Results for 'Brian Jack Copeland'

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  1.  25
    Logic and Reality: Essays on the Legacy of Arthur Prior.Brian Jack Copeland (ed.) - 1996 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Logic and Reality is a collection of essays by philosophers, logicians, mathematicians, and computer scientists, celebrating the work of the late distinguished philosopher Arthur Prior on the eightieth anniversary of his birth. Topics range from philosophical discussions of the nature of time and of the nature of logic itself, to descriptions of computer systems that can reason and take account of the fact that they exist in a temporal world.
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  2. Jack Copeland, "Artifical Intelligence". [REVIEW]John Preston - 1995 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 3 (2):355.
  3.  1
    The Essential Turing: Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life P Lus the Secrets of Enigma.B. Jack Copeland (ed.) - 2004 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press UK.
    Alan Turing, pioneer of computing and WWII codebreaker, is one of the most important and influential thinkers of the twentieth century. In this volume for the first time his key writings are made available to a broad, non-specialist readership. They make fascinating reading both in their own right and for their historic significance: contemporary computational theory, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life all spring from this ground-breaking work, which is also rich in philosophical and logical insight.
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  4.  23
    B. jack Copeland (ed), the essential Turing.Amnon H. Eden - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (1):121-123.
  5.  17
    B. jack Copeland , the essential Turing: The ideas that gave birth to the computer age. Oxford: Clarendon press, 2004. Pp. VIII+613. Isbn 0-19-825079-7. £50.00 . Isbn 0-19-825080-0. £14.99. [REVIEW]Andrew Hodges - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (3):470-471.
  6.  41
    B. Jack Copeland, Carl J. Posy, and Oron Shagrir, eds, Computability: Turing, Gödel, Church, and Beyond. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0-262-01899-9. Pp. x + 362. [REVIEW]Roy T. Cook - 2014 - Philosophia Mathematica 22 (3):412-413.
  7.  19
    The essential Turing, edited by B. Jack Copeland, Oxford University Press, 2004, vii + 613 pp. [REVIEW]Jan Obdržálek - 2005 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 11 (4):541-542.
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  8. Torben Braüner, per Hasle and Peter øhrstrøm/preface Patrick blackburn/arthur prior and hybrid logic B. jack copeland/meredith, prior, and the history of possible worlds semantics.Torben Braüner - 2006 - Synthese 150 (1):509-510.
     
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  9.  4
    Review of The essential turing by B. Jack Copeland (ed), Oxford University Press, Oxford, GB, 2004. [REVIEW]Paul Reviewer-Huygen - 2006 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 14 (1):143-150.
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  10.  22
    The indeterminacy of computation.Nir Fresco, B. Jack Copeland & Marty J. Wolf - 2021 - Synthese 199 (5-6):12753-12775.
    Do the dynamics of a physical system determine what function the system computes? Except in special cases, the answer is no: it is often indeterminate what function a given physical system computes. Accordingly, care should be taken when the question ‘What does a particular neuronal system do?’ is answered by hypothesising that the system computes a particular function. The phenomenon of the indeterminacy of computation has important implications for the development of computational explanations of biological systems. Additionally, the phenomenon lends (...)
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  11. The Essential Turing: Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life: Plus the Secrets of Enigma.Jack Copeland (ed.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Alan M. Turing, pioneer of computing and WWII codebreaker, is one of the most important and influential thinkers of the twentieth century. In this volume for the first time his key writings are made available to a broad, non-specialist readership. They make fascinating reading both in their own right and for their historic significance: contemporary computational theory, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life all spring from this ground-breaking work, which is also rich in philosophical and logical insight. An introduction (...)
     
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  12.  82
    Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction.Jack Copeland - 1993 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Presupposing no familiarity with the technical concepts of either philosophy or computing, this clear introduction reviews the progress made in AI since the inception of the field in 1956. Copeland goes on to analyze what those working in AI must achieve before they can claim to have built a thinking machine and appraises their prospects of succeeding. There are clear introductions to connectionism and to the language of thought hypothesis which weave together material from philosophy, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. (...)
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  13. What is computation?B. Jack Copeland - 1996 - Synthese 108 (3):335-59.
    To compute is to execute an algorithm. More precisely, to say that a device or organ computes is to say that there exists a modelling relationship of a certain kind between it and a formal specification of an algorithm and supporting architecture. The key issue is to delimit the phrase of a certain kind. I call this the problem of distinguishing between standard and nonstandard models of computation. The successful drawing of this distinction guards Turing's 1936 analysis of computation against (...)
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  14. Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction.B. Jack Copeland - 1993 - Cambridge: Blackwell.
    Presupposing no familiarity with the technical concepts of either philosophy or computing, this clear introduction reviews the progress made in AI since the inception of the field in 1956. Copeland goes on to analyze what those working in AI must achieve before they can claim to have built a thinking machine and appraises their prospects of succeeding.There are clear introductions to connectionism and to the language of thought hypothesis which weave together material from philosophy, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. John (...)
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  15. The genesis of possible worlds semantics.B. Jack Copeland - 2002 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 31 (2):99-137.
    This article traces the development of possible worlds semantics through the work of: Wittgenstein, 1913-1921; Feys, 1924; McKinsey, 1945; Carnap, 1945-1947; McKinsey, Tarski and Jónsson, 1947-1952; von Wright, 1951; Becker, 1952; Prior, 1953-1954; Montague, 1955; Meredith and Prior, 1956; Geach, 1960; Smiley, 1955-1957; Kanger, 1957; Hintikka, 1957; Guillaume, 1958; Binkley, 1958; Bayart, 1958-1959; Drake, 1959-1961; Kripke, 1958-1965.
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  16. The Church-Turing Thesis.B. Jack Copeland - 2008 - In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
    There are various equivalent formulations of the Church-Turing thesis. A common one is that every effective computation can be carried out by a Turing machine. The Church-Turing thesis is often misunderstood, particularly in recent writing in the philosophy of mind.
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  17. Hypercomputation.B. Jack Copeland - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (4):461-502.
  18. The Turing test.B. Jack Copeland - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (4):519-539.
    Turing''s test has been much misunderstood. Recently unpublished material by Turing casts fresh light on his thinking and dispels a number of philosophical myths concerning the Turing test. Properly understood, the Turing test withstands objections that are popularly believed to be fatal.
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  19. Narrow Versus Wide Mechanism: Including a Re-Examination of Turing’s Views on the Mind-Machine Issue.B. Jack Copeland - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy 97 (1):5-32.
  20.  73
    Beyond the universal Turing machine.B. Jack Copeland & Richard Sylvan - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-66.
  21. Accelerating Turing machines.B. Jack Copeland - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (2):281-300.
    Accelerating Turing machines are Turing machines of a sort able to perform tasks that are commonly regarded as impossible for Turing machines. For example, they can determine whether or not the decimal representation of contains n consecutive 7s, for any n; solve the Turing-machine halting problem; and decide the predicate calculus. Are accelerating Turing machines, then, logically impossible devices? I argue that they are not. There are implications concerning the nature of effective procedures and the theoretical limits of computability. Contrary (...)
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  22. Do accelerating Turing machines compute the uncomputable?B. Jack Copeland & Oron Shagrir - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (2):221-239.
    Accelerating Turing machines have attracted much attention in the last decade or so. They have been described as “the work-horse of hypercomputation”. But do they really compute beyond the “Turing limit”—e.g., compute the halting function? We argue that the answer depends on what you mean by an accelerating Turing machine, on what you mean by computation, and even on what you mean by a Turing machine. We show first that in the current literature the term “accelerating Turing machine” is used (...)
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  23.  70
    On Alan Turing's Anticipation of Connectionism.Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot - 1996 - Synthese 108:361-367.
    It is not widely realised that Turing was probably the first person to consider building computing machines out of simple, neuron-like elements connected together into networks in a largely random manner. Turing called his networks 'unorganised machines'. By the application of what he described as 'appropriate interference, mimicking education' an unorganised machine can be trained to perform any task that a Turing machine can carry out, provided the number of 'neurons' is sufficient. Turing proposed simulating both the behaviour of the (...)
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  24.  66
    Deviant encodings and Turing’s analysis of computability.B. Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (3):247-252.
    Turing’s analysis of computability has recently been challenged; it is claimed that it is circular to analyse the intuitive concept of numerical computability in terms of the Turing machine. This claim threatens the view, canonical in mathematics and cognitive science, that the concept of a systematic procedure or algorithm is to be explicated by reference to the capacities of Turing machines. We defend Turing’s analysis against the challenge of ‘deviant encodings’.Keywords: Systematic procedure; Turing machine; Church–Turing thesis; Deviant encoding; Acceptable encoding; (...)
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  25. Super turing-machines.B. Jack Copeland - 1998 - Complexity 4 (1):30-32.
  26. The broad conception of computation.Jack Copeland - 1997 - American Behavioral Scientist 40 (6):690-716.
    A myth has arisen concerning Turing's paper of 1936, namely that Turing set forth a fundamental principle concerning the limits of what can be computed by machine - a myth that has passed into cognitive science and the philosophy of mind, to wide and pernicious effect. This supposed principle, sometimes incorrectly termed the 'Church-Turing thesis', is the claim that the class of functions that can be computed by machines is identical to the class of functions that can be computed by (...)
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  27. Beyond the universal Turing machine.Jack Copeland - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-67.
    We describe an emerging field, that of nonclassical computability and nonclassical computing machinery. According to the nonclassicist, the set of well-defined computations is not exhausted by the computations that can be carried out by a Turing machine. We provide an overview of the field and a philosophical defence of its foundations.
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  28. The Essential Turing.B. Jack Copeland - 2005 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 11 (4):541-542.
     
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  29.  2
    Alan Turing, Father of the Modern Computer.Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot - 2011 - Rutherford Journal: The New Zealand Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology 4.
  30. Turing and the Computer.Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot - 2012 - In Jack Copeland & Others (eds.), Alan Turing's Electronic Brain: The Struggle to Build the Ace, the World's Fastest Computer. Oxford and New York: pp. 107-148.
  31. On Alan Turing's anticipation of connectionism.Jack Copeland - 1996 - Synthese 108 (3):361-377.
    It is not widely realised that Turing was probably the first person to consider building computing machines out of simple, neuron-like elements connected together into networks in a largely random manner. Turing called his networks unorganised machines. By the application of what he described as appropriate interference, mimicking education an unorganised machine can be trained to perform any task that a Turing machine can carry out, provided the number of neurons is sufficient. Turing proposed simulating both the behaviour of the (...)
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  32. Physical Computation: How General are Gandy’s Principles for Mechanisms?B. Jack Copeland & Oron Shagrir - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (2):217-231.
    What are the limits of physical computation? In his ‘Church’s Thesis and Principles for Mechanisms’, Turing’s student Robin Gandy proved that any machine satisfying four idealised physical ‘principles’ is equivalent to some Turing machine. Gandy’s four principles in effect define a class of computing machines (‘Gandy machines’). Our question is: What is the relationship of this class to the class of all (ideal) physical computing machines? Gandy himself suggests that the relationship is identity. We do not share this view. We (...)
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  33. Super Turing-machines.Jack Copeland - 1998 - Complexity 4 (1):30-32.
    The tape is divided into squares, each square bearing a single symbol—'0' or '1', for example. This tape is the machine's general-purpose storage medium: the machine is set in motion with its input inscribed on the tape, output is written onto the tape by the head, and the tape serves as a short-term working memory for the results of intermediate steps of the computation. The program governing the particular computation that the machine is to perform is also stored on the (...)
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  34. The Inconceivable Popularity of Conceivability Arguments.Douglas I. Campbell, Jack Copeland & Zhuo-Ran Deng - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (267):223-240.
    Famous examples of conceivability arguments include (i) Descartes’ argument for mind-body dualism, (ii) Kripke's ‘modal argument’ against psychophysical identity theory, (iii) Chalmers’ ‘zombie argument’ against materialism, and (iv) modal versions of the ontological argument for theism. In this paper, we show that for any such conceivability argument, C, there is a corresponding ‘mirror argument’, M. M is deductively valid and has a conclusion that contradicts C's conclusion. Hence, a proponent of C—henceforth, a ‘conceivabilist’—can be warranted in holding that C's premises (...)
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  35. The chinese room from a logical point of view.B. Jack Copeland - 2003 - In John M. Preston & John Mark Bishop (eds.), Views Into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence. Oxford University Press.
     
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  36. The curious case of the chinese gym.B. Jack Copeland - 1993 - Synthese 95 (2):173-86.
    Searle has recently used two adaptations of his Chinese room argument in an attack on connectionism. I show that these new forms of the argument are fallacious. First I give an exposition of and rebuttal to the original Chinese room argument, and then a brief introduction to the essentials of connectionism.
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  37. Artificial Intelligence.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2011 - In E. Margolis, R. Samuels & S. Stich (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science. pp. 147-182.
    In this article the central philosophical issues concerning human-level artificial intelligence (AI) are presented. AI largely changed direction in the 1980s and 1990s, concentrating on building domain-specific systems and on sub-goals such as self-organization, self-repair, and reliability. Computer scientists aimed to construct intelligence amplifiers for human beings, rather than imitation humans. Turing based his test on a computer-imitates-human game, describing three versions of this game in 1948, 1950, and 1952. The famous version appears in a 1950 article in Mind, ‘Computing (...)
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  38. Turing's o-machines, Searle, Penrose, and the brain.Jack Copeland - 1998 - Analysis 58 (2):128-138.
    In his PhD thesis (1938) Turing introduced what he described as 'a new kind of machine'. He called these 'O-machines'. The present paper employs Turing's concept against a number of currently fashionable positions in the philosophy of mind.
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  39. The Turing Guide.Jack Copeland, Jonathan Bowen, Robin Wilson & Mark Sprevak (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This volume celebrates the various facets of Alan Turing (1912–1954), the British mathematician and computing pioneer, widely considered as the father of computer science. It is aimed at the general reader, with additional notes and references for those who wish to explore the life and work of Turing more deeply. -/- The book is divided into eight parts, covering different aspects of Turing’s life and work. -/- Part I presents various biographical aspects of Turing, some from a personal point of (...)
  40.  77
    On Vague Objects, Fuzzy Logic and Fractal Boundaries.B. Jack Copeland - 1995 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 33 (S1):83-96.
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  41.  63
    The modern history of computing.B. Jack Copeland - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  42. Vague identity and fuzzy logic.B. Jack Copeland - 1997 - Journal of Philosophy 94 (10):514-534.
  43.  20
    Arthur prior.B. Jack Copeland - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  44. Even Turing machines can compute uncomputable functions.Jack Copeland - unknown
    Accelerated Turing machines are Turing machines that perform tasks commonly regarded as impossible, such as computing the halting function. The existence of these notional machines has obvious implications concerning the theoretical limits of computability.
     
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  45. Meredith, prior, and the history of possible worlds semantics.B. Jack Copeland - 2006 - Synthese 150 (3):373-397.
    This paper charts some early history of the possible worlds semantics for modal logic, starting with the pioneering work of Prior and Meredith. The contributions of Geach, Hintikka, Kanger, Kripke, Montague, and Smiley are also discussed.
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  46.  13
    Vague Identity and Fuzzy Logic.B. Jack Copeland - 1997 - Journal of Philosophy 94 (10):514.
  47.  52
    Prior, translational semantics, and the Barcan formula.B. Jack Copeland - 2016 - Synthese 193 (11):3507-3519.
    The revolution in semantics in the late 1960s and 1970s overturned an earlier competing paradigm, ‘translational’ semantics. I revive and defend Prior’s translational semantics for modals and tense-modals. I also show how to extend Prior’s propositional modal semantics to quantificational modal logic, and use the resulting semantics to formalize Prior’s own counterexample to the Barcan Formula.
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  48. Logic and Reality: Essays on the Legacy of Arthur Prior.Jack Copeland - 2000 - Mind 109 (435):570-573.
     
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  49. Logic and Reality: Essays on the Legacy of Arthur Prior.Jack Copeland - 1999 - Studia Logica 62 (3):445-448.
     
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  50. Prior's life and legacy.B. Jack Copeland - 1996 - In Logic and Reality: Essays on the Legacy of Arthur Prior. Oxford University Press. pp. 1--40.
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