Results for 'Brian J. Bruya'

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Brian Bruya
Eastern Michigan University
  1. The Rehabilitation of Spontaneity: A New Approach in Philosophy of Action.Brian J. Bruya - 2010 - Philosophy East and West 60 (2):pp. 207-250.
    Scholars working in philosophy of action still struggle with the freedom/determinism dichotomy that stretches back to Hellenist philosophy and the metaphysics that gave rise to it. Although that metaphysics has been repudiated in current philosophy of mind and cognitive science, the dichotomy still haunts these fields. As such, action is understood as distinct from movement, or motion. In early China, under a very different metaphysical paradigm, no such distinction is made. Instead, a notion of self-caused movement, or spontaneity, is elaborated. (...)
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  2. Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action.Brian Bruya (ed.) - 2010 - MIT Press.
    This is the first book to explore the cognitive science of effortless attention and action. Attention and action are generally understood to require effort, and the expectation is that under normal circumstances effort increases to meet rising demand. Sometimes, however, attention and action seem to flow effortlessly despite high demand. Effortless attention and action have been documented across a range of normal activities--from rock climbing to chess playing--and yet fundamental questions about the cognitive science of effortlessness have gone largely unasked. (...)
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  3.  9
    New Life for Old Ideas.Yanming An & Brian Bruya (eds.) - 2019 - The Chinese University Press.
    Over five decades, Donald J. Munro has been one of the most important voices in sinological philosophy. Among other accomplishments, his seminal book The Concept of Man in Early China influenced a generation of scholars. His rapprochement with contemporary cognitive and evolutionary science helped bolster the insights of Chinese philosophers and set the standard for similar explorations today. -/- In this festschrift volume, students of Munro and scholars influenced by him celebrate Munro’s body of work in articles that extend his (...)
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  4. Objects and Attention: The State of the Art.Brian J. Scholl - 2001 - Cognition 80 (1-2):1-46.
  5. Perceptual Causality and Animacy.Brian J. Scholl & Patrice D. Tremoulet - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (8):299-309.
  6. Tracking Multiple Items Through Occlusion: Clues to Visual Objecthood.Brian J. Scholl & Zenon W. Pylyshyn - unknown
    In three experiments, subjects attempted to track multiple items as they moved independently and unpredictably about a display. Performance was not impaired when the items were briefly (but completely) occluded at various times during their motion, suggesting that occlusion is taken into account when computing enduring perceptual objecthood. Unimpaired performance required the presence of accretion and deletion cues along fixed contours at the occluding boundaries. Performance was impaired when items were present on the visual field at the same times and (...)
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  7. Object Persistence in Philosophy and Psychology.Brian J. Scholl - 2007 - Mind and Language 22 (5):563–591.
    What makes an object the same persisting individual over time? Philosophers and psychologists have both grappled with this question, but from different perspectives—philosophers conceptually analyzing the criteria for object persistence, and psychologists exploring the mental mechanisms that lead us to experience the world in terms of persisting objects. It is striking that the same themes populate explorations of persistence in these two very different fields—e.g. the roles of spatiotemporal continuity, persistence through property change, and cohesion violations. Such similarities may reflect (...)
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  8. What is a Visual Object? Evidence From Target Merging in Multiple Object Tracking.Brian J. Scholla - 2001 - Cognition 80 (1-2):159-177.
    The notion that visual attention can operate over visual objects in addition to spatial locations has recently received much empirical support, but there has been relatively little empirical consideration of what can count as an `object' in the ®rst place. We have investi- gated this question in the context of the multiple object tracking paradigm, in which subjects must track a number of independently and unpredictably moving identical items in a ®eld of identical distractors. What types of feature clusters can (...)
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  9.  15
    Undisclosed Conflicts of Interest Among Biomedical Textbook Authors.Brian J. Piper, Drew A. Lambert, Ryan C. Keefe, Phoebe U. Smukler, Nicolas A. Selemon & Zachary R. Duperry - 2018 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 9 (2):59-68.
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  10. Attenuated Change Blindness for Exogenously Attended Items in a Flicker Paradigm.Brian J. Scholl - 2000 - Visual Cognition 7:377-396.
  11. Divine Causation and Human Freedom in Aquinas.Brian J. Shanley - 1998 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72 (1):99-122.
  12. Cognition Does Not Affect Perception: Evaluating the Evidence for “Top-Down” Effects.Chaz Firestone & Brian J. Scholl - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-72.
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  13.  43
    Innateness and (Bayesian) Visual Perception.Brian J. Scholl - 2005 - In Peter Carruthers (ed.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York. pp. 34.
    This chapter explores a way in which visual processing may involve innate constraints and attempts to show how such processing overcomes one enduring challenge to nativism. In particular, many challenges to nativist theories in other areas of cognitive psychology have focused on the later development of such abilities, and have argued that such development is in conflict with innate origins. Innateness, in these contexts, is seen as antidevelopmental, associated instead with static processes and principles. In contrast, certain perceptual models demonstrate (...)
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  14. Introduction: Toward a Theory of Attention That Includes Effortless Attention.Brian Bruya - 2010 - In Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
    In this Introduction, I identify seven discrete aspects of attention brought to the fore by by considering the phenomenon of effortless attention: effort, decision-making, action syntax, agency, automaticity, expertise, and mental training. For each, I provide an overview of recent research, identify challenges to or gaps in current attention theory with respect to it, consider how attention theory can be advanced by including current research, and explain how relevant chapters of this volume offer such advances.
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  15.  27
    Ethnocentrism and Multiculturalism in Contemporary Philosophy.Brian Bruya - 2017 - Philosophy East and West 67 (4):991-1018.
    There has recently been much talk of the dangers of implicit bias and speculation about how to diminish it.1 I took a couple of the implicit bias tests on the Harvard website2—tests on bias toward women and toward African Americans—and found to my dismay that I am not as unbiased as I would hope to be. My own implicit bias can have significant ramifications toward my colleagues and co-workers and especially toward my students—I don't want my personal biases to negatively (...)
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  16.  83
    The Tacit Rejection of Multiculturalism in American Philosophy Ph.D. Programs: The Case of Chinese Philosophy.Brian Bruya - 2015 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 14 (3):369-389.
    At the confluence of the philosophy of education and social/political philosophy lies the question of how we should educate the next generation of philosophy professors. Part of the question involves how broad such an education should be in order to educate teachers with the ability to, themselves, educate citizens competent to function in a diverse, globalized world. As traditional Western education systems from elementary schools through universities have embraced multicultural sources over the last few decades, philosophy Ph.D. programs have bucked (...)
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  17. Brian Davies, The Thought of Thomas Aquinas. First Paperback Ed. New York and Oxford: Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, 1993. Paper. Pp. Xvi, 391. $19.95. First Published in 1992. [REVIEW]Brian J. Shanley - 1995 - Speculum 70 (4):895-897.
  18.  32
    The Philosophical Challenge From China.Brian Bruya (ed.) - 2015 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    This collection of new articles brings together major scholars working at the intersection of traditional Chinese philosophy and mainstream analytic philosophy. For some 2,500 years, China's best minds have pondered the human condition, and yet their ideas are almost entirely ignored by mainstream philosophers and philosophy programs. The proposed volume is intended to take a step in remedying that situation by directing sinological resources to current topics in philosophy and doing so in a manner that speaks to practicing philosophers. Contributions (...)
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  19. Can Disembodied Persons Be Spatially Located?Brian J. Smart - 1971 - Analysis 31 (March):133-138.
  20.  82
    The Magical Number 4 in Vision.Brian J. Scholl & Yaoda Xu - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):145-146.
    Some of the evidence for a “magical number 4” has come from the study of visual cognition, and Cowan reinterprets such evidence in terms of a single general limit on memory and attention. We evaluate this evidence, including some studies not mentioned by Cowan, and argue that limitations in visual processing are distinct from those involved in other memory phenomena.
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  21. Innateness and (Bayesian) Visual Perception: Reconciling Nativism and Development.Brian J. Scholl - 2005 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen Stich (eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York.
  22.  36
    Why Circumcision is a Biomedical Imperative for the 21st Century.Brian J. Morris - 2007 - Bioessays 29 (11):1147-1158.
  23. Modularity, Development and "Theory of Mind".Alan M. Leslie & Brian J. Scholl - 1999 - Mind and Language 14 (1):131-153.
    Psychologists and philosophers have recently been exploring whether the mechanisms which underlie the acquisition of ‘theory of mind’ (ToM) are best charac- terized as cognitive modules or as developing theories. In this paper, we attempt to clarify what a modular account of ToM entails, and why it is an attractive type of explanation. Intuitions and arguments in this debate often turn on the role of develop- ment: traditional research on ToM focuses on various developmental sequences, whereas cognitive modules are thought (...)
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  24. Qing (情) and Emotion in Early Chinese Thought.Brian Bruya - 2001 - Ming Qing Yanjiu 2001:151-176.
    In a 1967 article, A. C. Graham made the claim that 情 qing should never be translated as "emotions" in rendering early Chinese texts into English. Over time, sophisticated translators and interpreters have taken this advice to heart, and qing has come to be interpreted as "the facts" or "what is genuine in one." In these English terms all sense of interrelationality is gone, leaving us with a wooden, objective stasis. But we also know, again partly through the work of (...)
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  25.  29
    Can Infants' Object Concepts Be Trained?Brian J. Scholl - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (2):49-51.
  26.  21
    Wisdom Can Be Taught: A Proof-of-Concept Study for Fostering Wisdom in the Classroom.Brian Bruya & Monika Ardelt - 2018 - Learning and Instruction 58:106-114.
    We undertook a short-term longitudinal study to test whether a set of methods common to current theories of wisdom transmission can foster wisdom in students in a measurable way. The three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS) was administered to 131 students in five wisdom-promoting introductory philosophy courses and 176 students in seven introductory philosophy and psychology control courses at the beginning and end of the semester. The experimental group was divided in two (“Wisdom 1” and “Wisdom 2”), and each was taught a (...)
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  27. Aquinas on Pagan Virtue.Brian J. Shanley - 1999 - The Thomist 63 (4):553-577.
     
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  28.  49
    Neural Constraints on Cognitive Modularity?Brian J. Scholl - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):575-576.
    Is innate cognitive modularity consistent with a lack of innate neural modularity? Quartz & Sejnowski's implicit negative answer to his question fuels their antinativist and antimodular cognitive conclusions. I attempt here to suggest a positive answer and to solicit discussion of this crucial issue.
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  29.  36
    Change Blindness, Gibson, and the Sensorimotor Theory of Vision.Brian J. Scholl & Daniel J. Simons - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):1004-1006.
    We suggest that the sensorimotor “theory” of vision is really an unstructured collection of separate ideas, and that much of the evidence cited in its favor at best supports only a subset of these ideas. As an example, we note that work on change blindness does not “vindicate” (or even speak to) much of the sensorimotor framework. Moreover, the ideas themselves are not always internally consistent. Finally, the proposed framework draws on ideas initially espoused by James Gibson, but does little (...)
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  30.  3
    Explanation Recruits Comparison in a Category-Learning Task.Brian J. Edwards, Joseph J. Williams, Dedre Gentner & Tania Lombrozo - 2019 - Cognition 185:21-38.
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  31.  30
    Reasoning, Rationality, and Architectural Resolution.Brian J. Scholl - 1997 - Philosophical Psychology 10 (4):451-470.
    Recent evidence suggests that performance on reasoning tasks may reflect the operation of a number of distinct cognitive mechanisms and processes. This paper explores the implications of this view of the mind for the descriptive and normative assessment of reasoning. I suggest that descriptive questions such as “Are we equipped to reason using rule X?” and normative questions such as “Are we rational?” are obsolete—they do not possess a fine enough grain of architectural resolution to accurately characterize the mind. I (...)
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  32.  14
    Universal Pragmatics and the Formation of Western Civilization: A Critique of Habermas's Theory of Human Moral Evolution.Brian J. Whitton - 1992 - History and Theory 31 (3):299-313.
    The theory of human moral evolution elaborated in the later work of Jürgen Habermas represents one of the most challenging and provocative of recent, linguistically inspired attempts to reinterpret our understanding of Western history. In critically examining this theory, the present article identifies some major problems with Habermas's reinterpretation of the history of the formation of Western civilization as the universal pragmatic process of the evolution of human moral communicative competences. Drawing on the works of Norbert Elias and Michel Foucault, (...)
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  33. Appearance and Reality in The Philosophical Gourmet Report: Why the Discrepancy Matters to the Profession of Philosophy.Brian Bruya - 2015 - Metaphilosophy 46 (4-5):657-690.
    This article is a data-driven critique of The Philosophical Gourmet Report, the most institutionally influential publication in the field of Anglophone philosophy. The PGR is influential because it is perceived to be of high value. The article demonstrates that the actual value of the PGR, in its current form, is not nearly as high as it is assumed to be and that the PGR is, in fact, detrimental to the profession. The article lists and explains five objections to the methods (...)
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  34. Beyond Libertarianism and Compatibilism : Thomas Aquinas on Created Freedom.Brian J. Shanley - 2007 - In Richard L. Velkley (ed.), Freedom and the Human Person. Catholic University of America Press.
  35. Apertures, Draw, and Syntax: Remodeling Attention.Brian Bruya - 2010 - In Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. MIT Press. pp. 219.
    Because psychological studies of attention and cognition are most commonly performed within the strict confines of the laboratory or take cognitively impaired patients as subjects, it is difficult to be sure that resultant models of attention adequately account for the phenomenon of effortless attention. The problem is not only that effortless attention is resistant to laboratory study. A further issue is that because the laboratory is the most common way to approach attention, models resulting from such studies are naturally the (...)
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  36.  36
    Mechanisms of Mind-Body Interaction and Optimal Performance.Yi-Yuan Tang & Brian Bruya - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    Based on recent findings, we propose a framework for a relationship among attention, effort and optimal performance. Optimal performance often refers to an effortless and automatic, flow-like state of performance. Mindfulness regulates the focus of attention to optimal focus on the core component of the action, avoiding too much attention that could be detrimental for elite performance. Balanced attention is a trained state that can optimize any particular attentional activity on the dual-process spectrum.
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  37.  97
    What You See is What You Set: Sustained Inattentional Blindness and the Capture of Awareness.Steven B. Most, Brian J. Scholl, Erin R. Clifford & Daniel J. Simons - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (1):217-242.
  38.  19
    Visual Perception Involves Event-Type Representations: The Case of Containment Versus Occlusion.Brent Strickland & Brian J. Scholl - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (3):570-580.
  39.  31
    Learner Outcome Attainment in Teaching Applied Ethics Versus Case Methodology.Brian J. Huschle - 2012 - Teaching Philosophy 35 (3):243-262.
    The primary purpose of this study is to identify differences in at­tainment of learning outcomes for ethics courses delivered using two distinct teaching approaches. The first approach uses a case based method in the context of applied moral issues within medical practice. The second approach surveys moral theories in the context of applied moral issues. Significant differences are found in the attainment of learner outcomes between the two groups. In particular, attainment of outcomes related to moral decision-making is higher in (...)
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  40.  45
    Inference and Explanation in Counterfactual Reasoning.Lance J. Rips & Brian J. Edwards - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):1107-1135.
    This article reports results from two studies of how people answer counterfactual questions about simple machines. Participants learned about devices that have a specific configuration of components, and they answered questions of the form “If component X had not operated [failed], would component Y have operated?” The data from these studies indicate that participants were sensitive to the way in which the antecedent state is described—whether component X “had not operated” or “had failed.” Answers also depended on whether the device (...)
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  41.  17
    Closed Models and Open Systems.Brian J. Loasby - 2003 - Journal of Economic Methodology 10 (3):285-306.
    Rational choice theory relies on premises that are correct and complete; but, in general, neither can be assured. Knowledge is an open system of selected relationships and the adequacy of our representations of phenomena is always subject to Knightian uncertainty. The management of industrial research projects requires the exploration of this uncertainty, with the aid of provisionally closed models. Systems are defined by their elements and their connections, and the incompleteness of connections aids adjustment to external change and also promotes (...)
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  42.  28
    Explanation‐Driven Inquiry: Integrating Conceptual and Epistemic Scaffolds for Scientific Inquiry.William A. Sandoval & Brian J. Reiser - 2004 - Science Education 88 (3):345-372.
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  43.  29
    Habermas and Religious Inclusion.Brian J. Shaw - 1999 - Political Theory 27 (5):634-666.
    Such a moral theology not only provides us with a convincing certainty of God's being, but it also has the great advantage that it leads us to religion, since it joins the thought of God firmly to our morality, and in this way it even makes better men of us. Kant, Lectures on Philosophical TheologyThis philosophy too, which takes up the thought of confederation in the concept of communicative, historically situated reason, will be able to provide no assurance (keine Zuversicht); (...)
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  44. Cyber Disobedience.Brian J. Huschle - 2002 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (1):69-83.
    In this paper I focus on the role that cyberspace should play in social or political protest, and, in particular, in acts of civil disobedience. I have two main purposes in doing so. First, I want to address the question, “When is hacktivism civil disobedience?” I answer the question by including a more complete and explicit analysis of civil disobedience, as it is affected by information technology, than is currently done in the literature on hacktivism. This allows a clearer answer (...)
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  45.  22
    Augustine in the Predestination Controversy of the Ninth Century.Brian J. Matz - 2016 - Augustinian Studies 47 (1):17-40.
    A debate over whether God predestines some to reprobation broke out in the ninth century. No one actually taught this view, but both John Scotus Eriugena and Hincmar of Rheims, among other churchmen at the time, presumed it to be the view of those who referred to themselves as “double predestinarians.” In part, this was because the double predestinarians had made much of Augustine’s phrase “predestined to punishment,” a phrase that can in fact be found in several of his writings. (...)
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  46. Emotion, Desire, and Numismatic Experience in Descartes, Zhu Xi, and Wang Yangming.Brian Bruya - 2001 - Ming Qing Yanjiu 2001:45-75.
    In this article, I explore the relationship between desire and emotion in Descartes, Zhu Xi, and Wang Yangming with the aim of demonstrating 1) that Zhu Xi, by keying on the detriments of selfishness, represents an improvement over the more sweeping Cartesian suggestion to control desires in general; and 2) that Wang Yangming, in turn, represents an improvement over Zhu Xi by providing a more sophisticated hermeneutic of the cosmology of desire.
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  47.  13
    Herder's Critique of the Enlightenment: Cultural Community Versus Cosmopolitan Rationalism.Brian J. Whitton - 1988 - History and Theory 27 (2):146-168.
    In his theory of history Gottfried von Herder presents a radical critique of the rationalist discourse of cosmopolitan human development advanced by the Enlightenment thinkers of his day. Herder's critique centers around his theory of history as the evolution of the Volk community. He opposed the way the rationalist perspective abstracts historical human development from all connection with the contingent elements of human historical linguistic and cultural practice in the creation of a unified, integrated world. Herder looks instead to a (...)
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  48. Bermudez on Self-Consciousness.Brian J. Garrett - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (210):96-101.
    I argue that José Luis Bermúdez has not shown that there is a paradox in our concept of self-consciousness. The deflationary theory is not a plausible theory of self-consciousness, so its paradoxicality is irrelevant. A more plausible theory, 'the simple theory', is not paradoxical. However, I do think there is a puzzle about the connection between self-consciousness and 'I'-thoughts.
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  49.  20
    Augustine in the Predestination Controversy of the Ninth Century.Brian J. Matz - 2015 - Augustinian Studies 46 (2):155-184.
    A debate over whether God predestines to make some people reprobate broke out in the ninth century. No one taught this view, but it was presumed by several churchmen at the time to be the position of those who called themselves double predestinarians. In part, this article explains why two double predestinarians, Gottschalk of Orbais and Ratramnus of Corbie, were mistaken for proponents of this view. They had been trying to explain Augustine’s phrase, “those predestined to punishment”, which they found (...)
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  50.  22
    Attention and the Detection of Signals.Michael I. Posner, Charles R. Snyder & Brian J. Davidson - 1980 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 109 (2):160-174.
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