Results for 'Brandon Wooldridge'

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Brandon Wooldridge
McMaster University
  1. Introduction to Ethics: An Open Educational Resource, Collected and Edited by Noah Levin.Noah Levin, Nathan Nobis, David Svolba, Brandon Wooldridge, Kristina Grob, Eduardo Salazar, Benjamin Davies, Jonathan Spelman, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Kristin Seemuth Whaley, Jan F. Jacko & Prabhpal Singh (eds.) - 2019 - Huntington Beach, California: N.G.E Far Press.
    Collected and edited by Noah Levin -/- Table of Contents: -/- UNIT ONE: INTRODUCTION TO CONTEMPORARY ETHICS: TECHNOLOGY, AFFIRMATIVE ACTION, AND IMMIGRATION 1 The “Trolley Problem” and Self-Driving Cars: Your Car’s Moral Settings (Noah Levin) 2 What is Ethics and What Makes Something a Problem for Morality? (David Svolba) 3 Letter from the Birmingham City Jail (Martin Luther King, Jr) 4 A Defense of Affirmative Action (Noah Levin) 5 The Moral Issues of Immigration (B.M. Wooldridge) 6 The Ethics of (...)
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  2.  75
    Sober on Brandon on Screening-Off and the Levels of Selection.Robert N. Brandon, Janis Antonovics, Richard Burian, Scott Carson, Greg Cooper, Paul Sheldon Davies, Christopher Horvath, Brent D. Mishler, Robert C. Richardson, Kelly Smith & Peter Thrall - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (3):475-486.
    Sober (1992) has recently evaluated Brandon's (1982, 1990; see also 1985, 1988) use of Salmon's (1971) concept of screening-off in the philosophy of biology. He critiques three particular issues, each of which will be considered in this discussion.
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  3.  79
    Wiebe van der Hoek Michael Wooldridge.Michael Wooldridge - 2003 - Studia Logica 75:125-157.
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  4.  11
    Time and Mankind: An Historical and Philosophical Study of Mankind's Attitude to the Phenomena of Change. By S. G. F. Brandon. Pp. Xiv + 228. London: Hutchinson, 1951. 18s. [REVIEW]H. J. Rose & S. G. F. Brandon - 1954 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 74:215-215.
  5. Man and His Salvation: Studies in Memory of S. G. F. Brandon.Eric J. Sharpe, John R. Hinnells & S. G. F. Brandon - 1976 - Religious Studies 12 (2):265-268.
     
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  6.  64
    Genes, Organisms, Populations: Controversies Over the Units of Selection.Robert N. Brandon & Richard Burian (eds.) - 1986 - Bradford.
    This anthology collects some of the most important papers on what is believed to be the major force in evolution, natural selection. An issue of great consequence in the philosophy of biology concerns the levels at which, and the units upon which selection acts. In recent years, biologists and philosophers have published a large number of papers bearing on this subject. The papers selected for inclusion in this book are divided into three main sections covering the history of the subject, (...)
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  7. Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology.Robert N. Brandon - 1995 - Cambridge University Press.
    Robert Brandon is one of the most important and influential of contemporary philosophers of biology. This collection of his recent essays covers all the traditional topics in the philosophy of evolutionary biology and as such could serve as an introduction to the field. There are essays on the nature of fitness, teleology, the structure of the theory of natural selection, and the levels of selection. The book also deals with newer topics that are less frequently discussed but are of (...)
     
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  8.  16
    The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus.Robert N. Brandon - 1986 - Philosophical Review 95 (4):614.
  9.  56
    Reasoning About Rational Agents.Michael Wooldridge & Bruce Edmonds - unknown
    what is now the mainstream view as to the best way forward in the dream of engineering reliable software systems out of autonomous agents. The way of using formal logics to specify, implement and verify distributed systems of interacting units using a guiding analogy of beliefs, desires and intentions. The implicit message behind the book is this: Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) can be a respectable engineering science. It says: we use sound formal systems; can cite established philosophical foundations; and will (...)
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  10.  67
    Adaptation and Evolutionary Theory.Robert N. Brandon - 1978 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 9 (3):181.
  11. Biology's First Law: The Tendency for Diversity and Complexity to Increase in Evolutionary Systems.Daniel W. McShea & Robert N. Brandon - 2010 - University of Chicago Press.
  12.  55
    From Icons to Symbols: Some Speculations on the Origins of Language. [REVIEW]Robert N. Brandon & Norbert Hornstein - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (2):169-189.
    This paper is divided into three sections. In the first section we offer a retooling of some traditional concepts, namely icons and symbols, which allows us to describe an evolutionary continuum of communication systems. The second section consists of an argument from theoretical biology. In it we explore the advantages and disadvantages of phenotypic plasticity. We argue that a range of the conditions that selectively favor phenotypic plasticity also favor a nongenetic transmission system that would allow for the inheritance of (...)
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  13.  96
    The Principle of Drift: Biology's First Law.Robert N. Brandon - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy 103 (7):319-335.
    Drift is to evolution as inertia is to Newtonian mechanics. Both are the "natural" or default states of the systems to which they apply. Both are governed by zero-force laws. The zero-force law in biology is stated here for the first time.
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  14. Individuality, Pluralism, and the Phylogenetic Species Concept.Brent D. Mishler & Robert N. Brandon - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):397-414.
    The concept of individuality as applied to species, an important advance in the philosophy of evolutionary biology, is nevertheless in need of refinement. Four important subparts of this concept must be recognized: spatial boundaries, temporal boundaries, integration, and cohesion. Not all species necessarily meet all of these. Two very different types of pluralism have been advocated with respect to species, only one of which is satisfactory. An often unrecognized distinction between grouping and ranking components of any species concept is necessary. (...)
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  15.  98
    The Difference Between Selection and Drift: A Reply to Millstein. [REVIEW]Robert N. Brandon - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (1):153-170.
    Millstein [Bio. Philos. 17 (2002) 33] correctly identies a serious problem with the view that natural selection and random drift are not conceptually distinct. She offers a solution to this problem purely in terms of differences between the processes of selection and drift. I show that this solution does not work, that it leaves the vast majority of real biological cases uncategorized. However, I do think there is a solution to the problem she raises, and I offer it here. My (...)
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  16.  21
    The Principle of Drift: Biology’s First Law.Robert N. Brandon - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy 103 (7):319-335.
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  17.  89
    The Indeterministic Character of Evolutionary Theory: No "No Hidden Variables Proof" but No Room for Determinism Either.Robert N. Brandon & Scott Carson - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (3):315-337.
    In this paper we first briefly review Bell's (1964, 1966) Theorem to see how it invalidates any deterministic "hidden variable" account of the apparent indeterminacy of quantum mechanics (QM). Then we show that quantum uncertainty, at the level of DNA mutations, can "percolate" up to have major populational effects. Interesting as this point may be it does not show any autonomous indeterminism of the evolutionary process. In the next two sections we investigate drift and natural selection as the locus of (...)
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  18. Does Biology Have Laws? The Experimental Evidence.Robert N. Brandon - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):457.
    In this paper I argue that we can best make sense of the practice of experimental evolutionary biology if we see it as investigating contingent, rather than lawlike, regularities. This understanding is contrasted with the experimental practice of certain areas of physics. However, this presents a problem for those who accept the Logical Positivist conception of law and its essential role in scientific explanation. I address this problem by arguing that the contingent regularities of evolutionary biology have a limited range (...)
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  19.  74
    Neuroethics and National Security.Turhan Canli, Susan Brandon, William Casebeer, Philip J. Crowley, Don DuRousseau, Henry T. Greely & Alvaro Pascual-Leone - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (5):3 – 13.
  20. Body and Self: An Entangled Narrative.Priscilla Brandon - 2016 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 15 (1):67-83.
    In the past three decades a number of narrative self-concepts have appeared in the philosophical literature. A central question posed in recent literature concerns the embodiment of the narrative self. Though one of the best-known narrative self-concepts is a non-embodied one, namely Dennett’s self as ‘a center of narrative gravity’, others argue that the narrative self should include a role for embodiment. Several arguments have been made in support of the latter claim, but these can be summarized in two main (...)
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  21.  52
    Cooperation, Knowledge, and Time: Alternating-Time Temporal Epistemic Logic and its Applications.Wiebe van der Hoek & Michael Wooldridge - 2003 - Studia Logica 75 (1):125-157.
    Branching-time temporal logics have proved to be an extraordinarily successful tool in the formal specification and verification of distributed systems. Much of their success stems from the tractability of the model checking problem for the branching time logic CTL, which has made it possible to implement tools that allow designers to automatically verify that systems satisfy requirements expressed in CTL. Recently, CTL was generalised by Alur, Henzinger, and Kupferman in a logic known as Alternating-time Temporal Logic (ATL). The key insight (...)
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  22.  22
    A General Case for Functional Pluralism.Robert N. Brandon - 2013 - In Philippe Huneman (ed.), Functions: Selection and Mechanisms. Springer. pp. 97--104.
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  23.  87
    Biological Teleology: Questions and Explanations.Robert N. Brandon - 1981 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 12 (2):91.
    This paper gives an account of evolutionary explanations in biology. Briefly, the explanations I am primarily concerned with are explanations of adaptations. These explanations are contrasted with other nonteleological evolutionary explanations. The distinction is made by distinguishing the different kinds of questions these different explanations serve to answer. The sense in which explanations of adaptations are teleological is spelled out.
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  24.  96
    The Units of Selection Revisited: The Modules of Selection. [REVIEW]Robert N. Brandon - 1999 - Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):167-180.
    Richard Lewontin's (1970) early work on the units of selection initiated the conceptual and theoretical investigations that have led to the hierarchical perspective on selection that has reached near consensus status today. This paper explores other aspects of his work, work on what he termed continuity and quasi-independence, that connect to contemporary explorations of modularity in development and evolution. I characterize such modules and argue that they are the true units of selection in that they are what evolution by natural (...)
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  25. Towards a Theory of Intention Revision.Wiebe van der Hoek, Wojciech Jamroga & Michael Wooldridge - 2007 - Synthese 155 (2):265-290.
    Although the change of beliefs in the face of new information has been widely studied with some success, the revision of other mental states has received little attention from the theoretical perspective. In particular, intentions are widely recognised as being a key attitude for rational agents, and while several formal theories of intention have been proposed in the literature, the logic of intention revision has been hardly considered. There are several reasons for this: perhaps most importantly, intentions are very closely (...)
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  26.  6
    The Structure of Biological Science.Robert N. Brandon - 1987 - Journal of Philosophy 84 (4):224-227.
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  27.  40
    What's Wrong with the Emergentist Statistical Interpretation of Natural Selection and Random Drift.Robert N. Brandon & Grant Ramsey - 2007 - In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 66--84.
  28.  50
    Four Solutions for Four Puzzles.Robert N. Brandon & Daniel W. McShea - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):737-744.
    Barrett et al. present four puzzles for the ZFEL-view of evolution that we present in our 2010 book, Biology’s First Law: The Tendency for Diversity and Complexity to Increase in Evolutionary Systems. Our intent in writing this book was to present a radically different way to think about evolution. To the extent that it really is radical, it will be easy to misunderstand. We think Barrett et al. have misunderstood several crucial points and so we welcome the opportunity to clarify.
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  29.  83
    Social Laws in Alternating Time: Effectiveness, Feasibility, and Synthesis.Wiebe van der Hoek, Mark Roberts & Michael Wooldridge - 2007 - Synthese 156 (1):1-19.
    Since it was first proposed by Moses, Shoham, and Tennenholtz, the social laws paradigm has proved to be one of the most compelling approaches to the offline coordination of multiagent systems. In this paper, we make four key contributions to the theory and practice of social laws in multiagent systems. First, we show that the Alternating-time Temporal Logic (atl) of Alur, Henzinger, and Kupferman provides an elegant and powerful framework within which to express and understand social laws for multiagent systems. (...)
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  30.  95
    The Empirical Nonequivalence of Genic and Genotypic Models of Selection: A (Decisive) Refutation of Genic Selectionism and Pluralistic Genic Selectionism.Robert N. Brandon & H. Frederik Nijhout - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (3):277-297.
    Genic selectionists (Williams 1966; Dawkins 1976) defend the view that genes are the (unique) units of selection and that all evolutionary events can be adequately represented at the genic level. Pluralistic genic selectionists (Sterelny and Kitcher 1988; Waters 1991; Dawkins 1982) defend the weaker view that in many cases there are multiple equally adequate accounts of evolutionary events, but that always among the set of equally adequate representations will be one at the genic level. We describe a range of cases (...)
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  31.  55
    Natural Selection.Robert Brandon - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection provided the first, and only, causal-mechanistic account of the existence of adaptations in nature. As such, it provided the first, and only, scientific alternative to the “argument from design”. That alone would account for its philosophical significance. But the theory also raises other philosophical questions not encountered in the study of the theories of physics. Unfortunately the concept of natural selection is intimately intertwined with the other basic concepts of evolutionary theory—such as the (...)
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  32.  7
    Is Sharing Specific Autobiographical Memories a Distinct Form of Self-Disclosure?Denise R. Beike, Nicole R. Brandon & Holly E. Cole - 2016 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (4):434-450.
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  33.  71
    Theory and Experiment in Evolutionary Biology.Robert N. Brandon - 1994 - Synthese 99 (1):59 - 73.
  34.  19
    Why Flying Dogs Are Rare: A General Theory of Luck in Evolutionary Transitions.Leonore Fleming & Robert Brandon - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 49:24-31.
    There is a worry that the ‘major transitions in evolution’ represent an arbitrary group of events. This worry is warranted, and we show why. We argue that the transition to a new level of hierarchy necessarily involves a nonselectionist chance process. Thus any unified theory of evolutionary transitions must be more like a general theory of fortuitous luck, rather than a rigid formulation of expected events. We provide a systematic account of evolutionary transitions based on a second-order regularity of chance (...)
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  35.  44
    Towards a Theory of Intention Revision.Wiebe van Der Hoek, Wojciech Jamroga & Michael Wooldridge - 2007 - Synthese 155 (2):265-290.
    Although the change of beliefs in the face of new information has been widely studied with some success, the revision of other mental states has received little attention from the theoretical perspective. In particular, intentions are widely recognised as being a key attitude for rational agents, and while several formal theories of intention have been proposed in the literature, the logic of intention revision has been hardly considered. There are several reasons for this: perhaps most importantly, intentions are very closely (...)
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  36.  8
    Towards a Logic of Rational Agency.Wiebe van der Hoek & Michael Wooldridge - 2003 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 11 (2):135-159.
    Rational agents are important objects of study in several research communities, including economics, philosophy, cognitive science, and most recently computer science and artificial intelligence. Crudely, a rational agent is an entity that is capable of acting on its environment, and which chooses to act in such a way as to further its own best interests. There has recently been much interest in the use of mathematical logic for developing formal theories of such agents. Such theories view agents as practical reasoning (...)
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  37.  17
    On Obligations and Normative Ability: Towards a Logical Analysis of the Social Contract.Michael Wooldridge & Wiebe van der Hoek - 2005 - Journal of Applied Logic 3 (3-4):396-420.
  38.  46
    The Levels of Selection.Robert Brandon - 1982 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:315 - 323.
    In this paper Wimsatt's analysis of units of selection is taken as defining the units of selection question. A definition of levels of selection is offered and it is shown that the levels of selection question is quite different from the units of selection question. Some of the relations between units and levels are briefly explored. It is argued that the levels of selection question is the question relevant to explanatory concerns, and it is suggested that it is the question (...)
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  39.  21
    Social Laws in Alternating Time: Effectiveness, Feasibility, and Synthesis.Wiebe van Der Hoek, Mark Roberts & Michael Wooldridge - 2007 - Synthese 156 (1):1-19.
    Since it was first proposed by Moses, Shoham, and Tennenholtz, the social laws paradigm has proved to be one of the most compelling approaches to the offline coordination of multiagent systems. In this paper, we make four key contributions to the theory and practice of social laws in multiagent systems. First, we show that the "Alternating-time Temporal Logic" of Alur, Henzinger, and Kupferman provides an elegant and powerful framework within which to express and understand social laws for multiagent systems. Second, (...)
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  40.  18
    Is the Coral-Algae Symbiosis Really ‘Mutually Beneficial’ for the Partners?Scott A. Wooldridge - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (7):615-625.
  41. Quantified Coalition Logic.Thomas Ågotnes, Wiebe van der Hoek & Michael Wooldridge - 2008 - Synthese 165 (2):269 - 294.
    We add a limited but useful form of quantification to Coalition Logic, a popular formalism for reasoning about cooperation in game-like multi-agent systems. The basic constructs of Quantified Coalition Logic (QCL) allow us to express such properties as "every coalition satisfying property P can achieve φ" and "there exists a coalition C satisfying property P such that C can achieve φ". We give an axiomatisation of QCL, and show that while it is no more expressive than Coalition Logic, it is (...)
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  42.  54
    The Propensity Interpretation of 'Fitness'--No Interpretation is No Substitute.Robert Brandon & John Beatty - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (2):342-347.
  43.  9
    Activist Engineering: Changing Engineering Practice By Deploying Praxis.Darshan M. A. Karwat, Walter E. Eagle, Margaret S. Wooldridge & Thomas E. Princen - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (1):227-239.
    In this paper, we reflect on current notions of engineering practice by examining some of the motives for engineered solutions to the problem of climate change. We draw on fields such as science and technology studies, the philosophy of technology, and environmental ethics to highlight how dominant notions of apoliticism and ahistoricity are ingrained in contemporary engineering practice. We argue that a solely technological response to climate change does not question the social, political, and cultural tenet of infinite material growth, (...)
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  44.  31
    Philosophy of Biology.Robert Brandon & Alex Rosenberg - 2003 - In Peter Clark & Katherine Hawley (eds.), Philosophy of Science Today. Oxford University Press. pp. 147--180.
  45. Causal Realism and the Laws of Nature.Richard Corry, Robert N. Brandon, H. Frederik Nijhout, Richard Dawid, Ron Mallon, Jonathan M. Weinberg & Hong Yu Wong - 2006 - In Borchert (ed.), Philosophy of Science. Macmillan. pp. 261-276.
    This paper proposes a revision of our understanding of causation that is designed to address what Hartry Field has suggested is the central problem in the metaphysics of causation today: reconciling Bertrand Russell’s arguments that the concept of causation can play no role in the advanced sciences with Nancy Cartwright’s arguments that causal concepts are essential to a scientific understanding of the world. The paper shows that Russell’s main argument is, ironically, very similar to an argument that Cartwright has put (...)
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  46.  27
    Drift Sometimes Dominates Selection, and Vice Versa: A Reply to Clatterbuck, Sober and Lewontin.Robert Brandon & Leonore Fleming - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):577-585.
    Clatterbuck et al. (Biol Philos 28: 577–592, 2013) argue that there is no fact of the matter whether selection dominates drift or vice versa in any particular case of evolution. Their reasons are not empirically based; rather, they are purely conceptual. We show that their conceptual presuppositions are unmotivated, unnecessary and overly complex. We also show that their conclusion runs contrary to current biological practice. The solution is to recognize that evolution involves a probabilistic sampling process, and that drift is (...)
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  47.  24
    Reasoning About Social Choice Functions.Nicolas Troquard, Wiebe van der Hoek & Michael Wooldridge - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (4):473-498.
    We introduce a logic specifically designed to support reasoning about social choice functions. The logic includes operators to capture strategic ability, and operators to capture agent preferences. We establish a correspondence between formulae in the logic and properties of social choice functions, and show that the logic is expressively complete with respect to social choice functions, i.e., that every social choice function can be characterised as a formula of the logic. We prove that the logic is decidable, and give a (...)
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  48.  12
    Reasoning About Equilibria in Game-Like Concurrent Systems.Julian Gutierrez, Paul Harrenstein & Michael Wooldridge - 2017 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 168 (2):373-403.
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  49.  38
    Human Rights, Animal Wrongs? Exploring Attitudes Toward Animal Use and Possibilities for Change.Aldert Vrij, Sarah Knight, Doug Brandon & Kim Bard - 2010 - Society and Animals 18 (3):251-272.
    Presented here are three research studies examining psychological characteristics underlying attitudes toward the use of nonhuman animals: beliefs and value systems; their comparative impact on opinions; and empathetic responses to humans and to animals. The first study demonstrated that the attitudes of laypeople are context dependent: different sets of beliefs underlie attitudes toward various types of animal use. Belief in the existence of alternatives was especially important, accounting alone for 40% of the variance in attitudes. The second study compared the (...)
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  50.  26
    A Structural Description of Evolutionary Theory.Robert N. Brandon - 1980 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:427 - 439.
    The principle of natural selection is stated. It connects fitness values (actual reproductive success) with expected fitness values. The term 'adaptedness' is used for expected fitness values. The principle of natural selection explains differential fitness in terms of relative adaptedness. It is argued that this principle is absolutely central to Darwinian evolutionary theory. The empirical content of the principle of natural selection is examined. It is argued that the principle itself has no empirical biological content, but that the presuppositions of (...)
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