15 found
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  1.  13
    A Reflective Account of a Research Ethics Course for an Interdisciplinary Cohort of Graduate Students.Bor Luen Tang & Joan Siew Ching Lee - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1089-1105.
    The graduate course in research ethics in the Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering at the National University of Singapore consists of a semester long mandatory course titled: “Research Ethics and Scientific Integrity.” The course provides students with guiding principles for appropriate conduct in the professional and social settings of scientific research and in making morally weighted and ethically sound decisions when confronted with moral dilemmas. It seeks to enhance understanding and appreciation of the moral reasoning underpinning various rules (...)
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  2.  10
    Perceived publication pressure and research misconduct: should we be too bothered with a causal relationship?Nicole Shu Ling Yeo-Teh & Bor Luen Tang - 2022 - Research Ethics 18 (4):329-338.
    Publication pressure has been touted to promote questionable research practices (QRP) and scientific or research misconduct (RM). However, logically attractively as it is, there is no unequivocal evidence for this notion, and empirical studies have produced conflicting results. Other than difficulties in obtaining unbiased empirical data, a direct causal relationship between perceived publication pressure (PPP) and QRP/RM is inherently difficult to establish, because the former is a complex biopsychosocial construct that is variedly influenced by multiple personal and environmental factors. To (...)
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  3.  13
    Research ethics courses as a vaccination against a toxic research environment or culture.Nicole Shu Ling Yeo-Teh & Bor Luen Tang - 2021 - Research Ethics 17 (1):55-65.
    Hofmann and Holm’s recent survey on issues of research misconduct with PhD graduates culminated with a notable conclusion by the authors: ‘ Scientific misconduct seems to be an environmental issue as much as a matter of personal integrity’. Here, we re-emphasise the usefulness of an education-based countermeasure against toxic research environments or cultures that promote unethical practices amongst the younger researchers. We posit that an adequately conducted course in research ethics and integrity, with a good dose of case studies and (...)
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  4.  11
    In Situ Reprogramming of Neurons and Glia – A Risk in Altering Memory and Personality?Bor Luen Tang - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 15 (2):90-95.
    The recent emergence of reprogramming technologies to convert brain cell types or epigenetically alter neurons and neural progenitors in vivo and in situ hold significant promises in brain repair and neuronal aging reversal. However, given the significant epigenetic and transcriptomic changes to components of the existing neuronal cells and network, we question if these reprogramming technology might inadvertently alter or erase memory engrams, conceivably resulting in changes in narrative identity or personality. We suggest that the nature of these alterations might (...)
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  5.  14
    Responding to devious demands for co-authorship: A rejoinder to Bülow and Helgesson’s ‘dirty hands’ justification.Bor Luen Tang - 2018 - Research Ethics 14 (4):1-7.
    Bülow and Helgesson discussed the practice of gift/honorary authorships and expounded on a most devious form of these, termed ‘hostage authorship’. The authors drew a parallel of such situations in research and publishing with the problem of ‘dirty hands’. In this case, acceding, albeit with regrets, may well be ‘… what we ought to do, even if it requires us to do something that is intrinsically bad’, especially if ‘this is both practically necessary and proportionate to the end’. Here, I (...)
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  6.  15
    Nature and causes of questionable research practice and research misconduct from a philosophy of science perspective.Bor Luen Tang - 2024 - Ethics and Behavior 34 (4):294-302.
    Misconduct in science is often viewed and analyzed through the lenses of normative ethics and moral philosophy. However, notions and methods in the philosophy of science could also provide rather penetrative explanatory insights into the nature and causes of scientific misconduct. A brief illustration in this regard, using as examples the widely popular Popperian falsification and the Kuhnian scientific paradigm, is provided. In multiple areas of scientific research, failure to seek falsification in a Popperian manner constitutes a questionable research practice (...)
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  7.  10
    Moral obligations in conducting stem cell-based therapy trials for autism spectrum disorder.Nicole Shu Ling Yeo-Teh & Bor Luen Tang - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Unregulated patient treatments and approved clinical trials have been conducted with haematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells for children with autism spectrum disorder. While the former direct-to-consumer practice is usually considered rogue and should be legally constrained, regulated clinical trials could also be ethically questionable. Here, we outline principal objections against these trials as they are currently conducted. Notably, these often lack a clear rationale for how transplanted cells may confer a therapeutic benefit in ASD, and thus, have ill-defined (...)
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  8.  11
    Potential Issues in Mandating a Disclosure of Institutional Investigation in Retraction Notices.Bor Luen Tang - 2024 - Science and Engineering Ethics 30 (1):1-9.
    A retraction notice is a formal announcement for the removal of a paper from the literature, which is a weighty matter. Xu et al. (Science and Engineering Ethics, 29(4), 25 2023) reported that 73.7% of retraction notices indexed by the Web of Science (1927–2019) provided no information about institutional investigations that may have led to the retractions, and recommended that Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) retraction guidelines should make it mandatory to disclose institutional investigations leading to retractions in such notices. (...)
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  9.  6
    Deficient epistemic virtues and prevalence of epistemic vices as precursors to transgressions in research misconduct.Bor Luen Tang - 2024 - Research Ethics 20 (2):272-287.
    Scientific research is supposed to acquire or generate knowledge, but such a purpose would be severely undermined by instances of research misconduct (RM) and questionable research practices (QRP). RM and QRP are often framed in terms of moral transgressions by individuals (bad apples) whose aberrant acts could be made conducive by shortcomings in regulatory measures of organizations or institutions (bad barrels). This notion presupposes, to an extent, that the erring parties know exactly what they are doing is wrong and morally (...)
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  10.  9
    Post-publication Peer Review with an Intention to Uncover Data/result Irregularities and Potential Research Misconduct in Scientific Research: Vigilantism or Volunteerism?Bor Luen Tang & Nicole Shu Ling Yeo-Teh - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (4):1-14.
    Irregularities in data/results of scientific research might be spotted pre-publication by co-workers and reviewers, or post-publication by readers typically with vested interest. The latter might consist of fellow researchers in the same subject area who would naturally pay closer attention to a published paper. However, it is increasingly apparent that there are readers who interrogate papers in detail with a primary intention to identify potential problems with the work. Here, we consider post-publication peer review (PPPR) by individuals, or groups of (...)
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  11.  11
    Protein trafficking along the exocytotic pathway.Wanjin Hong & Bor Luen Tang - 1993 - Bioessays 15 (4):231-238.
    Proteins of the exocytotic (secretory) pathway are initially targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and then translocated across and/or inserted into the membrane of the ER. During their anterograde transport with the bulk of the membrane flow along the exocytotic pathway, some proteins are selectively retained in various intracellular compartments, while others are sorted to different branches of the pathway. The signals or structural motifs that are involved in these selective targeting processes are being revealed and investigations into the mechanistic (...)
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  12.  18
    Can Ethics be Based on Science?Bor Luen Tang - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1873-1874.
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  13.  9
    It is the Quality of the Review that Matters.Bor Luen Tang - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1129-1130.
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  14.  14
    On Some Possible Ramifications of the “Microplastics in Fish” Case.Bor Luen Tang - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (4):1303-1310.
    Cases of research misconduct in the ecological and environmental sciences appear to be relatively rare. A controversial paper published in Science in 2016 documenting the effects of microplastics on the feeding and innate behaviours of fish larvae has recently been retracted, with the authors found guilty of scientific misconduct. In addition to the expected fallout, such as individual and institutional reputational damage from a research misconduct finding, this case has two possibly wider-ranging ramifications. Firstly, there may be a presumptive notion (...)
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  15.  15
    A Review of Scientific Ethics Issues Associated with the Recently Approved Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease. [REVIEW]Bor Luen Tang & Nicole Shu Ling Yeo-Teh - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (1):1-18.
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the devastating and most prevailing underlying cause for age-associated dementia, has no effective disease-modifying treatment. The last approved drug for the relief of AD symptoms was in 2003. The recent approval of sodium oligomannate (GV-971, 2019) in China and the human antibody aducanumab in the USA (ADUHELM, 2021) therefore represent significant breakthroughs, albeit ones that are fraught with controversy. Here, we explore potential scientific ethics issues associated with GV-971 and aducanumab’s development and approval. While these issues may (...)
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