Author: Dziemidok Bohdan Title: AXIOLOGY OF WŁADYSŁAW TATARKIEWICZ (Aksjologia Władysława Tatarkiewicza) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2011, vol:.13/14, number: 2011/2-3, pages: 459-472 Keywords: AXIOLOGY, AESTHETIC THEORY, WŁADYSŁAW TATARKIEWICZ, OLD AGE Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:Władysław Tatarkiewicz was not only a co-creator of Polish aesthetics (aside Roman Ingarden, Stanisław Ossowski and Mieczysław Wallis) but also, aside Henryk Elzenberg, a co-creator of Polish axiology. Main issues of Tatarkiewicz’s axiological development were: value and (...) validation theory and happiness and perfection theory. His undebatable achievement in axiological discourse is justification of the need to acknowledge relationism as a middle ground position between objectivism and subjectivism and axiological pluralism as a position different from absolutism and axiological relativism. The article presents not only axiology explicite, contained in his theoretical works, but also tries to reconstruct Tatarkiewicz’s personal axiology, which guided him throughout his long life. The personal axiology of his, I tried to reconstruct based on his memoirs, interviews he gave, letters and my personal contacts with him. (shrink)
In the context of the global intellectualization, human capital is the determining factor in the innovation development and the international competitiveness of countries. In the XXI century. the leading component of human capital are qualitatively new information, communication and network technologies. Particular importance are education and training, professionalism, high level of human resources management, building up, reproduction and human capital development. These factors are the prerequisite for the growth of the competitive advantages of the country in the conditions of globalization.
Teaching the art of profession-related communication to students of non-linguistic study fields allows instructors to explain their students how to keep up the conversation using facts, data, concepts etc. specific to the area of their future profession. It activates the acquisition processes as well as increases students' motivation to study. The formation of oral monologue speaking skills in students of non-linguistic study fields is one of the tasks within the course of Foreign ( English) Language for Specific Purposes.This process is (...) associated with certain difficulties, which can inhibit learning and demotivated students to study. Among strategies and techniques aiding learning that can be used to improve performance and study outcomes during the course and can be implemented for the enhancement of speaking on occupation-related topics, the mind mapping technique is of specific relevance. It can serve as an interesting and useful tool serving to enhance quality of oral speaking skills in students majoring in Psychology as the representatives of non-linguistic study fields. The article analyses the carried out research concerning the facilitating impact of mind mapping on the oral speech performance of Psychology students. The study hypothesis implies that the use of the mind-mapping technique in the process of preparing for and presenting the talk in the study sessions enhances students' oral monologue speech performance. In order to check the hypothesis, we have conducted the experiment in Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy at the Department of Psychology. The study involved 46 first-year students, including 34 female and 12 male participants. The respondents were randomly assigned to the experimental mind-mapping group of 23 students ( including 6 males) and the control group of 23 students ( including 6 males as well). The students in the experimental group were involved into the experiment using the mind-mapping technique during their study, and the students in the control group continued their study in the usual way. The hypothesis was confirmed. The mind map use stimulates activity of both brain hemispheres, thus making it easier for students to memorize thematic vocabulary, follow the logical sequence of the talk when speaking. The research findings have shown the effectiveness of implementing the mind-mapping technique into the university course teaching English for Specific Purposes to develop, advance and master students' professional communicative competence. Consistent use of mind maps will also promote the educational process efficiency and have positive effects on the general formation of competitive skilled specialists. (shrink)
The main purpose of the article is to highlight the content and logic of formation the concepts of the state that emerged among the Ukrainian Orthodox intellectuals in the end of XVI - early XVII century. During this period was decisive for the formation of early modern Ukrainian nation as a new community and the beginning of its struggle for statehood. Major political role in the formation of Ukrainian nation at that time played Cossacks, but the Orthodox clergy not only (...) gave ideological support Cossack, but had his own concept of nation. As the main creators of the concept were Meletius Smotrytsky, Zachariy Kopystensky, Jov Boretskiy, Petro Mohyla. His complete registration it has acquired at the time of the restoration of Orthodox Metropolis of Kyiv and the metropolitan of Petro Mohyla (1620-1646). The principal features of this concept is defined as follows: State Orthodox intellectuals understood as a voluntary association of people of all classes around one idea. This idea was determined public good that church leaders perceived primarily as a transcendent grace. The symbol of grace was heavenly Jerusalem, which advocated earthly projection Kyiv. Orthodox church leaders deliberately refused confession from the ideal state for aggressive ideal spiritual state. This identified a fundamental difference from the then existing state ideologies of the Rzeczpospolita and Moskovia. Ruler of the concept of the ideal state is determined Orthodox hierarchs not a person but a state, personified in its most charismatic spokespersons. At first, the prince, then the gentry, then the Cossacks. The main objective is the defense of the state governor and care about the welfare of his subjects. At the same time Ukrainian clerics fundamentally alien to the idea of autocracy, they differ greatly from contemporary Moscow clergy. Another important feature of the state concept Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Cossack era is persistent assertion priority of the spiritual over the secular government that does not coincide with the ideals of the Cossacks and was often a source of conflict. The main conclusions of the note is the fundamental notions of state formation in the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, the difference between these concepts from Moscow-Byzantine ideology and proximity to European humanistic model of the state than is largely due to the role of the Orthodox Church in the national liberation revolution led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky and conflicts Kyiv Metropolis with the Moscow Patriarchate in the future. (shrink)
The article considers one of the most significant concepts in Aristotelian philosophy: the concept of substance and its interpretation in the works of existential Thomists. The emphasis is placed on the fact that the doctrine of substance is first and foremost to be considered in the context of the identification of the subject of scientific knowledge and in the context of the way of knowing this subject. In order to illustrate the epistemological realism, which, according to Thomists, inheres in Aristotle’s (...) philosophy the article analyzes the previous philosophers’ views on the true subject of scientific knowledge. This subject is individual being, which forms the basis of philosophical understanding of things, as a subject of scientific knowledge. It should be noted that the method of constructing of Aristotle’s science general theory is finding reasons why something is just what it is from the viewpoint of necessity. Krąpiec believes that the way Aristotle comes to the formation of the four causes is related to the specificity of the question διὰ τί. This analysis through causes allows us to understand that each single entity has a composite structure. Furthermore, Aristotle considers substance as a logical and grammatical category and as a main category in the ontological sense, as the mode of the initial being of things. Therefore, categories reflect the actual structure of things, namely the way of its existence on the essential and accidental levels. The very substance itself is recognizable only through the accidents associated with it and represents itself through them. However, the substance precedes its accidents in three meanings: ontological, definitive, and epistemological. (shrink)
Ausgehend von den zwei polnischen programmatischen Aufsätzen über die Wissenschaftswissenschaft und der durch sie hervorgerufenen Bewegung des "wissenschaftswissenschaftlichen Kreises" werden die Hauptvertreter und Institutionen, Konferenzen und Symposien, Veröffentlichungen und Bibliotheken nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg genannt. Abschließend kennzeichnet der Autor Schulung und Fortbildung sowie die gegenwärtigen organisatorischen Tendenzen.
With the example of treatment of menopause-related vegetative and emotional disturbances, the author verifies the effectiveness of the use of Ignatia amara containing complex homeopathic remedies (IACCHR) as an alternative to placebo. Substantial improvement in psychological and psychosomatic symptoms was observed. Climacteric complaints diminished or disappeared completely in the majority of women (95.7% by patient evaluation and 96.2% by physician evaluation). Compared to standard pharmaceuticals, IACCHR treatment was tolerated better and lower risk of side effects was observed. The results obtained (...) in this work indicate the significant therapeutic potential of this group of treatments, which is in line with the therapeutic effect of the placebo. Nevertheless, the showing of specific effects in pharmacological tests disqualifies the investigated treatments from use in a clinical trial in place of a placebo. (shrink)
Possibility of the Aesthetic Experience, edited by Michael H. Mitias, is an interesting and diverse collection of essays. It is difficult to know where to begin to evaluate such a collection; the styles move from the quasi-phenomenological of Arnold Berleant’s “Experience and Theory in Aesthetics,” to the historical and technical analyses of Carla Cordua’s “A Critique of Aesthetics” and Bohdan Dziemidok’s “Controversy About Aesthetic Attitude.” In this brief review, therefore, I shall address the book in a way that I (...) would use it—as a supporting text in an advanced undergraduate aesthetics course. (shrink)
A comparison of the maps of Europe from 1935 and 1867 is the best testimony to the importance of his life’s societal creations: Piłsudski and the political side he had formed established a state that was missing on the maps of the 19th century. And yet, when describing Piłsudski’s activities, is it right to apply the category of creating, understood so broadly as to encompass military concepts alongside the economic reconstruction of the country? This question must be answered with another (...) question: whatever other category is adequate? Piłsudski himself said: Human soul is meant to create: conceptions is sudden creativity, a kind of inspiration. Allow us to inquire about Poland, an organized creative effort that would eventually result in notonly a state but also an organized nation. What we are dealing with here, then, is a creator and his associates. Any creation is self-creation. (shrink)
This article examines Baruch Benedictus Spinoza conceptual understanding of the proofs for the existence of God. It traces the evolution of this theme pursuant to the metaphysical studies of Moderns Philosophy. Тhe concept of God in the philosophy of Spinoza is considered by exploring the nature of the relations between the transcendent sphere of God and the spiritual world of the human person. Spinoza argues from the possibility of God's existence to God's necessary existence. God is an absolutely infinite substance, (...) necessarily exists, qua Natura Naturans is immutable. God or Nature. The universe is an expression of God's nature, qua Natura Naturata - God is its immanent cause. Spinoza's God is synonymous with Nature. Substance is defined as "in itself". Spinoza understands a substance to be something that is self-caused and self-explained. The transcendence is understood as an ontological category, being discussed in connection with the key themes of Christian philosophy, such as time and eternity, person and history, creation and God etc. Spinoza's concept of God is referring to the God of the monotheistic religions, God as One Substance, pertains to a concept of the oneness of God, is transcendent and therefore "unknowable". Spinoza's definition of God found on the first page of the Ethics: Being absolutely infinite. From the point of view of historiography, the role of the book "Ehtics" by Spinoza is highlighted. (shrink)
The turn of the 20th and the 21st century is a very interesting period. On the one hand, there is a growth of internationalist tendencies, which make us look for common values and universal culture, and on the other hand, the centrifugal tendencies lead to the revival of new forms of nationalism and national and religious conflicts. Integrative tendencies are an unquestioned fact of every aspect of societal life: economic, political, and in culture, which succumbs to a tendency to create (...) global and universal mass culture. It turns out, however, that neither international commerce, nor the blossoming systems of communication and transport, provide us with the common feeling of identity or belonging. At the same time the need for those does not cease to exist. As a result, “people rediscover or create new historical identity”, since they feel uprooted and “need new sources of identity and new forms of stable community, new systems of moral imperatives, which could give them a sense of meaningful and purpose life”. One of the most important forms of collective and cultural identity still turns out to be the national one. The prophecies of the end of the era of nations have not come true. “The strength of national sentiments – writes Jerzy Szacki – even if changeable in time and diverse in space, does not show any symptoms of clear decline, the era of nations keeps lasting and nothing predicts it will end soon.”. (shrink)