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Brian Berkey
University of Pennsylvania
  1.  14
    Effectiveness and Demandingness.Brian Berkey - forthcoming - Utilitas:1-14.
    It has been argued in some recent work that there are many cases in which individuals are subject to conditional obligations to give to more effective rather than less effective charities, despite not being unconditionally obligated to give. These conditional obligations, it has been suggested, can allow effective altruists to make the central claims about the ethics of charitable giving that characterize the movement without taking any particular position on morality's demandingness. I argue that the range of cases involving charitable (...)
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  2. The Institutional Critique of Effective Altruism.Brian Berkey - 2018 - Utilitas 30 (2):143-171.
    In recent years, the effective altruism movement has generated much discussion about the ways in which we can most effectively improve the lives of the global poor, and pursue other morally important goals. One of the most common criticisms of the movement is that it has unjustifiably neglected issues related to institutional change that could address the root causes of poverty, and instead focused its attention on encouraging individuals to direct resources to organizations that directly aid people living in poverty. (...)
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  3. The Demandingness of Morality: Toward a Reflective Equilibrium.Brian Berkey - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (11):3015-3035.
    It is common for philosophers to reject otherwise plausible moral theories on the ground that they are objectionably demanding, and to endorse “Moderate” alternatives. I argue that while support can be found within the method of reflective equilibrium for Moderate moral principles of the kind that are often advocated, it is much more difficult than Moderates have supposed to provide support for the view that morality’s demands in circumstances like ours are also Moderate. Once we draw a clear distinction between (...)
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  4.  37
    How Should Autonomous Vehicles Redistribute the Risks of the Road?Brian Berkey - 2019 - Wharton Public Policy Initiative Issue Brief 7 (9):1-6.
  5.  45
    Sweatshops, Structural Injustice, and the Wrong of Exploitation: Why Multinational Corporations Have Positive Duties to the Global Poor.Brian Berkey - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-14.
    It is widely thought that firms that employ workers in “sweatshop” conditions wrongfully exploit those workers. This claim has been challenged by those who argue that because companies are not obligated to hire their workers in the first place, employing them cannot be wrong so long as they voluntarily accept their jobs and genuinely benefit from them. In this article, I argue that we can maintain that at least many sweatshop employees are wrongfully exploited, while accepting the plausible claim at (...)
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  6.  43
    Collective Obligations and the Institutional Critique of Effective Altruism: A Reply to Alexander Dietz.Brian Berkey - 2019 - Utilitas 31 (3):326-333.
    In a recent article in this journal, Alexander Dietz argues that what I have called the ‘institutional critique of effective altruism’ is best understood as grounded in the claim that ‘EA relies on an overly individualistic approach to ethics, neglecting the importance of our collective obligations’. In this reply, I argue that Dietz’s view does not represent a plausible interpretation of the institutional critiques offered by others, primarily because, unlike Dietz, they appear to believe that their critiques provide reasons to (...)
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  7.  8
    The Philosophical Core of Effective Altruism.Brian Berkey - forthcoming - Journal of Social Philosophy.
    Effective altruism’s identity as both a philosophy and a social movement requires effective altruists to consider which philosophical commitments are essential, such that one must embrace them in order to count as an effective altruist, at least in part in the light of the goal of building a robust social movement capable of advancing its aims. The goal of building a social movement provides a strong reason for effective altruists to embrace an ecumenical set of core commitments. At the same (...)
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  8.  45
    Against Rawlsian Institutionalism About Justice.Brian Berkey - 2016 - Social Theory and Practice 42 (4):706-732.
    One of the most influential claims made by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice is that the principles of justice apply only to the institutions of the “basic structure of society,” and do not apply directly to the conduct of individuals. In this paper, I aim to cast doubt on this view, which I call “Institutionalism about Justice,” by considering whether several of the prominent motivations for it offered by Rawls and others succeed in providing the support for the (...)
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  9.  33
    Collective Obligations and Demandingness Complaints.Brian Berkey - 2019 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 6 (1):113-132.
    It has been suggested that understanding our obligations to address large-scale moral problems such as global poverty and the threat of severe climate change as fundamentally collective can allow us to insist that a great deal must be done about these problems while denying that there are very demanding obligations, applying to either individuals or collectives, to contribute to addressing them. I argue that this strategy for limiting demandingness fails because those who endorse collective obligations to address large-scale moral problems (...)
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  10.  79
    Double Counting, Moral Rigorism, and Cohen’s Critique of Rawls: A Response to Alan Thomas.Brian Berkey - 2015 - Mind 124 (495):849-874.
    In a recent article in this journal, Alan Thomas presents a novel defence of what I call ‘Rawlsian Institutionalism about Justice’ against G. A. Cohen’s well-known critique. In this response I aim to defend Cohen’s rejection of Institutionalism against Thomas’s arguments. In part this defence requires clarifying precisely what is at issue between Institutionalists and their opponents. My primary focus, however, is on Thomas’s critical discussion of Cohen’s endorsement of an ethical prerogative, as well as his appeal to the institutional (...)
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  11.  22
    Relational Egalitarianism and the Grounds of Entitlements to Health Care.Brian Berkey - 2018 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 13 (3):85-104.
    In recent years, a number of philosophers have argued that much theorizing about the value of equality, and about justice more generally, has focused unduly on distributive issues and neglected the importance of egalitarian social relationships. As a result, relational egalitarian views, according to which the value of egalitarian social relations provides the grounds of the commitment that we ought to have to equality, have gained prominence as alternatives to more fundamentally distributive accounts of the basis of egalitarianism, and of (...)
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  12.  43
    Benefiting From Unjust Acts and Benefiting From Injustice: Historical Emissions and the Beneficiary Pays Principle.Brian Berkey - 2017 - In Climate Justice and Historical Emissions. pp. 123-140.
    It is commonly believed that the history of behavior that has contributed to the threat of climate change bears in a significant way on the obligations of current people. In particular, a number of philosophers have defended the Beneficiary Pays Principle, according to which those who have benefited from unjust emitting activity have a special obligation to bear costs of mitigation and adaptation. I claim that versions of the BPP that have been defended by others share a common problematic feature. (...)
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  13.  23
    Review of Ryan Burg, Business Ethics for a Material World: An Ecological Approach to Object Stewardship. [REVIEW]Brian Berkey & Eric W. Orts - 2019 - Business Ethics Quarterly 29:143-146.
  14.  20
    Climate Justice, Climate Policy, and the Role of Political Philosophy.Brian Berkey - 2019 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (2):145-147.
  15.  64
    Human Rights, Harm, and Climate Change Mitigation.Brian Berkey - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):416-435.
    A number of philosophers have resisted impersonal explanations of our obligation to mitigate climate change, and have developed accounts according to which these obligations are explained by human rights or harm-based considerations. In this paper I argue that several of these attempts to explain our mitigation obligations without appealing to impersonal factors fail, since they either cannot account for a plausibly robust obligation to mitigate, or have implausible implications in other cases. I conclude that despite the appeal of the motivations (...)
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  16. Review of Giving Well: The Ethics of Philanthropy (Eds. Illingworth, Pogge, and Wenar). [REVIEW]Brian Berkey - 2014 - Mind 123 (489):220-223.
  17.  58
    Business Ethics and Free Speech on the Internet.Brian Berkey - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (3):937-945.
    The unique role of the Internet in today’s society, and the extensive reach and potentially profound impact of much Internet content, raise philosophically interesting and practically urgent questions about the responsibilities of various agents, including individual Internet users, governments, and corporations. Raphael Cohen-Almagor’s Confronting the Internet’s Dark Side is an extremely valuable contribution to the emerging discussion of these important issues. In this paper, I focus on the obligations of Internet Service Providers and Web Hosting Services with respect to online (...)
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  18.  39
    Review of Dale Dorsey, The Limits of Moral Authority. [REVIEW]Brian Berkey - 2017 - Ethics 128 (1):235-240.
  19.  16
    Review of The Ethics of Giving: Philosophers' Perspectives on Philanthropy (Ed. Woodruff). [REVIEW]Brian Berkey - 2018 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  20.  67
    Climate Change, Moral Intuitions, and Moral Demandingness.Brian Berkey - 2014 - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche 4 (2):157-189.
    In this paper I argue that reflection on the threat of climate change brings out a distinct challenge for appeals to what I call the Anti-Demandingness Intuition, according to which a view about our obligations can be rejected if it would, as a general matter, require very large sacrifices of us. The ADI is often appealed to in order to reject the view that well off people are obligated to make substantial sacrifices in order to aid the global poor, but (...)
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  21.  46
    Prospects for an Inclusive Theory of Justice: The Case of Non‐Human Animals.Brian Berkey - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (5):679-695.
    In this article, I argue that there are three widely accepted views within contemporary theorising about justice that present barriers to accepting that non-human animals possess direct entitlements of justice. These views are that the basis of entitlements of justice is either contribution to a cooperative scheme for mutual advantage or the capacity to so contribute; political liberalism, that is, the view that requirements for coercive state action can be justified only by appeal to the ideal of citizens as free (...)
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  22.  42
    Review of Andrew Mason, Living Together as Equals: The Demands of Citizenship. [REVIEW]Brian Berkey - 2015 - Mind 124 (494):653-656.
  23.  26
    Obligations of Productive Justice: Individual or Institutional?Brian Berkey - 2018 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 21 (6):726-753.
    If it is a requirement of justice that everyone has access to basic goods and services, then justice requires that the work that is necessary to produce the relevant goods and provide the relevant services is performed. Two widely accepted views, however, together rule out requirements of justice to perform such work. These are, roughly, that the state cannot force people to perform it, and that individuals are not obligated to perform it voluntarily. Lucas Stanczyk argues that we should resolve (...)
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  24.  49
    Review of Gary E. Varner, Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. [REVIEW]Brian Berkey - 2012 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  25.  24
    Review of Darrel Moellendorf, The Moral Challenge of Dangerous Climate Change: Values, Poverty, and Policy. [REVIEW]Brian Berkey - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (1):108-111.
  26.  32
    State Action, State Policy, and the Doing/Allowing Distinction.Brian Berkey - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):147-149.
  27.  29
    Review of Robert Garner, A Theory of Justice for Animals: Animal Rights in a Nonideal World. [REVIEW]Brian Berkey - 2014 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.