The first part of the paper deals with some subclasses of B-algebras and their applications to the semantics of SCI B , the Boolean strengthening of the sentential calculus with identity (SCI). In the second part a generalization of the McKinsey-Tarski construction of well-connected topological Boolean, algebras to the class of B-algebras is given.
The starting point for the investigation in this paper is the following McKinsey-Tarski's Theorem: if f and g are algebraic functions (of the same number of variables) in a topological Boolean algebra (TBA) and if C(f)C(g) vanishes identically, then either f or g vanishes identically. The present paper generalizes this theorem to B-algebras and shows that validity of that theorem in a variety of B-algebras (B-variety) generated by SCI B -equations implies that its free Lindenbaum-Tarski's algebra is normal. This is (...) important in the semantical analysis of SCI B (the Boolean strengthening of the sentential calculus with identity, SCI) since normal B-algebras are just models of this logic. The rest part of the paper is concerned with relationships between some closure systems of filters, SCI B -theories, B-varieties and closed sets of SCI B -equations that have been derived both from the semantics of SCI B and from the semantics of the usual equational logic. (shrink)
This paper deals with Boolean algebras supplied with an additional binary operation, calledB-algebras for short.The aim of the paper is to generalize some theorems concerning topological Boolean algebras to more comprehensive classes ofB-algebras, to formulate fundamental properties ofB-algebras, and to find more important relationships of these algebras to other known algebras.
La réflexion sur l’éthique et la déontologie des médias en Afrique de l’Ouest suscite diverses questions. Il convient d’abord de clarifier les concepts pour alimenter le débat qui a ses moments forts, notamment pendant les périodes électorales.D’un côté, les professionnels de l’information, les acteurs des médias mettent l’accent sur la nécessaire liberté de la presse et peuvent être en porte-à-faux dans leur pratique avec la philosophie et les règles de la profession. D’un autre côté, différentes institutions, que ce soit les (...) institutions gouvernementales, la société civile ou de « simples » citoyens, s’appuient sur les médias, mais les interpellent au sujet d’une liberté qui ne saurait être sans responsabilité.Il s’agira donc de contextualiser l’environnement d’intervention des médias et d’examiner les réponses données aux problèmes posés y compris par les citoyens dans leurs rapports aux médias. La mise en place d’une législation et de structures institutionnelles – que ce soit les organes de régulation, dans leur diversité, ou de manière plus problématique, les organes d’autorégulation ou le tribunal des pairs – montre qu’il existe une dynamique à prendre en compte dans le développement des médias en Afrique de l’Ouest.Enfin, nous nous attaquerons à quelques défis, qu’il s’agisse de la formation des professionnels, de la pratique des médias en période de conflit ou des technologies de l’information et de la communication, pour montrer que l’éthique et la déontologie sont au cœur du développement démocratique en Afrique de l’Ouest et en sont un élément constitutif. (shrink)
Author: Starzyńska-Kościuszko Ewa Title: BRONISŁAW F. TRENTOWSKI – “POLISH HEGEL”, “POLISH SCHELLING” OR “POLISH KRAUSE” (Bronisław F. Trentowski – „polski Hegel”, „polski Schelling”, „polski Krause”) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2005, vol:.5, number: 2005/1, pages: 125-138 Keywords: TRENTOWSKI, HEGEL, SCHELING, KRAUSE Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:In this article author wanted to answer a question: Is Trentowski an original thinker or Polish imitator of Hegel’s, Schelling’s and Krause’s philosophy? Referring to existing settlements (...) and analyses, author finds that Trentowski was the original thinker. He criticized and carried on a controversy with Hegel, Schelling and Krause. What is more, Trentowski always modified their ideas in a very creative way. (shrink)
Just as Kaplansky  has introduced the notion of an AW*-module as a generalization of a complex Hilbert space, we introduce the notion of an AL*-algebra, which is a generalization of that of an L*-algebra invented by Schue [9, 10]. By using Boolean valued methods developed by Ozawa [6–8], Takeuti [11–13] and others, we establish its basic properties including a fundamental structure theorem. This paper should be regarded as a continuation or our previous paper , the familiarity with which is (...) presupposed. MSC: 03C90, 03E40, 17B65, 46L10. (shrink)
By creating an unbounded topological reduction theory for complex Hilbert spaces over Stonean spaces, we can give a category-theoretic duality between Boolean valued analysis and topological reduction theory for complex Hilbert spaces. MSC: 03C90, 03E40, 06E15, 46M99.
Argues that the key distinction between human and nonhuman social cognition consists in our complex, diverse and flexible capacities to shape each other's minds in ways that make them easier to interpret.
Astronauts often report experiences of awe and wonder while traveling in space. This paper addresses the question of whether awe and wonder can be scientifically investigated in a simulated space travel scenario using a neurophenomenological method. To answer this question, we created a mixed-reality simulation similar to the environment of the International Space Station. Portals opened to display simulations of Earth or Deep Space. However, the challenge still remained of how to best capture the resulting experience of participants. We could (...) use psychological methods, neuroscientific methods or philosophical methods. Each of these approaches offer many benefits, but each is also limited. Neurophenomenology capitalises on and integrates all three methods. We employed questionnaires from psychology, electroencephalography, electrocardiography, and functional near-infrared spectroscopy from neuroscience, and a phenomenological interview technique from philosophy. This neurophenomenological method enabled extensive insight in experiencers and non-experiencers of awe and wonder in a simulated space scenario that otherwise would not have been possible. Traditional empirical analyses were completed, followed by individual differences analyses using interview transcriptions paired with physiological responses. Experiencers of AW showed differences in theta and beta activity throughout the brain compared to non-experiencers. Questionnaires indicated that non-experiencers of AW gave more positive responses of religious and spiritual practices than experiencers of AW. Interviews showed that awe and wonder were more likely to occur when watching the simulated Earth view instead of the Deep Space view. Our study is a successful example of neurophenomenology, a powerful and promising interdisciplinary approach for future studies of complex states of experience. (shrink)
According to the paradigm of adaptive rationality, successful inference and prediction methods tend to be local and frugal. As a complement to work within this paradigm, we investigate the problem of selecting an optimal combination of prediction methods from a given toolbox of such local methods, in the context of changing environments. These selection methods are called meta-inductive strategies, if they are based on the success-records of the toolbox-methods. No absolutely optimal MI strategy exists—a fact that we call the “revenge (...) of ecological rationality”. Nevertheless one can show that a certain MI strategy exists, called “AW”, which is universally long-run optimal, with provably small short-run losses, in comparison to any set of prediction methods that it can use as input. We call this property universal access-optimality. Local and short-run improvements over AW are possible, but only at the cost of forfeiting universal access-optimality. The last part of the paper includes an empirical study of MI strategies in application to an 8-year-long data set from the Monash University Footy Tipping Competition. (shrink)
We propose a new schema for the deduction theorem and prove that the deductive system S of a prepositional logic L fulfills the proposed schema if and only if there exists a finite set A(p, q) of propositional formulae involving only prepositional letters p and q such that A(p, p) L and p, A(p, q) s q.
We describe a prediction method called "Attractivity Weighting" (AW). In the case of cue-based paired comparison tasks, AW's prediction is based on a weighted average of the cue values of the most successful cues. In many situations, AW's prediction is based on the cue value of the most successful cue, resulting in behavior similar to Take-the-Best (TTB). Unlike TTB, AW has a desirable characteristic called "access optimality": Its long-run success is guaranteed to be at least as great as the most (...) successful cue. While access optimality is a desirable characteristic, concerns may be raised about the short-term performance of AW. To evaluate such concerns, we here present a study of AW's short-term performance. The results suggest that there is little reason to worry about the short-run performance of AW. Our study also shows that, in random sequences of paired comparison tasks, the behavior of AW and TTB is nearly indiscernible. (shrink)
We say that a semantical function is correlated with a syntactical function F iff for any structure A and any sentence we have A F A .It is proved that for a syntactical function F there is a semantical function correlated with F iff F preserves propositional connectives up to logical equivalence. For a semantical function there is a syntactical function F correlated with iff for any finitely axiomatizable class X the class –1X is also finitely axiomatizable (i.e. iff is (...) continuous in model class topology). (shrink)