Deliberative democracy, as a dominant paradigm in contemporary democratic theory, offers a new, attractive conception of democratic legitimacy, which represents an alternative to a democracy that functions through the mechanism of political competition. A major problem with deliberation is the issue of its institutionalisation, as the theories of deliberative democracy have not produced a more specific institutional framework or form in which it could be used in political practice. Parliaments appear to be particularly suitable places for its potential implementation. Moreover, (...) deliberative democracy could contribute to a change in discourse quality and the way decision-making is conducted in parliaments, which is often considered problematic. Due to its incompatibility with competitive democracy, the opportunities for introducing deliberative democracy into parliaments are very limited. The study also outlines three ways of reconciling deliberative democracy and parliaments. (shrink)
A normalizable natural deduction formulation, with subformula property, of the implicative fragment of classical logic is presented. A traditional notion of normal deduction is adapted and the corresponding weak normalization theorem is proved. An embedding of the classical logic into the intuitionistic logic, restricted on propositional implicational language, is described as well. We believe that this multiple-conclusion approach places the classical logic in the same plane with the intuitionistic logic, from the proof-theoretical viewpoint.
Cross-approximate entropyquantifies the mutual orderliness of simultaneously recorded time series. Despite being derived from the firmly established solitary entropies, it has never reached their reputation and deployment. The aim of this study is to identify the problems that preclude widerXApEnimplementation and to develop a set of solutions. Exact expressions forXApEnand its constitutive parts are derived and compared to values estimated from artificial data. This comparison revealed vast regions within the parameter space that do not guarantee reliable probability estimation, makingXApEnestimates inconsistent. (...) A simple correction to one of theXApEnprocedural steps is proposed. Three sets of formulae for joint parameter selection are derived. The first one is intended to maximize threshold profile. The remaining ones minimizeXApEninstability according to the strong and weak criteria. The derived expressions are verified using cardiovascular signals recorded from rats and healthy volunteers, proposing a change of traditional parameter guidelines. (shrink)
The logic of the weak law of excluded middleKC p is obtained by adding the formula A A as an axiom scheme to Heyting's intuitionistic logicH p . A cut-free sequent calculus for this logic is given. As the consequences of the cut-elimination theorem, we get the decidability of the propositional part of this calculus, its separability, equality of the negationless fragments ofKC p andH p , interpolation theorems and so on. From the proof-theoretical point of view, the formulation presented (...) in this paper makes clearer the relations betweenKC p ,H p , and the classical logic. In the end, an interpretation of classical propositional logic in the propositional part ofKC p is given. (shrink)
In distinction from the well-known double-negation embeddings of the classical logic we consider some variants of single-negation embeddings and describe some classes of superintuitionistic first-order predicate logics in which the classical first-order calculus is interpretable in such a way. Also we find the minimal extensions of Heyting's logic in which the classical predicate logic can be embedded by means of these translations.
The aim of this article is to problematize the concept of school culture both as a concept and as a subject of investigation. It deals with the historical roots of this concept and the fact that it is shrinking—a consequence of the managerial imperatives of effectiveness and accountability in education. School culture, in relation to the quality of schools and the quality of education, has become the subject of audits, arrived at through a developed network of standardisation in education, testing (...) and evaluation. The methodology of evaluation currently lending particular substance to school culture, however, generates different methodological perspectives on investigating school culture and thus research is becoming an instrument of political power. In the research it is then necessary to either abandon the concept of school culture or to free it from spinning round the cycle of evaluation/self-evaluation—a change in school culture—improving the “quality of the school”—a new evaluation/self-evaluation. One way to do this is to employ ethnographic approaches in research into schools and to understand school culture as a system of texts. (shrink)
In adaptive development, mental well-being has a role to play in adolescents’ search in adolescents’ niche in life and the formation of a separate identity. Although this has been an area of interest in a number of disciplines, there remains ambiguity over our understanding of terms such as quality of life, life satisfaction, and mental well-being. Our aim was to employ an interpretative phenomenological analysis to find out how adolescent boys perceive the concept of mental well-being and ascertain what helps (...) them and stops them from “feeling chilled”. The data was obtained from a sample of 26 secondary school students who attended one of four focus groups. We found that they achieved a kind of escape from the world of social roles through performing activities like physical exercise or driving a vehicle, while searching for a sense of latitude and potency and attempting to reduce tension. Thus there is a clear distinction between what they desire and what is expected of them. Hanging out and “chilling” with their peer group seemed to be an important part of relationship formation, while close dyadic relationships were less significant. To a certain degree, the results of this study contradict conventional notions of happiness and mental well-being found in mainstream psychology. (shrink)
An analysis is provided for one possible practical link between rhetorical and social scientific inquiry. That link is found in the rhetoric of the reasoned social scientific fact. Understanding this point of intersection involves grounding a rhetorical theory of how to create and to evaluate arguments (a rhetorical theory of invention and judgment) in the practical problems that confront contemporary social scientists during their efforts to construct reasoned social facts. The applicability of this invention and judgment framework to analysis of (...) the rhetoric of social science is illustrated with reference to a controversy over the legitimacy of rules theoretic explanations of human communication processes. Implications of the practical link between rhetorical and social scientific inquiry are then drawn out. (shrink)
In July 2012, the Kazimierz Naturalist workshop gathered in Kazimierz-Dolny, Poland to discuss the topic Naturalizing Religion. A group of 16 presenters with backgrounds in philosophy, cognitive science, psychology, and religious studies gave presentations with a general focus on the burgeoning field of the cognitive science of religion . This included keynotes from Robert McCauley, Jesper Sørensen, Helen de Cruz, and John Wilkins . The current special issue contains three of the papers presented during the 4-day-long conference. They represent the (...) scope and variety of the presentations, addressing both theoretical and empirical issues in the discussions of the new science of religion. The first paper, ‘Reduction, Explanation, and the New Science of Religion,’ by Christopher Pearson and Matthew P. Schunke, is a theoretical exploration of the term reduction and the ways in which it is applied to the scientific study of religion. Pearson and Schunk .. (shrink)
We prove that every finitely axiomatizable extension of Heyting's intuitionistic logic has a corresponding cut-free Gentzen-type formulation. It is shown how one can use this result to find the corresponding normalizable natural deduction system and to give a criterion for separability of considered logic. Obviously, the question how to obtain an effective definition of a sequent calculus which corresponds to a concrete logic remains a separate problem for every logic.
This study refers to the discursive transformation in perceptions of preschool age children generated by central European Union policy on early childhood education and care. This policy is representative of the pervasion of contemporary entrepreneurial culture and curricula within preschool education. At the same time, the field is also starting to become subordinated to the neoliberal trend of economising the social. This study highlights the fact that, within discourses on the child, these trends are encouraging a particular conception of childhood (...) and of developmental theories. This conception is also enabling entrepreneurial logic to be applied to the preschool education sector via the use of theoretical tools. Consequently, children are being shaped into so-called knowledge-workers, or gold-collar workers, as they are referred to in current employment discourse. Even authorised preschool education documents are responding to this transformation by introducing a new type of normality into this sphere, as can be seen in the Slovak state education programme for preschool education. (shrink)
The language of the propositional calculus is extended by two families of propositional probability operators, inductively applicable to the formulae, and the set of all formulae provable in an arbitrary superintuitionistic propositional logic is extended by the probability measure axioms concerning those probability operators. A logical system obtained in such a way, similar to a kind of polymodal logic, makes possible to express a probability measure of truthfulness of any formula. The paper contains a description of the Kripke-type possible worlds (...) semantics covering the considered logical systems, being followed by the corresponding completeness results. (shrink)
The propositional language extended by two families of unary propositional probability operators and the corresponding list of probability measure axioms concerning those operators is the basis of the system preseted here. We describe a Kripke-type possible worlds semantics covering such a kind of logical systems.1.
Slovak education policy is an example of the kind of transformations occurring in the education spheres of postcommunist countries. While at the end of the 1990s, it seemed that education policy was still attempting to ensure that Slovakia caught up with education levels in western countries, the period that followed brought with it a shift towards neoliberalization of the education sector and towards the economization of education. Slovakia’s entry into the EU was accompanied by the total assimilation of the neoliberal (...) agenda within education and since then it can be said that Slovak education policy has followed a path towards so-called perpetual neoliberalism. The aim of this article is to show how education policy has developed within Slovak politics, in terms of how it is gradually adapting to neoliberal ideas. The article analyzes government documents from 1998 onwards, particularly Slovak government programs, which document the process of neoliberalization in education. (shrink)
This paper summarizes the problematic aspects of a globalized neoliberal culture in education. Linking to the particular studies of this monothematic volume it discusses the consequences of the globalization of a testing culture in schools, the issues of developing civic literacy in the context of current education practice and the issues of forming a historic consciousness in present schools relating to the existing social discourse. Language teaching, currently dominated by the concept of language literacy or the concept of language education (...) resulting from English language teaching seems to be significant. This paper reveals various ways in which the educational section is being contaminated by neoliberal transformations to point out their culturally devastating consequences in a critical way. The goal of this paper is to articulate the mechanism by which neoliberalism is infiltrating education in the form of discursive and physical “colonizing”. (shrink)
This paper, based on ethnographically obtained data, discusses German language acquisition at an early age: the discovery of the interconnection between language and corporeality is the key component of the analysis based on videostudies. The body—conceived as an intermediary and content element of education, becomes an essential base for foreign language acquisition. This will be documented by tangible data and subsequent theoretical analysis with respect to relevant terminology of cultural anthropology . The principle of corporeality is further used as a (...) means of perceiving German language education in the sense of the so called language propaedeutic concept and as a means of the legitimisation of particular qualification and the role of foreign language teachers in preschool institutions. (shrink)
The article deals with the breakdown of the co called „grand narratives“ and with processes that preceded it. The author focuses on the degradation of the traditional meaningful forms, such as myth and grand narrative, and their becoming a „story“. He offers a detailed examination of the essential characteristics of a story. He sees the particular forms of the codification of the world as related to following developments: the rise of grand narratives as related to the transition to linear alphabetical (...) codes, while their transformation into a story as connected with the rise of technological images. He sees this transition as a negative phenomenon, since this shift of the focus of human activities on images resulted in a significant reduction of our freedom. (shrink)