the random noises present in the prestack gathers. We developed a three-step workflow to perform data conditioning prior to simultaneous prestack inversion. First, we mitigated the hockey sticks by using an automatic nonhyperbolic velocity analysis. Then, we minimized the stretch at the far offset by using an antistretch workflow. Last, we improved the signal-to-noise ratio by applying prestack structure-oriented filtering. We evaluated our workflow by applying it to a prestack seismic volume acquired over the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA. The results inverted from the conditioned prestack gathers have higher resolution and better correlation coefficients with well logs when compared to those inverted from conventional time-migrated gathers. (shrink)
The chapter discusses the conceptual origins of ideology as a term that described ideology as positive science, which analysed thoughts and ideas, ideology in analogy to sociology, the science of ideas, and the science of society respectively. From here the chapter investigates how ideology was transformed into a concept that epitomized a set of principles about society and government. Ideology became an action-oriented concept for shaping the future. The concept moved away from its original meaning of studying ideas conforming to (...) law, although this meaning still played a certain role in the debate. (shrink)
It is argued that the focus within organization studies on wisdom is one-sided in the sense that it ignores stupidity, wisdom's little stepbrother. Too often it is simply taken for granted that an increase in wisdom will lead to a decrease in stupidity. The problem with this assumption is that it is philosophically uninformed. Stupidity and wisdom stand in a deeply paradoxical relationship, which has been studied by philosophers at least since the Stoics. Some recent contributions to this endless debate (...) will be highlighted in this paper. However, the overall aim of the paper is to show that organizations too are familiar with these philosophical paradoxes. (shrink)
Recently, algebraic characterization of multiagent controllability through its topology has been widely concerned by the systems and control community. The controllability of leader-follower networked multiagent systems under the framework of generic linear dynamics is firstly discussed via λ-matrix. Some new algebra-theoretic necessary and/or sufficient conditions of the controllability for generic linear multiagent systems are established. Moreover, the controllable conditions for multiagent networks with special topological graphs through λ-matrix are presented.
Prestack seismic analysis provides information on rock properties, lithology, fluid content, and the orientation and intensity of anisotropy. However, such analysis demands high-quality seismic data. Unfortunately, noise is always present in seismic data even after careful processing. Noise in the prestack gathers may not only contaminate the seismic image, thereby lowering the quality of seismic interpretation, but it may also bias the seismic prestack inversion for rock properties, such as acoustic- and shear-impedance estimation. Common postmigration data conditioning includes running window (...) median and Radon filters that are applied to the flattened common reflection point gathers. We have combined filters across the offset and azimuth with edge-preserving filters along the structure to construct a true “5D” filter that preserves amplitude, thereby preconditioning the data for subsequent quantitative analysis. We have evaluated our workflow by applying it to a prestack seismic volume acquired over the Fort Worth Basin, TX. The inverted results from the noise-suppressed prestack gathers are more laterally continuous and have higher correlation with well logs when compared with those inverted from conventional time-migrated gathers. (shrink)
This book is an inquiry into the philosophical concern with truth as one joint subject in philosophy of language and metaphysics and presents a theory of truth, substantive perspectivism (SP). Emphasizing our basic pre-theoretic understanding of truth (i.e., what is captured by the axiomatic thesis of truth that the nature of truth consists in capturing the way things are), and in the deflationism vs. substantivism debate background, SP argues for the substantive nature of non-linguistic truth and its notion’s indispensable substantive (...) explanatory role, both of which are not only intrinsically beyond what the linguistic function of the truth predicate can tell but are fundamentally related to the raison d’être of the truth predicate. Taking a holistic approach, SP endeavors to do justice to various reasonable perspectives, which are somehow contained in many competing accounts of truth, through a coordinate system: SP interprets such perspectives as distinct but related perspective-elaboration principles that distinctively (regarding distinct dimensions of the truth concern and/or for the sake of distinct purposes) elaborate, but are also unified by, the truth axiom thesis. To look at the issue from a broader vision, the book also takes a cross-tradition approach exploring the relationship between Daoist thinking of truth and thinking about truth in analytic philosophy.This book will enhance our systematic understanding of the issue through its holistic approach, broaden our vision on the issue via its cross-tradition approach, and enrich the conceptual and explanatory resources in treating the issue. (shrink)
Time delay is a frequently encountered phenomenon in some practical engineering systems and introducing time delay into a system can enrich its dynamic characteristics. There has been a plenty of interesting results on fractional-order chaotic systems or integer-order delayed chaotic systems, but the problem of synchronization of fractional-order chaotic systems with time delays is in the primary stage. Combination synchronization of three different fractional-order delayed chaotic systems is investigated in this paper. It is an extension of combination synchronization of delayed (...) chaotic systems or combination synchronization of fractional-order chaotic systems. With the help of stability theory of linear fractional-order systems with multiple time delays, we design controllers to achieve combination synchronization of three different fractional-order delayed chaotic systems. In addition, numerical simulations have been performed to demonstrate and verify the theoretical analysis. (shrink)
This paper asks what should be the basis of a global environmental ethics. As Gao Shan has argued, the environmental ethics of Western philosophers such as Holmes Rolston and Paul Taylor is based on extending the notion of intrinsic value to that of objects of nature, and as such it is not very compatible with Chinese ethics. This is related to Gao’s rejection of most—if not all—Western “rationalist” environmental ethics, a stance that I grant her for pragmatic reasons (though I (...) remain neutral about it theoretically). Gao argues that the Daoist notion of living in harmony with nature can instead become the basis of a Chinese environmental ethics. However, the involved Daoist conception of living in harmony with nature is, in my view, based on an aesthetic property. The paper argues that despite the appeal of the Daoist view for a Chinese environmental ethics, an aesthetic property cannot provide the basis for a global environmental ethics. The paper also considers another version of Daoist environmental ethics, which does not rely on an aesthetic notion, but I argue that it too fails as such a candidate. As an alternative, the paper considers and applies contemporary Western thinkers on gratitude (such as Robert Emmons and Elizabeth Loder), proposing that gratitude to nature (environmental gratitude) can indeed provide the needed basis. (shrink)
I defend an ontological distinction between three kinds of relation: internal,external and grounded relations. Even though, as we shall see, this trichotomy is basic, it is not found in influential contemporary metaphysics. Specifically, the widespread tendency, exemplified notably by David Armstrong, of not recognizing grounded relations as distinct from external relations, can be shown to be mistaken. I propose a definition of each of the three kinds of relation. Of vital importance to the parsimony of metaphysics, I also argue that (...) only external relations are ontologically fundamental. (shrink)
What is now generally known as the paradox of art and negative affect was identified as a paradox by the Abbé Jean-Baptiste Du Bos in 1719. In his attempt to explain how people can admire and enjoy representational works that ‘afflict’ them, Du Bos claims that such representations give rise to ‘artificial’ emotions, provide a pleasurable relief from boredom, and offer us epistemic, artistic, and moral rewards. The paper delineates Du Bos’ proposal, considers the question of Du Bos’ originality, and (...) discusses Hume’s brief comments on Du Bos and Fontenelle. (shrink)