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Brian Bix
University of Minnesota
  1. Law, Language, and Legal Determinacy.Brian Bix - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    This book discusses one of the central problems in the philosophy of law--the question of legal determinacy. Is the law a seamless web or are there gaps? Bix argues that the major re-thinking of the common and "common sense" views about law that have been proposed by various recent legal theories is unnecessary. He offers a reconsideration of the role of language in the law, and the way ideas about language have been used and misused in recent legal theory. He (...)
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  2.  87
    Kelsen, Hart, and Legal Normativity.Brian Bix - 2018 - Revus. Journal for Constitutional Theory and Philosophy of Law / Revija Za Ustavno Teorijo in Filozofijo Prava 34:25-42.
    This article focuses on issues relating to legal normativity, emphasizing the way these matters have been elaborated in the works of Kelsen and Hart and later commentators on their theories. First, in Section 2, the author offers a view regarding the nature of law and legal normativity focusing on Kelsen's work (at least one reasonable reading of it). The argument is that the Basic Norm is presupposed when a citizen chooses to read the actions of legal officials in a normative (...)
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  3. Jurisprudence Theory and Context.Brian Bix - 1996
     
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  4. H. L. A. Hart and the "Open Texture" of Language.Brian Bix - 1991 - Law and Philosophy 10 (1):51 - 72.
    H. L. A. Hart and the "Open Texture" of Language tries to clarify the writings of both Hart and Friedrich Waismann on "open texture". In Waismann's work, "open texture" referred to the potential vagueness of words under extreme (hypothetical) circumstances. Hart's use of the term was quite different, and his work has been misunderstood because those differences were underestimated. Hart should not be read as basing his argument for judicial discretion on the nature of language; primarily, he was putting forward (...)
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  5.  43
    Raz on Necessity.Brian H. Bix - 2003 - Law and Philosophy 22 (6):537 - 559.
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  6. Natural Law Theory.Brian Bix - 2010 - In Dennis M. Patterson (ed.), A Companion to Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory, 2nd ed. Blackwell.
  7. Radbruch's Formula and Conceptual Analysis.Brian Bix - 2011 - American Journal of Jurisprudence 56 (1):45-57.
  8.  17
    The Promise and Problems of Universal, General Theories of Contract Law.Brian H. Bix - 2017 - Ratio Juris 30 (4):391-402.
    There are a growing number of general theories of contract law and of other doctrinal areas. These theories are vastly ambitious in their aims. This article explores the nature of these claims, and the motivations for offering such theories, while considering the challenges to success. It is in the nature of theorizing to seek general categories, including doctrinal categories, and to try to discover insights that hold across those categories. However, differences both within a doctrinal area and across legal systems (...)
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  9.  17
    Global Error and Legal Truth.Brian H. Bix - 2009 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 29 (3):535-547.
    One standard criterion for there being objectivity in an area of discourse is that there is conceptual space between what someone thinks to be the case and what actually is the case. That is, participants can be mistaken. This article explores one aspect of the objectivity debate as regards law: does it make sense to say that all legal officials or practitioners in a jurisdiction are mistaken (over a significant period of time) about some legal proposition? The possibility of legal (...)
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  10. Natural Law: The Modern Tradition.Brian Bix - 2002 - In Jules Coleman & Scott J. Shapiro (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence & Philosophy of Law. Oxford University Press.
     
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  11.  61
    Contracts.Brian Bix - 2010 - In Franklin G. Miller & Alan Wertheimer (eds.), The Ethics of Consent: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press.
    Consent, in terms of voluntary choice, is - or, at least, appears to be or purports to be - at the essence of contract law. Contract law, both in principle and in practice, is about allowing parties to enter arrangements on terms they choose - each party imposing obligations on itself in return for obligations another party has placed upon itself. This freedom of contract- an ideal by which there are obligations to the extent, but only to the extent, freely (...)
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  12. Legal Positivism and 'Explaining' Normativity and Authority.Brian Bix - 2006 - American Philosophical Association Newsletter 5 (2 (Spring 2006)):5-9.
    It has become increasingly common for legal positivist theorists to claim that the primary objective of legal theory in general, and legal positivism in particular, is "explaining normativity." The phrase "explaining normativity" can be understood either ambitiously or more modestly. The more modest meaning is an analytical exploration of what is meant by legal or moral obligation, or by the authority claims of legal officials. When the term is understood ambitiously - as meaning an explanation of how conventional and other (...)
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  13.  20
    Robert Alexy's Radbruch Formula, and the Nature of Legal Theory.Brian Bix - 2006 - Rechtstheorie 37:139-149.
  14.  53
    Conceptual Questions and Jurisprudence.Brian Bix - 1995 - Legal Theory 1 (4):465-479.
    Conceptual analysis is an integral part of legal theory, but the nature and purpose of such inquiries are often not clearly stated. In this article, I attempt to elaborate upon some of the differing reasons for conceptual analysis and what consequences may follow from choosing one objective rather than another. By showing that divergent purposes are often present in competing analyses of the same concept, I also hope to indicate why some “debates” in the jurisprudential literature are best understood as (...)
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  15.  70
    Legal Positivism.Brian H. Bix - 2005 - In Martin P. Golding & William A. Edmundson (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory. Blackwell.
  16.  83
    Can Theories of Meaning and Reference Solve the Problem of Legal Determinacy?Brian H. Bix - 2003 - Ratio Juris 16 (3):281-295.
    A number of important legal theorists have recently argued for metaphysically realist approaches to legal determinacy grounded in particular semantic theories or theories of reference, in particular, views of meaning and reference based on the works of Putnam and Kripke. The basic position of these theorists is that questions of legal interpretation and legal determinacy should be approached through semantic meaning. However, the role of authority (in the form of lawmaker choice) in law in general, and democratic systems in particular, (...)
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  17. Teoría del Derecho: tipos y propósitos.Brian Bix - 2006 - Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho 25:57-68.
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  18.  43
    A Dictionary of Legal Theory.Brian Bix - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Modern legal theory contains a wide range of approaches and topics: from economic analysis of law to feminist legal theory to traditional analytical legal philosophy to a range of theories about justice. This healthy variety of jurisprudential work has created a problem: students and theorists working in one tradition may have difficulty understanding the concepts and terminology of a different tradition. This book works to make terminology and ways of thinking accessible. This dictionary covers topics from 'the autonomy of law' (...)
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  19.  25
    Form and Formalism: The View From Legal Theory.Brian Bix - 2007 - Ratio Juris 20 (1):45-55.
  20.  66
    Analyzing Law: New Essays in Legal Theory.Brian Bix (ed.) - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
    Analyzing Law offers an important selection of the most influential and challenging work now being done in legal theory. A central focus of the essays in this work is the contribution of the well-known philosopher Jules Coleman to the various topics which are covered by the contributors.
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  21.  5
    Ronald Dworkin.Brian Bix - 1993 - Philosophical Quarterly 43 (173):569-571.
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  22.  12
    Referees for Volume 7.Andrew Altman, Michael Barnhart, Avner Baz, David Benatar, Yitzhak Benbaji, Talia Bettcher, Brian Bix, Jeffrey Bland-Ballard & Lene Bomann-Larsen - 2010 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (4):541-542.
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  23.  6
    A Critique of Alexy’s Claim to Correctness.Brian H. Bix - 2020 - Ratio Juris 33 (2):124-133.
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  24.  10
    A. D. Woozley and the Concept of Right Answers in Law.Brian Bix - 1992 - Ratio Juris 5 (1):58-66.
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  25.  8
    Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Brian Bix - 1993 - Mind 102 (405):193-195.
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  26.  19
    Book ReviewsPeter Cane,. Responsibility in Law and Morality.Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2002. Pp. Xii+303. £28.00 ; £18.95. [REVIEW]Brian H. Bix - 2006 - Ethics 117 (1):124-127.
  27. Constitutions, Originalism, and Meaning.Brian H. Bix - 2011 - In Grant Huscroft & Bradley W. Miller (eds.), The Challenge of Originalism: Essays in Constitutional Theory. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  28.  66
    Contract Rights and Remedies, and the Divergence Between Law and Morality.Brian H. Bix - 2008 - Ratio Juris 21 (2):194-211.
    There is an ongoing debate in the philosophical and jurisprudential literature regarding the nature and possibility of Contract theory. On one hand are those who argue (or assume) that there is, or should be, a single, general, universal theory of Contract Law, one applicable to all jurisdictions and all times. On the other hand are those who assert that Contract theory should be localized to particular times and places, perhaps even with different theories for different types of agreements. This article (...)
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  29. Defeasibility and Open Texture.Brian H. Bix - 2012 - In Jordi Ferrer Beltrán & Giovanni Battista Ratti (eds.), The Logic of Legal Requirements: Essays on Defeasibility. Oxford University Press.
     
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  30.  8
    Family Law: Values Beyond Choice and Autonomy?Brian H. Bix - 2021 - Law and Philosophy 40 (2):163-183.
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  31.  8
    Human Rights Through the Legislature: Grégoire Webber, Paul Yowell, Richard Ekins, Maris Köpcke, Bradley W. Miller and Francisco J. Urbina, Legislated Rights: Securing Human Rights Through Legislation. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, 2018, Pp. 209. $110.00. [REVIEW]Brian Bix - 2019 - Law and Philosophy 38 (2):221-225.
    This is a book review of Grégoire Webber, Paul Yowell, Richard Ekins, Maris Köpcke, Bradley W. Miller, and Francisco J. Urbina, "Legislated Rights" (Cambridge U. Pr., 2018).
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  32.  30
    John Austin.Brian Bix - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  33. John Austin and Constructing Theories of Law.Brian Bix - 2011 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 24 (2):431-440.
    One of the standard criticisms of John Austin’s work is that his portrayal of law, as essentially the command of a sovereign to its subjects, does not fit well with the way law is practiced or perceived by lawyers, judges, and citizens; and since the theory “fails to fit the facts,” Austin’s theory must be rejected in favor of later theories that have better fit. Many influential modern approaches to the nature of law, including Joseph Raz’s exclusive legal positivism and (...)
     
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  34. Jules L. Coleman and Christopher W. Morris, Eds., Rational Commitment and Social Justice: Essays for Gregory Kavka Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Brian Bix - 1999 - Philosophy in Review 19 (5):318-320.
  35. JE Penner, The Idea of Property in Law. [REVIEW]Brian Bix - 1998 - Philosophy in Review 18 (2):143-145.
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  36. Jurisprudence: Theory and Context, 5th Ed.Brian Bix - 2009 - Sweet & Maxwell (UK) and Carolina Academic Press (US).
     
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  37. Kelsen in the United States: Still Misunderstood.Brian Bix - 2016 - In D. Telman (ed.), Hans Kelsen in America - Selective Affinities and the Mysteries of Academic Influence. Springer Verlag.
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  38.  64
    Law and Language: How Words Mislead Us.Brian H. Bix - 2010 - Jurisprudence 1 (1):25-38.
    Our world is full of fictional devices that let people feel better about their situation - through deception and self-deception. The legal realist, Felix Cohen, argued that law and legal reasoning is full of similarly dubious labels and bad reasoning, though of a special kind. He argued that judges, lawyers and legal commentators allow linguistic inventions and conventions to distort their thinking. Like the ancient peoples who built idols out of stone and wood and then asked them for assistance and (...)
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  39. Law, Language and Legal Determinacy.Brian Bix - 1998 - Philosophical Quarterly 48 (192):404-406.
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  40.  50
    Legal Philosophy in America.Brian Bix - 2008 - In Cheryl Misak (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    This article, written for the forthcoming Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy, offers an overview of the most important American contributions to legal philosophy - American legal realism, law and economics, various critical schools of jurisprudence, Lon Fuller, and Ronald Dworkin - while speculating on what might be distinctive of American legal philosophy. One obvious recurring theme is a focus on practical application in general, and adjudication (especially constitutional adjudication) in particular.
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  41. Natural Law: The Modern Tradition.Brian Bix - 2002 - In Jules Coleman & Scott J. Shapiro (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. Oxford University Press.
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  42.  51
    On Philosophy in American Law : Analytical Legal Philosophy.Brian Bix - 2009 - In Francis J. Mootz & William S. Boyd (eds.), On Philosophy in American Law. Cambridge University Press.
    This short article was written for a collection on American legal philosophy today. It gives a brief overview of analytical legal philosophy, and speculates on why this theoretical approach has been consistently misunderstood in the United States, from the time of the legal realists until today.
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  43.  40
    On the Nature of Legal Normativity, 37 Revus 83-91 (2019).Brian Bix - 2019 - Revus. Journal for Constitutional Theory and Philosophy of Law / Revija Za Ustavno Teorijo in Filozofijo Prava 37:83-91.
    In this response to eight commentaries on my article “Kelsen, Hart, and legal normativity” I clarify some points in my original analysis and agree with some comments regarding work that still needs to be done. In particular, I attempt to distinguish my position from both Berkeleyan idealism and mere subjective perception. I agree with the commentators who urge that more must be done to analyze the nature of normativity in general, and legal normativity in particular.
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  44.  51
    Philosophy of Law.Brian Bix (ed.) - 2006 - Routledge.
    Edited by a leading scholar in the field, Philosophy of Law is a new title in the Routledge Major Works series Critical Concepts in Philosophy . It is a four-volume collection of canonical and cutting-edge research and covers a significant range of topics in the field. The first two volumes of the collection are devoted primarily to analytical legal theory—in particular, theories about the nature of law. This is the idea of legal philosophy most familiar to jurisprudential students in the (...)
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  45. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Federalism.Brian Bix - 2003 - Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy 17 (1):53-70.
     
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  46. Reductionism and Explanation in Legal Theory.Brian Bix - 2006 - In J. W. Harris, Timothy Andrew Orville Endicott, Joshua Getzler & Edwin Peel (eds.), Properties of Law: Essays in Honour of Jim Harris. Oxford University Press.
     
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  47.  29
    Reason, Morality, and Law: The Philosophy of John Finnis, Edited by John Keown and Robert P. George. [REVIEW]Brian H. Bix - 2015 - Mind 124 (496):1309-1312.
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  48.  12
    Review of Howard Schweber, The Language of Liberal Constitutionalism[REVIEW]Brian Bix - 2008 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (3).
  49.  40
    Shapiro, Scott J. Legality. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011. Pp. 472. $39.95. [REVIEW]Brian H. Bix - 2012 - Ethics 122 (2):444-448.
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  50.  4
    The Idea of Private Law. [REVIEW]Brian Bix - 1996 - Philosophical Books 37 (2):131-132.
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