Results for 'Brendan J. McShane'

998 found
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  1.  28
    Ethical Issues in Intraoperative Neuroscience Research: Assessing Subjects’ Recall of Informed Consent and Motivations for Participation.Anna Wexler, Rebekah J. Choi, Ashwin G. Ramayya, Nikhil Sharma, Brendan J. McShane, Love Y. Buch, Melanie P. Donley-Fletcher, Joshua I. Gold, Gordon H. Baltuch, Sara Goering & Eran Klein - 2022 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 13 (1):57-66.
    BackgroundAn increasing number of studies utilize intracranial electrophysiology in human subjects to advance basic neuroscience knowledge. However, the use of neurosurgical patients as human research subjects raises important ethical considerations, particularly regarding informed consent and undue influence, as well as subjects’ motivations for participation. Yet a thorough empirical examination of these issues in a participant population has been lacking. The present study therefore aimed to empirically investigate ethical concerns regarding informed consent and voluntariness in Parkinson’s disease patients undergoing deep brain (...)
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  2.  15
    Beyond church and state: Democracy, secularism, and conversion.Brendan J. Wright - 2016 - Contemporary Political Theory 15 (4):462-466.
  3.  15
    The paradox of liberation: Secular revolutions and religious counterrevolutions.Brendan J. Wright - 2017 - Contemporary Political Theory 16 (3):434-438.
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  4.  21
    The classification of Peirce’s interpretants.Brendan J. Lalor - 1997 - Semiotica 114 (1-2):31-40.
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  5.  56
    Itiswhat you think: Intentional potency and anti‐individualism.Brendan J. Lalor - 1997 - Philosophical Psychology 10 (2):165-78.
    In this paper I argue against the worried view that intentional properties might be epiphenomenal. In naturalizing intentionality we ought to reject both the idea that causal powers of intentional states must supervene on local microstructures, and the idea that local supervenience justifies worries about intentional epiphenomenality since our states could counterfactually lack their intentional properties and yet have the same effects. I contend that what's wrong with even the good guys (e.g. Dennett, Dretske, Allen) is that they implicitly grant (...)
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  6.  76
    Swampman, Etiology, and Content.Brendan J. Lalor - 1998 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 36 (2):215-232.
  7.  34
    The Antilogistic Puzzle of Hume's Appendix to the Treatise.Brendan J. Lalor - 1998 - Philosophical Inquiry 20 (3-4):22-30.
  8.  36
    The Conceptual Ecology of the Human Microbiome.Nicolae Morar & Brendan J. M. Bohannan - 2019 - Quarterly Review of Biology 94 (2):149-175.
    It has become increasingly clear that there is a vast array of microorganisms on and in the human body, known collectively as the human microbiome. Our microbiomes are extraordinarily complex, and this complexity has been linked to human health and well-being. Given the complexity and importance of our microbiomes, we struggle with how to think about them. There is a long list of competing metaphors that we use to refer to our microbiomes, including as an “organ” containing our “second genome,” (...)
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  9.  31
    A test of stress, cues, and re-exposure to large wins as potential reinstaters of suboptimal decision making in rats.Nina P. Connolly, Jung S. Kim, Brendan J. Tunstall & David N. Kearns - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  10. Biodiversity at Twenty-Five Years: Revolution Or Red Herring?Nicolae Morar, Ted Toadvine & Brendan J. M. Bohannan - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (1):16-29.
    A quarter of a century ago, a group of scientists and conservationists introduced ‘biodiversity’ as a media buzzword with the explicit intent of galvanizing public and political support for environ...
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  11.  13
    An Intervention to Optimize Coach Motivational Climates and Reduce Athlete Willingness to Dope : Protocol for a Cross-Cultural Cluster Randomized Control Trial.Nikos Ntoumanis, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Susan H. Backhouse, Vassilis Barkoukis, Eleanor Quested, Laurie Patterson, Brendan J. Smith, Lisa Whitaker, George Pavlidis & Stela Kaffe - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  12. Material perception for philosophers.J. Brendan Ritchie, Vivian C. Paulun, Katherine R. Storrs & Roland W. Fleming - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (10):e12777.
    Common everyday materials such as textiles, foodstuffs, soil or skin can have complex, mutable and varied appearances. Under typical viewing conditions, most observers can visually recognize materials effortlessly, and determine many of their properties without touching them. Visual material perception raises many fascinating questions for vision researchers, neuroscientists and philosophers, yet has received little attention compared to the perception of color or shape. Here we discuss some of the challenges that material perception raises and argue that further philosophical thought should (...)
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  13.  35
    Attentional Bias for Threatening Facial Expressions in Anxiety: Manipulation of Stimulus Duration.Brendan P. Bradley, Karin Mogg, Sara J. Falla & Lucy R. Hamilton - 1998 - Cognition and Emotion 12 (6):737-753.
  14.  84
    Decoding the Brain: Neural Representation and the Limits of Multivariate Pattern Analysis in Cognitive Neuroscience.J. Brendan Ritchie, David Michael Kaplan & Colin Klein - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (2):581-607.
    Since its introduction, multivariate pattern analysis, or ‘neural decoding’, has transformed the field of cognitive neuroscience. Underlying its influence is a crucial inference, which we call the decoder’s dictum: if information can be decoded from patterns of neural activity, then this provides strong evidence about what information those patterns represent. Although the dictum is a widely held and well-motivated principle in decoding research, it has received scant philosophical attention. We critically evaluate the dictum, arguing that it is false: decodability is (...)
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  15. Decoding the Brain: Neural Representation and the Limits of Multivariate Pattern Analysis in Cognitive Neuroscience.J. Brendan Ritchie, David Michael Kaplan & Colin Klein - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axx023.
    Since its introduction, multivariate pattern analysis, or ‘neural decoding’, has transformed the field of cognitive neuroscience. Underlying its influence is a crucial inference, which we call the decoder’s dictum: if information can be decoded from patterns of neural activity, then this provides strong evidence about what information those patterns represent. Although the dictum is a widely held and well-motivated principle in decoding research, it has received scant philosophical attention. We critically evaluate the dictum, arguing that it is false: decodability is (...)
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  16.  10
    Burt uses a fallacious motte-and-bailey argument to dispute the value of genetics for social science.Brendan P. Zietsch, Abdel Abdellaoui & Karin J. H. Verweij - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e231.
    Burt's argument relies on a motte-and-bailey fallacy. Burt aims to argue against the value of genetics for social science; instead she argues against certain interpretations of a specific kind of genetics tool, polygenic scores (PGSs). The limitations, previously identified by behavioural geneticists including ourselves, do not negate the value of PGSs, let alone genetics in general, for social science.
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  17.  46
    The content of Marr’s information-processing framework.J. Brendan Ritchie - 2019 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (7):1078-1099.
    ABSTRACTThe seminal work of David Marr, popularized in his classic work Vision, continues to exert a major influence on both cognitive science and philosophy. The interpretation of his work also co...
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  18. What’s wrong with the minimal conception of innateness in cognitive science?J. Brendan Ritchie - 2020 - Synthese 199 (Suppl 1):159-176.
    One of the classic debates in cognitive science is between nativism and empiricism about the development of psychological capacities. In principle, the debate is empirical. However, in practice nativist hypotheses have also been challenged for relying on an ill-defined, or even unscientific, notion of innateness as that which is “not learned”. Here this minimal conception of innateness is defended on four fronts. First, it is argued that the minimal conception is crucial to understanding the nativism-empiricism debate, when properly construed; Second, (...)
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  19.  43
    A Radical Approach to Ebola: Saving Humans and Other Animals.Sarah J. L. Edwards, Charles H. Norell, Phyllis Illari, Brendan Clarke & Carolyn P. Neuhaus - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):35-42.
    As the usual regulatory framework did not fit well during the last Ebola outbreak, innovative thinking still needed. In the absence of an outbreak, randomised controlled trials of clinical efficacy in humans cannot be done, while during an outbreak such trials will continue to face significant practical, philosophical, and ethical challenges. This article argues that researchers should also test the safety and effectiveness of novel vaccines in wild apes by employing a pluralistic approach to evidence. There are three reasons to (...)
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  20.  81
    The emergence of metacognition: affect and uncertainty in animals.Peter Carruthers & J. Brendan Ritchie - 2012 - In Michael J. Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The foundations of metacognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 76.
    This chapter situates the dispute over the metacognitive capacities of non-human animals in the context of wider debates about the phylogeny of metarepresentational abilities. This chapter clarifies the nature of the dispute, before contrasting two different accounts of the evolution of metarepresentation. One is first-person-based, claiming that it emerged initially for purposes of metacognitive monitoring and control. The other is social in nature, claiming that metarepresentation evolved initially to monitor the mental states of others. These accounts make differing predictions about (...)
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  21. Computing in the nick of time.J. Brendan Ritchie & Colin Klein - 2023 - Ratio 36 (3):169-179.
    The medium‐independence of computational descriptions has shaped common conceptions of computational explanation. So long as our goal is to explain how a system successfully carries out its computations, then we only need to describe the abstract series of operations that achieve the desired input–output mapping, however they may be implemented. It is argued that this abstract conception of computational explanation cannot be applied to so‐called real‐time computing systems, in which meeting temporal deadlines imposed by the systems with which a device (...)
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  22. The bodily senses.J. Brendan Ritchie & Peter Carruthers - 2015 - In Mohan Matthen (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Perception. Oxford University Press UK.
     
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  23. The science of fake news.David M. J. Lazer, Matthew A. Baum, Yochai Benkler, Adam J. Berinsky, Kelly M. Greenhill, Filippo Menczer, Miriam J. Metzger, Brendan Nyhan, Gordon Pennycook, David Rothschild, Michael Schudson, Steven A. Sloman, Cass R. Sunstein, Emily A. Thorson, Duncan J. Watts & Jonathan L. Zittrain - 2018 - Science 359 (6380):1094-1096.
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  24.  32
    Recognizing why vision is inferential.J. Brendan Ritchie - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-27.
    A theoretical pillars of vision science in the information-processing tradition is that perception involves unconscious inference. The classic support for this claim is that, since retinal inputs underdetermine their distal causes, visual perception must be the conclusion of a process that starts with premises representing both the sensory input and previous knowledge about the visible world. Focus on this “argument from underdetermination” gives the impression that, if it fails, there is little reason to think that visual processing involves unconscious inference. (...)
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  25.  14
    The Role of Negative Information in Distributional Semantic Learning.Brendan T. Johns, Douglas J. K. Mewhort & Michael N. Jones - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (5):e12730.
    Distributional models of semantics learn word meanings from contextual co‐occurrence patterns across a large sample of natural language. Early models, such as LSA and HAL (Landauer & Dumais, 1997; Lund & Burgess, 1996), counted co‐occurrence events; later models, such as BEAGLE (Jones & Mewhort, 2007), replaced counting co‐occurrences with vector accumulation. All of these models learned from positive information only: Words that occur together within a context become related to each other. A recent class of distributional models, referred to as (...)
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  26.  17
    Abnormal frontostriatal activity in recently abstinent cocaine users during implicit moral processing.Brendan M. Caldwell, Carla L. Harenski, Keith A. Harenski, Samantha J. Fede, Vaughn R. Steele, Michael R. Koenigs & Kent A. Kiehl - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  27.  29
    Chalmers on implementation and computational sufficiency.J. Brendan Ritchie - unknown
    Chalmers argues for the following two principles: computational sufficiency and computational explanation. In this commentary I present two criticisms of Chalmers’ argument for the principle of computational sufficiency, which states that implementing the appropriate kind of computational structure suffices for possessing mentality. First, Chalmers only establishes that a system has its mental properties in virtue of the computations it performs in the trivial sense that any physical system can be described computationally to some arbitrary level of detail; further argumentation is (...)
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  28.  56
    Massive modularity is consistent with most forms of neural reuse.J. Brendan Ritchie & Peter Carruthers - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):289-290.
    Anderson claims that the hypothesis of massive neural reuse is inconsistent with massive mental modularity. But much depends upon how each thesis is understood. We suggest that the thesis of massive modularity presented in Carruthers (2006) is consistent with the forms of neural reuse that are actually supported by the data cited, while being inconsistent with a stronger version of reuse that Anderson seems to support.
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  29.  75
    The Zombie Attack, Perry’s Parry, and a Riposte: A Slight Softening of the “Hard Problem” of Consciousness.J. Brendan Ritchie - 2017 - Topoi 36 (1):55-65.
    The “hard problem” of consciousness is a challenge for explanations of the nature of our phenomenal experiences. Chalmers has claimed that physicalist solutions to the challenge are ill-suited due, in part, to the zombie argument against physicalism. Perry has suggested that the zombie argument begs the question against the physicalist, and presents no relevant threat to the view. Although seldom discussed in the literature, I show there is defensive merit to Perry’s “parry” of the zombie attack. The success of the (...)
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  30.  46
    Isolated Environmental Cues and Product Efficacy Penalties: The Color Green and Eco-labels.Ethan Pancer, Lindsay McShane & Theodore J. Noseworthy - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (1):159-177.
    The current work examines how cues traditionally used to signal environmental friendliness, specifically the color green and eco-labels, and influence product efficacy perceptions and subsequent purchase intentions. Across three experiments, we find that environmental cues used in isolation reduce perceptions of product efficacy. We argue that this efficacy discounting effect occurs because the isolated use of an environmental cue introduces category ambiguity by activating competing functionality and environmentally friendly schemas during evaluation. We discuss the implications of our findings for research (...)
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  31.  98
    Global Status, Intra-Institutional Stratification and Organizational Segmentation: A Time-Dynamic Tobit Analysis of ARWU Position Among U.S. Universities.Brendan Cantwell & Barrett J. Taylor - 2013 - Minerva 51 (2):195-223.
    Ranking systems such as The Times Higher Education’s World University Rankings and Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Academic Rankings of World Universities simultaneously mark global status and stimulate global academic competition. As international ranking systems have become more prominent, researchers have begun to examine whether global rankings are creating increased inequality within and between universities. Using a panel Tobit regression analysis, this study assesses the extent to which markers of inter-institutional stratification and organizational segmentation predict global status among US research universities (...)
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  32.  23
    The adaptability of self-action perception and movement control when the limb is passively versus actively moved.Brendan D. Cameron, Ian M. Franks, J. Timothy Inglis & Romeo Chua - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):4-17.
    Research suggests that perceptual experience of our movements adapts together with movement control when we are the agents of our actions. Is this agency critical for perceptual and motor adaptation? We had participants view cursor feedback during elbow extension–flexion movements when they actively moved their arm, or had their arm passively moved. We probed adaptation of movement perception by having participants report the reversal point of their unseen movement. We probed adaptation of movement control by having them aim to a (...)
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  33.  10
    Case Studies: The Whole Truth and Nothing but the Truth?Brendan P. Minogue, Robert Taraszewski, Sherman Elias & George J. Annas - 1988 - Hastings Center Report 18 (5):34.
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  34.  4
    Reading Engelhardt: Essays on the Thought of H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.Brendan P. Minogue, Gabriel Palmer-Fernández & J. E. Reagan - 2012 - Springer Verlag.
    This volume consists of fourteen chapters selected from papers presented at the conference 'Ethics, Medicine and Health Care: An Appraisal of the Thought of H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.' along with a response to those chapters by Engelhardt and a Foreword by Laurence B. McCullough. The chapters direct primary attention to various aspects of Engelhardt's philosophy of medicine and bioethics as presented in The Foundations of Bioethics and Bioethics and Secular Humanism: The Search for a Common Morality. Among the topics treated (...)
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  35.  20
    Does Mindfulness Enhance Critical Thinking? Evidence for the Mediating Effects of Executive Functioning in the Relationship between Mindfulness and Critical Thinking.Chris Noone, Brendan Bunting & Michael J. Hogan - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  36.  3
    Editor's Introduction.Philip J. McShane - 1998 - In Philip McShane (ed.), For a New Political Economy: Volume 21. University of Toronto Press.
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  37.  1
    Editor's Introduction.Philip J. Mcshane - 2001 - In Philip McShane (ed.), Phenomenology and Logic: The Boston College Lectures on Mathematical Logic and Existentialism. University of Toronto Press.
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  38.  13
    Electroconvulsive shock and inhibition: Some problems considered.Donald J. Lewis & Brendan A. Maher - 1966 - Psychological Review 73 (4):388-392.
  39.  11
    Neural consolidation and electroconvulsive shock.Donald J. Lewis & Brendan A. Maher - 1965 - Psychological Review 72 (3):225-239.
  40.  24
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “A Radical Approach to Ebola: Saving Humans and Other Animals”.Carolyn P. Neuhaus, Brendan Clarke, Phyllis Illari, Charles H. Norell & Sarah J. L. Edwards - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (1):W8-W9.
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  41. Philosophy of Education in a New Key: Who Remembers Greta Thunberg? Education and Environment after the Coronavirus.Petar Jandrić, Jimmy Jaldemark, Zoe Hurley, Brendan Bartram, Adam Matthews, Michael Jopling, Julia Mañero, Alison MacKenzie, Jones Irwin, Ninette Rothmüller, Benjamin Green, Shane J. Ralston, Olli Pyyhtinen, Sarah Hayes, Jake Wright, Michael A. Peters & Marek Tesar - 2021 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 53 (14):1421-1441.
    This paper explores relationships between environment and education after the Covid-19 pandemic through the lens of philosophy of education in a new key developed by Michael Peters and the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia. The paper is collectively written by 15 authors who responded to the question: Who remembers Greta Thunberg? Their answers are classified into four main themes and corresponding sections. The first section, ‘As we bake the earth, let's try and bake it from scratch’, gathers wider philosophical (...)
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  42. Nativism and the Evolutionary Debunking of Morality.Brendan Cline - 2015 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (2):231-253.
    Evolutionary debunking arguments purport to undercut the justification of our moral judgments by showing why a tendency to make moral judgments would evolve regardless of the truth of those judgments. Machery and Mallon (2010. Evolution of morality. In J.M. Doris and The Moral Psychology Research Group (Eds.), The Moral Psychology Handbook (pp. 3-46). Oxford: Oxford University Press) have recently tried to disarm these arguments by showing that moral cognition – in the sense that is relevant to debunking – is not (...)
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  43. Clarifying the Ethics and Oversight of Chimeric Research.Josephine Johnston, Insoo Hyun, Carolyn P. Neuhaus, Karen J. Maschke, Patricia Marshall, Kaitlynn P. Craig, Margaret M. Matthews, Kara Drolet, Henry T. Greely, Lori R. Hill, Amy Hinterberger, Elisa A. Hurley, Robert Kesterson, Jonathan Kimmelman, Nancy M. P. King, Melissa J. Lopes, P. Pearl O'Rourke, Brendan Parent, Steven Peckman, Monika Piotrowska, May Schwarz, Jeff Sebo, Chris Stodgell, Robert Streiffer & Amy Wilkerson - 2022 - Hastings Center Report 52 (S2):2-23.
    This article is the lead piece in a special report that presents the results of a bioethical investigation into chimeric research, which involves the insertion of human cells into nonhuman animals and nonhuman animal embryos, including into their brains. Rapid scientific developments in this field may advance knowledge and could lead to new therapies for humans. They also reveal the conceptual, ethical, and procedural limitations of existing ethics guidance for human‐nonhuman chimeric research. Led by bioethics researchers working closely with an (...)
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  44. The teaching of computer ethics on computer science and related degree programmes. a European survey.Ioannis Stavrakakis, Damian Gordon, Brendan Tierney, Anna Becevel, Emma Murphy, Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Radu Dobrin, Viola Schiaffonati, Cristina Pereira, Svetlana Tikhonenko, J. Paul Gibson, Stephane Maag, Francesco Agresta, Andrea Curley, Michael Collins & Dympna O’Sullivan - 2021 - International Journal of Ethics Education 7 (1):101-129.
    Within the Computer Science community, many ethical issues have emerged as significant and critical concerns. Computer ethics is an academic field in its own right and there are unique ethical issues associated with information technology. It encompasses a range of issues and concerns including privacy and agency around personal information, Artificial Intelligence and pervasive technology, the Internet of Things and surveillance applications. As computing technology impacts society at an ever growing pace, there are growing calls for more computer ethics content (...)
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  45.  9
    Social value at a distance: Higher identification with all of humanity is associated with reduced social discounting.Young Ji Tuen, Adam Bulley, Daniela J. Palombo & Brendan Bo O'Connor - 2023 - Cognition 230 (C):105283.
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  46. Talking about causing events.C. A. Vogel, Alexis Wellwood, Rachel Dudley & J. Brendan Ritchie - 2014 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 9 (1).
    Questions about the nature of the relationship between language and extralinguistic cognition are old, but only recently has a new view emerged that allows for the systematic investigation of claims about linguistic structure, based on how it is understood or utilized outside of the language system. Our paper represents a case study for this interaction in the domain of event semantics. We adopt a transparency thesis about the relationship between linguistic structure and extralinguistic cognition, investigating whether different lexico-syntactic structures can (...)
     
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  47.  3
    Update on the ethical, legal and technical challenges of translating xenotransplantation.Rebecca Thom, David Ayares, David K. C. Cooper, John Dark, Sara Fovargue, Marie Fox, Michael Gusmano, Jayme Locke, Chris McGregor, Brendan Parent, Rommel Ravanan, David Shaw, Anthony Dorling & Antonia J. Cronin - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    This manuscript reports on a landmark symposium on the ethical, legal and technical challenges of xenotransplantation in the UK. King’s College London, with endorsement from the British Transplantation Society (BTS), and the European Society of Organ Transplantation (ESOT), brought together a group of experts in xenotransplantation science, ethics and law to discuss the ethical, regulatory and technical challenges surrounding translating xenotransplantation into the clinical setting. The symposium was the first of its kind in the UK for 20 years. This paper (...)
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  48. The Evolution of Self-Knowledge.Peter Carruthers, Logan Fletcher & J. Brendan Ritchie - 2012 - Philosophical Topics 40 (2):13-37.
    Humans have the capacity for awareness of many aspects of their own mental lives—their own experiences, feelings, judgments, desires, and decisions. We can often know what it is that we see, hear, feel, judge, want, or decide. This article examines the evolutionary origins of this form of self-knowledge. Two alternatives are contrasted and compared with the available evidence. One is first-person based: self-knowledge is an adaptation designed initially for metacognitive monitoring and control. The other is third-person based: self-knowledge depends on (...)
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  49.  24
    Self-Inflicted Gunshot Wound as a Consideration in the Patient Selection Process for Facial Transplantation.Michelle W. Mcquinn, Laura L. Kimberly, Brendan Parent, J. Rodrigo Diaz-Siso, Arthur L. Caplan, Aileen G. Blitz & Eduardo D. Rodriguez - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (3):450-462.
    Abstract:Facial transplantation is emerging as a therapeutic option for self-inflicted gunshot wounds. The self-inflicted nature of this injury raises questions about the appropriate role of self-harm in determining patient eligibility. Potential candidates for facial transplantation undergo extensive psychosocial screening. The presence of a self-inflicted gunshot wound warrants special attention to ensure that a patient is prepared to undergo a demanding procedure that poses significant risk, as well as stringent lifelong management. Herein, we explore the ethics of considering mechanism of injury (...)
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  50. The Scavenger.Brendan Hogan - 2023 - Dewey Studies 7 (1):64-81.
    In this reflection I draw out Richard J. Bernstein’s claim that he was a ‘scavenger’ and put it to use in revisiting main themes of his engagements with pragmatism, hermeneutics, Hegel, and critical theory. This piece is included in a memorial issue of Dewey Studies on Bernstein.
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