In this Issue Content Type Journal Article Pages 7-9 Authors Jason M. Wirth Michael Schwartz Journal Comparative and Continental Philosophy Online ISSN 1757-0646 Print ISSN 1757-0638 Journal Volume Volume 4 Journal Issue Volume 4, Number 1 / 2012.
2015 Reprint of Original 1936 American Edition. Exact facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Karl Mannheim was a Hungarian-born sociologist, influential in the first half of the 20th century and one of the founding fathers of classical sociology as well as a founder of the sociology of knowledge. His essays on the sociology of knowledge have become classics in the field. In "Ideology and Utopia" he argued that the application of the term ideology ought to (...) be broadened. He traced the history of the term from what he called a "particular" view. This view originally saw ideology as the perhaps deliberate obscuring of facts. Over time this view gave way to a "total" conception (most notably in Marx), which argued that a whole social group's thought was formed by its social position (e.g. the proletariat's beliefs were conditioned by their relationship to the means of production). However, he called for a further step, which he called a general total conception of ideology, in which it was recognized that everyone's beliefs-including the social scientist's-were a product of the context they were created in. Mannheim points out social class, location and generation as the greatest determinants of knowledge. He feared this could lead to relativism but proposed the idea of relationism as an antidote. To uphold the distinction, he maintained that the recognition of different perspectives according to differences in time and social location appears arbitrary only to an abstract and disembodied theory of knowledge. (shrink)
After a long period of neglect that began in his lifetime, why has Schelling reemerged as an important philosopher, germane to contemporary concerns? In the first part of this essay I offer a brief history of Schelling’s early descent into obscurity and gradual ascent back into the light of philosophical relevance. In the second and final part of the essay, I offer a brief survey of the current Schelling resurgence in the English speaking reception of Continental philosophy.
Phylogenetic, epigenetic, and neurophysiological data characterize the specificity and limitations of the systems that support individual face recognition in human and non-human primates. The central question of the recognition of the faces of other species explores the processes that lead to the remarkable face expertise that humans and non-humans develop for members of their own species. This article reviews the literature on categorization/recognition abilities within and across species in human and non-human primates. It evaluates whether it is possible for a (...) species to perceive other species faces at the same level of expertise as for their own species. The neural substrate and the current models of neuronal processing that support face processing in human and non-human primates are described. Finally, it discusses the developmental data pertaining to face processing in human and non-human primates, challenging the view that face processing can be plastic in adults. (shrink)
Thinkers like Slavoj Žižek and Tim Morton have heralded the end of our ideological constructions of nature, warning that popular “ecology” or the “natural” is just the latest opiate of the masses. Attempting to think what I call Nature after Nature, I turn to the Kamakura period Zen master Dōgen Eihei to explore the possibilities of thinking Nature in its non-ideological self-presentation or what Dōgen called “mountains and rivers.” I bring Dōgen into dialogue with his great champion, the American poet (...) Gary Snyder, as well as with thinkers as diverse as Schelling, Kundera, Žižek, Agamben, and Muir. Beyond Nature being any one thing, what Badiou derides as the “cosmological one,” I argue for the reawakening and sobering up to multiple Nature, beyond its appearance as an object to a discerning subject, as the bioregions which give us our interdependent and dynamic being. (shrink)
Using Heijenoort’s unpublished generalized rules of quantification, we discuss the proof of Herbrand’s Fundamental Theorem in the form of Heijenoort’s correction of Herbrand’s “False Lemma” and present a didactic example. Although we are mainly concerned with the inner structure of Herbrand’s Fundamental Theorem and the questions of its quality and its depth, we also discuss the outer questions of its historical context and why Bernays called it “the central theorem of predicate logic” and considered the form of its expression to (...) be “concise and felicitous”. (shrink)
ZusammenfassungEs ist ein Standard-Verfahren der Medizinethik, auf die Möglichkeit des Missbrauchs solcher Instrumente hinzuweisen, die im lege-artis-Gebrauch legitim sein können. Ein etabliertes Instrument der medizinischen Praxis sind paternalistische Handlungen, die bei geringer Reichweite individueller Entscheidungskompetenz, etwa bei Minderjährigen, verantwortliches Handeln absichern sollen. In der bisherigen Debatte wird Paternalismus als Problem eines ungerechtfertigten oder übermäßigen Gebrauchs diskutiert. Bislang erscheint in der medizinethischen Paternalismus-Debatte das Problem des scheinbaren Paternalismus zu wenig reflektiert. Auch die Thematik der sexualisierten Gewalt gegen Minderjährige im medizinischen Setting (...) ist bisher wenig beachtet worden. Für diese spezifische Form der Gewalt gibt es verschiedene Ermöglichungsbedingungen. Eine wichtige liegt in der Akzeptanz paternalistischer Handlungen im medizinischen Kontext. Denn ein scheinbarer Paternalismus im Zusammenhang mit sexualisierter Gewalt gegen Minderjährige profitiert von der Praxis des passageren Übergehens des aktuellen Willens eines Kindes. Der prominente Fall Larry Nassars, der als Teamarzt der US-Kunstturnerinnen in hunderten Fällen junge Patientinnen sexualisierter Gewalt ausgesetzt hat, macht auf die Möglichkeit sexualisierter Gewalt durch medizinisches Personal aufmerksam. Geht es in der Paternalismus-Debatte um die Frage, in welchen Zusammenhängen Paternalismus problematisch oder unproblematisch ist, so trägt diese Studie den Problemaspekt der Täuschung im Zusammenhang mit sexualisierter Gewalt bei. Sie leistet damit einerseits einen Beitrag zur Thematisierung sexualisierter Gewalt im klinischen Kontext, und sie trägt zum anderen zur medizinethischen Diskussion des Paternalismus bei, die nicht von der Möglichkeit des Schein-Paternalismus absehen sollte. Unter Schein-Paternalismus oder fingiertem Paternalismus wird hier eine Haltung und Praxis verstanden, die in der Gestalt eines Paternalismus eigene Interessen des Agierenden zum Schaden der in Abhängigkeit befindlichen Person verfolgt und Fürsorgepflichten ignoriert. Denn die kindliche Gewöhnung an die Unterordnung des eigenen Willens und Körpers im asymmetrischen klinischen Kontext kann dazu genutzt werden, fingierten Paternalismus zu etablieren. Die Rede vom Schein-Paternalismus soll dabei aber nicht darüber hinwegtäuschen, dass die Grenzziehung zwischen Paternalismus und Nicht-Paternalismus in der Praxis ebenso komplex ist wie diejenige zwischen körperlich-asexueller und körperlich-sexueller Gewalt. Ein präzises und transparentes lege-artis-Modell des Paternalismus soll hier als Basis für die Prävention sexualisierter Gewalt im klinischen Kontext diskutiert werden. Methodisch basiert diese Arbeit auf einer Auswertung der interdisziplinären Fachliteratur zur sexualisierten Gewalt im klinischen Kontext und zum Paternalismus. Es folgt dann eine Zusammenfügung der so gewonnenen Erkenntnisse, sodass am Ende eine komplexere Aussage AB über das Verhältnis von sexualisierter Gewalt und Schein-Paternalismus steht. (shrink)
Continental philosophy, beginning with Kant, has found itself exposed to the abyss of reason. This crisis makes it a more ready dialogue partner with some of the Zen tradition. I explore this opening by bringing Eihei Dōgen into an encounter with Continental thought, broadly construed. Rather than demonstrate how Dōgen already fits within Continental thought or re-engineering the latter so that he can fit, I argue that this encounter, already precipitated by Continental philosophy’s own acknowledgement of the felix culpa of (...) Western philosophy’s otherwise indefensible overreach, transforms and expands the manners in which thinking counts as philosophical. This is no less than to recover a sense of philosophy as genetic and creative, rather than a shopworn tool kit of universal insights. (shrink)
John McCumber’s new book takes up the current professional crisis in the discipline of philosophy and traces it back to a series of fateful philosophical distinctions that have resulted in an oppressively substantialist disposition and, in so doing, have rendered philosophy pernicious. When humankind thrives, philosophy wanes, but when philosophy thrives, humankind generally wanes. In reviewing McCumber’s timely and important work, I also reflect on philosophy’s current crisis of relevance, both in itself and with reference to this journal.
ABSTRACTDot-probe studies usually find an attentional bias towards threatening stimuli only in anxious participants, but not in non-anxious participants. In the present study, we conducted two experiments to investigate whether attentional bias towards angry faces in unselected samples is moderated by the extent to which the current task requires social processing. In Experiment 1, participants performed a dot-probe task involving classification of either socially meaningful targets or meaningless targets. Targets were preceded by two photographic face cues, one angry and one (...) neutral. Angry face cues only produced significant cueing scores with socially meaningful targets, not with meaningless targets. In Experiment 2, participants classified only meaningful targets, which were either socially meaningful or not. Again, mean cue... (shrink)
This paper addresses the question of the earth. I center this effort on a reading of the figure of animality in the writings of Nietzsche and Bataille. I begin by accepting one of the decisive questions (die Entscheidungen) that Heidegger poses in the Beiträge zur Philosophie: "Whether nature is degraded to the exploitative place of calculation and furnishing and to an opportunity to 'have an experience' or whether nature as the self-closing Earth bears the opening of a world without image." (...) In an attempt to think the Earth, I argue that the human as a natural kind emerges in denial or flight from animality. Animality renders natural kinds porous. It does not congeal into a categorically delimitable operation, but rather interrupts and multiplies such operations. Moreover, they multiply them with what Nietzsche called "transvaluative" force. Animality contests the closure of a discourse on kinds of animals. (shrink)
Zillmann's mood-management theory has acquired a prominent place in media psychology and makes reliable predictions about people's hedonistically motivated mood regulation via entertainment offerings. However, the full potential for explaining affect regulation through media usage has not been exhausted so far. Therefore, we aim at an integrative view of the field based on empirical findings from communication studies as well as on the background of contemporary theories of mood and emotion. The purpose of this analysis is to argue towards an (...) integrative theoretical perspective which considers both unconscious and conscious/reflected processes of affect regulation through media, supplements the hedonistic motive with other non-hedonistic, instrumental motives of affect regulation, looks at selection behavior as well as at other behavioral and cognitive strategies of affect regulation, and encompasses individual attributes. (shrink)
_ Source: _Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 117 - 134 This essay attends to both the critical and poetic work of David Pollard. In so doing, it not only engages the works themselves, but also allows the contours of such an engagement to manifest themselves, both with regards to the works at hand and more broadly. What does reading and thinking with Pollard give us to experience about reading and thinking as such?