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Bruce R. Reichenbach [43]Bruce Reichenbach [20]Bruce Robert Reichenbach [1]
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Bruce Reichenbach
Augsburg College
  1.  68
    Reason and Religious Belief: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion.Michael Peterson, William Hasker, Bruce Reichenbach & David Basinger - 2008 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    What is the status of belief in God? Must a rational case be made or can such belief be properly basic? Is it possible to reconcile the concept of a good God with evil and suffering? In light of great differences among religions, can only one religion be true? The most comprehensive work of its kind, Reason and Religious Belief, now in its fourth edition, explores these and other perennial questions in the philosophy of religion. Drawing from the best in (...)
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  2.  79
    Evil and a Good God.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1982 - Fordham University Press.
    I argue that the atheological claim that the existence of pain and suffering either contradicts or makes improbable God's existence or his possession of certain critical properties cannot be sustained. The construction of a theodicy for both moral and natural evils is the focus of the central part of the book. In the final chapters I analyze the concept of the best possible world and the properties of goodness and omnipotence insofar as they are predicated of God.
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  3. Natural Evils and Natural Laws: A Theodicy for Natural Evils.Bruce Reichenbach - 1976 - International Philosophical Quarterly 16 (2):179-196.
    CRITIQUES OF THEODICIES FOR NATURAL EVIL, DERIVED FROM NATURAL LAWS, SUGGEST TWO REQUIREMENTS THAT A SUCCESSFUL THEODICY PURPORTEDLY MUST SATISFY. REQUIREMENT (1)-- THAT THE THEIST MUST SHOW THAT IT IS CONTRADICTORY OR ABSURD FOR GOD TO INTERVENE IN THE WORLD IN A MIRACULOUS FASHION TO ELIMINATE NATURAL EVIL--IS MET BY SHOWING THAT IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR GOD TO CREATE A WORLD GOVERNED BY DIVINE MIRACULOUS INTERVENTION. AS FOR REQUIREMENT (2) -- THAT THE THEIST MUST SHOW THAT IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR (...)
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  4. Defending Compatibilism.Bruce Reichenbach - 2017 - Science, Religion, and Culture 2 (4):63-71.
    It is a truism that where one starts from and the direction one goes determines where one ends up. This is no less true in philosophy than elsewhere, and certainly no less true in matters dealing with the relationship between God’s foreknowledge and human free actions. In what follows I will argue that the incompatibilist view that Fischer and others stalwartly defend results from the particular starting point they choose, and that if one adopts a different starting point about divine (...)
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  5.  4
    Epistemic Obligations: Truth, Individualism, and the Limits of Belief.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 2012 - Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.
    The book's key questions concern whether we have a right to believe whatever we choose and whether we have significant control over our beliefs. After exploring four case studies in which the question of a right to believe arises and querying what epistemic obligations are, we consider how epistemic obligations might be grounded, whether in prudence, morality, or human virtues. Some argue that epistemic excellence is less concerned with our obligations to believe the truth and avoid falsehood than with seeing (...)
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  6.  46
    Omniscience and Deliberation.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1984 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 16 (3):225 - 236.
    I argue that if deliberation is incompatible with (fore)knowing what one is going to do at the time of the deliberation, then God cannot deliberate. However, this thesis cannot be used to show either that God cannot act intentionally or that human persons cannot deliberate. Further, I have suggested that though omniscience is incompatible with deliberation, it is not incompatible with either some speculation or knowing something on the grounds of inference.
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  7. The Cosmological Argument: A Reassessment.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1972 - Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.
    The book adapts St. Thomas's Third Way of demonstrating the existence of God in light of contemporary issues in philosophy. Major topics in this study are causation, the principles of causation and sufficient reason, logical and real necessity, causation of the cosmos, and non-dependency of the cosmological on the ontological argument.
     
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  8.  59
    Must God Create the Best Possible World?Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1979 - International Philosophical Quarterly 19 (2):203-212.
    I ARGUE THAT THE NOTION OF THE BEST POSSIBLE WORLD IS MEANINGLESS AND THEREFORE A CHIMERA, BECAUSE FOR ANY WORLD WHICH MIGHT BE SO DESIGNATED, THERE COULD ALWAYS BE ANOTHER WHICH WAS BETTER, EITHER IN BEING POPULATED BY BEINGS WITH BETTER OR A GREATER QUANTITY OF GOOD CHARACTERISTICS, OR ELSE BY BEING MORE OPTIMIFIC.
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  9.  17
    On Obligations to Future Generations.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1992 - Public Affairs Quarterly 6 (2):207-225.
    I argue that "obligation" is a referential notion, flowing from actual or potential relationships. Applied to future persons, our relationship with them is established by virtue of the significant effects that our acts will have on them, and this in turn provides the basis of our obligation to them. Referential problems arise particularly in the types of cases where alternative acts bring different people into existence, for here there is no clear referent of the obligation. In such cases a theistic (...)
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  10.  38
    The Deductive Argument From Evil.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1981 - Sophia 20 (1):221--227.
    First, I consider J.L. Mackie's deductive argument from evil, noting that required modifications to his premises, especially those dealing with what it is to be a good person and omnipotence, do not entail that God would be required to eliminate evil completely. Hence, no contradiction exists between God's existence, possession of certain properties, and the existence of evil. Second I evaluate McCloskey's arguments against reasons for evil often suggested by the theist: that evil is a means to achieving the good, (...)
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  11. Euthanasia and the Active‐Passive Distinction.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1987 - Bioethics 1 (1):51-73.
    I consider four recently suggested difference between killing and letting die as they apply to active and passive euthanasia : taking vs. taking no action; intending vs. not intending the death of the person; the certainty of the result vs. leaving the situation open to other possible alternative events; and dying from unnatural vs. natural causes. The first three fail to constitute clear differences between killing and letting die, and "ex posteriori" cannot constitute morally significant differences. The last constitutes a (...)
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  12.  26
    Monism and the Possibility of Life After Death.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1978 - Religious Studies 14 (1):27 - 34.
    Two objections have been raised against the re-creationist thesis that the individual human person can be re-created after death. The objection that the re-created person would not be the same person as the deceased because he would lack spatial-temporal continuity with that person I answer by showing that spatial-temporal continuity with that person is not a necessary condition for all cases of personal identity. To the objection that the decision to call the re-created individual the same as the deceased either (...)
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  13.  80
    The Cosmological Argument and the Causal Principle.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1975 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (3):185 - 190.
    I reply to Houston Craighead, who presents two arguments against my version of the cosmological argument. First, he argues that my arguments in defense of the causal principle in terms of the existence being accidental to an essence is fallacious because it begs the question. I respond that the objection itself is circular, and that it invokes the questionable contention that what is conceivable is possible. Against my contention that the causal principle might be intuitively known, I reply to his (...)
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  14.  47
    Hasker on Omniscience.Bruce Reichenbach - 1987 - Faith and Philosophy 4 (1):86-92.
    I contend that William Hasker’s argument to show omniscience incompatible with human freedom trades on an ambiguity between altering and bringing about the past, and that it is the latter only which is invoked by one who thinks they are compatible. I then use his notion of precluding circumstances to suggest that what gives the appearance of our inability to freely bring about the future (and hence that omniscience is incompatible with freedom) is that, from God’s perspective of foreknowledge, it (...)
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  15.  55
    Mavrodes on Omnipotence.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1980 - Philosophical Studies 37 (2):211 - 214.
    In an earlier issue of "Philosophical Studies" George Mavrodes provided a general definition of omnipotence. I argue that his general definition is inadequate because it fails to exclude from being omnipotent beings who have finite abilities but who possess their limited abilities necessarily.
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  16.  28
    The Inductive Argument From Evil.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1980 - American Philosophical Quarterly 17 (3):221 - 227.
    First I employ Bayes's Theorem to give some precision to the atheologian's thesis that it is improbable that God exists given the amount of evil in the world (E). Two arguments result from this: (1) E disconfirms God's existence, and (2) E tends to disconfirm God's existence. Secondly, I evaluate these inductive arguments, suggesting against (1) that the atheologian has abstracted from and hence failed to consider the total evidence, and against (2) that the atheologian's evidence adduced to support his (...)
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  17. Introduction to Critical Thinking.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 2000 - Mcgraw Hill Higher Education.
    This text uses the educational objectives of Benjamin Bloom as six steps to critical thinking (namely: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation). The book starts with the absolute basics (for example, how to find the topic, issue, and thesis) vs. the usual "explaining and evaluating arguments" and fine distinctions that easily can lose students.
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  18.  56
    The Triumph of God Over Evil: Theodicy for a World of Suffering. [REVIEW]Bruce R. Reichenbach - 2010 - Faith and Philosophy 27 (2):212-218.
    I review two contrasting books. Whereas Hasker constructs what he takes to be a successful theodicy, invoking an eschatology where there will be a world of fulfilled human lives engulfed in intimacy with God, Keller undertakes a critique not only of the free-will/soul-making theodicy, but of a more broadly conceived problem of evil, including issues of divine hiddenness and miracles.
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  19. The Law of Karma.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1994 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 35 (1):59-61.
     
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  20.  31
    Basinger on Reichenbach and the Best Possible World.Bruce Reichenbach - 1980 - International Philosophical Quarterly 20 (3):343-345.
    I reply to David Basinger who, in an article printed in the same issue, develops objections to my original argument (IPQ XIX, 203-212) that it makes no sense to inquire whether God could create the best possible world since the concept of a best possible world is a meaningless notion. I argue that if the number of possible worlds is infinite, there cannot be an upper limit to this order, and without an upper limit, there can be no best possible (...)
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  21.  64
    Divine Necessity and the Cosmological Argument.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1970 - The Monist 54 (3):401-415.
    An analysis of the use of "necessary" in the cosmological argument reveals that the criticism of it, i.e., that its conclusion is self-contradictory because no existential proposition can be logically necessary, is due to the mistaken contention that the necessity involved is logical rather than conditional necessity.
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  22.  76
    The Law of Karma and the Principle of Causation.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1988 - Philosophy East and West 38 (4):399-410.
    If, as I argue, the law of karma is a special application of the causal law to moral causation, then one has to account for the differences between the two laws. One possibility is to distinguish between "phalas" (immediate effects actions produce in the world) and "samskaras" (invisible dispositions or tendencies to act or think), and to suggest that karma produces the latter but not the former. This subjectivist account, however, raises questions concerning the relation between a person's "samskaras" and (...)
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  23.  40
    Monism and the Possibility of Life After Death.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1978 - Religious Studies 14 (1):27-34.
    Traditionally, when persons were viewed as a psycho-physical unity, life after death was deemed quite impossible, particularly in the face of universal human mortality and inevitable bodily corruption. However, some modern anthropologically monistic philosophers, including most notably John Hick, have argued that life after death is possible Two objections have been raised against the re-creationist thesis that the individual human person can be re-created after death. The objection that the re-created person would not be the same person as the deceased (...)
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  24.  35
    Why Is God Good?Bruce Reichenbach - 1980 - Journal of Religion 60 (1):51-66.
    I explore two positions on divine goodness: God is good because of his nature or is good because of his acts. The first is advanced by Thomas Aquinas through two basic arguments: that God is good because of his being as pure act, and that God is good because of God's desirableness. Goodness predicated because of being runs into conflict with divine freedom. The second leads to the view that God freely wills to do the good and as such could, (...)
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  25.  43
    Fatalism and Freedom.Bruce Reichenbach - 1988 - International Philosophical Quarterly 28 (3):271-285.
    I critique one recent argument for theological fatalism as confusing bringing about with altering the past. Questions remain concerning the basis for God's beliefs about the future. I evaluate two. One, which appeals to middle knowledge, faces several problems, including specifying how propositions of middle knowledge are true and how God can have this knowledge. The other, which contends that one can in certain cases bring about the past, I clarify and defend. Finally, I explore the implications of both views (...)
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  26.  1
    Is Man the Phoenix?: A Study of Immortality.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1978 - Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
    TWO QUESTIONS BASIC TO THE STUDY OF PERSONAL IMMORTALITY ARE EXPLORED. FIRST, WHAT MUST HUMAN PERSONS BE LIKE IN ORDER FOR IT TO BE POSSIBLE THAT THEY CAN LIVE SUBSEQUENT TO THEIR DEATH? BOTH PLURALISTIC AND MONISTIC ACCOUNTS OF THE HUMAN PERSON ARE PRESENTED, EVALUATED IN DETAIL, AND SHOWN TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE ASSERTION OF PERSONAL LIFE AFTER DEATH. IN ANSWERING THE SECOND QUESTION--WHAT GOOD REASONS CAN BE GIVEN FOR MAINTAINING A BELIEF IN LIFE AFTER DEATH--I EVALUATE BOTH PHILOSOPHICAL (...)
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  27.  40
    Karma, Causation, and Divine Intervention.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1989 - Philosophy East and West 39 (2):135-149.
    I explore various ways in which the karma we create is believed to affect our environment, which in turn is instrumental in rewarding or punishing us according to our just deserts. I argue that the problem of explaining naturalistically the causal operation of the law of karma and of accounting for the precise moral calculation it requires point to the necessity of a theistic administrator. But this option faces a serious dilemma when attempting to specify the relation of God to (...)
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  28.  32
    Evil and a Reformed View of God.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1988 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 24 (1/2):67 - 85.
    Generally the theist's defense against the argument from evil invokes the libertarian ideal. But this route is not open to compatibilist Reformed theologians. They must show either that God's possibly creating humans with a more perfect nature is either an impossibility or that his doing so violates some fundamental principle of value. I argue that the compatibilist Reformed theologian is unsuccessful in both. Specifically, in the latter case, there is no ground for thinking that redemption and its associated evil (as (...)
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  29.  31
    Body and Soul: Human Nature and the Crisis in Ethics. [REVIEW]Bruce R. Reichenbach - 2002 - Faith and Philosophy 19 (1):112-116.
    A review of Moreland and Rae's defense of Thomistic anthropological substance dualism and its application to issues in medical ethics such as physician assisted suicide, patients in a persistent vegetative state, comatose people, and anencephalic infants.
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  30.  4
    Body and Soul: Human Nature and the Crisis in Ethics. [REVIEW]Bruce R. Reichenbach - 2002 - Faith and Philosophy 19 (1):112-116.
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  31.  4
    Books in Review.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1975 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (3):191.
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  32. Buddhism, Karma, and Immortality.Bruce Reichenbach - 1987 - In Paaul Badham & Linda Badham (eds.), Death and Immortality in the Religions of the World. New York: Paragon House Publishers. pp. 141-157.
    I first discuss the Buddhist concept of the self as lying between nihilism and substantialism, understood in terms of sets of skandhas and later momentariness. I then discuss the role of karma as a causal nexus that brings the skandhas into a state of co-ordination and whether this role is subjective or objective. Finally, I discuss the import of this view that there is no substantial self but only momentary events of various discrete sorts on the meaning and possibility of (...)
     
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  33.  12
    Christianity, Science, and Three Phases of Being Human.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 2021 - Zygon 56 (1):96-117.
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  34. Dances of Death: Self-Sacrifice and Atonement.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 2004 - In Jorge Gracia (ed.), Mel Gibson’s ’Passion’ and Philosophy: The Cross, the Questions, the Controversy. Chicago: Open Court. pp. 190-203.
    Heidegger affirms that we find authenticity in resolutely affirming our own death; but how might the death of another provide meaning for one’s life? We explore how Mel Gibson portrays the meaning of Jesus’ death for others in his movie, ’The Passion of the Christ’, by considering the movie’s diverse views of atonement. The movie contains clear statements of the ancient ’Christus victor’ and moral transformation themes, though Gibson misses that moral transformation requires more than a resilient death. Although he (...)
     
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  35.  5
    Divine Providence: God's Love and Human Freedom.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 2016 - Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock.
    We ask God to involve himself providentially in our lives, yet we cherish our freedom to choose and act. Employing both theological reflection and philosophical analysis, the author explores how to resolve the interesting and provocative puzzles arising from these seemingly conflicting desires. He inquires what sovereignty means and how sovereigns balance their power and prerogatives with the free responses of their subjects. Since we are physically embodied in a physical world, we also need to ask how this is compatible (...)
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  36.  12
    Does Plantinga Have His Own Defeater?Bruce R. Reichenbach & Adam W. Nugent - 2006 - Philosophia Christi 8 (1):141-150.
    Thomas Reed argues that the Christian, if apprised of Plantinga's central claims in Warranted Christian Belief, should be agnostic regarding Christianity's central tenets. Reed models his argument on Plantinga's own argument against naturalism, according to which naturalists have a built-in defeater for their epistemology. Reed bases his argument on the contention that if Christian theism cannot be shown or demonstrated, rational Christians should refrain from believing. Not only does Reed's contention not follow, but he confuses logically possible defeaters with actual (...)
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  37.  43
    Experience and the Unobservable.Bruce Reichenbach - 2010 - In Melville Stewart (ed.), Science and Religion in Dialogue. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 1053--1077.
    In "Experience and the Unobservable" I argue that scientific and religious theories generate ideas or experiments about new data that can be used to discriminate between and test theories, and that a pragmatist account of truth can be used to supplement the correspondence account of truth. I note that science uses "observation differently than does philosophy, and that religion's use of "observation" is closer to that of science than of philosophy.
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  38. Explanation and the Cosmological Argument.Bruce Reichenbach - 2004 - In Michael Peterson & Raymond vanArragon (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. London: Blackwell. pp. 97-114.
    After writing about the need for explanation and types of explanations, I present three cosmological arguments: the argument from contingency, the kalam cosmological argument, and the inductive argument from the inference to the best explanation. I respond to major objections to each of them.
     
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  39.  3
    Finding a Locus for Dialogue Between Genetics and Theology.Bruce Reichenbach - 2011 - Theology and Science 2 (9):193-195.
    Questions like: “How should we respond to this increased information about our DNA sequencing?” push us into a region beyond a mere description of genes, their expression and the resulting protein changes, and of our use of technology to manipulate genes. These questions encourage us to think about humans normatively (what it is to be human), ethically (what ought we do with our genetic information, how ought we treat other organisms with whom we share genetic heritage), and relationally (how are (...)
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  40.  26
    God and Good Revisited: A Case for Contingency.Bruce Reichenbach - 2014 - Philosophia Christi 16 (2):319-338.
    Treatments of God's goodness almost always appeal to the traditional Christian doctrine that God is necessarily good, but this introduces the question whether God's goodness properly can be understood as necessary. After considering an ontological conception of God's goodness, I propose that God's goodness is better understood as satisfying six criteria involving moral virtue, intellectual virtue, right actions, right motives, freedom of choice, and freedom of choice with respect to the rightness of the action. I defend the result -- that (...)
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  41.  80
    Inclusivism and the Atonement.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1999 - Faith and Philosophy 16 (1):43-54.
    Richard Swinburne claims that Christ’s death has no efficacy unless people appropriate it. According to religious inclusivists, God can be encountered and his grace manifested in various ways through diverse religions. Salvation is available for everyone, regardless of whether they have heard about Christ’s sacrifice. This poses the question whether Swinburne’s view of atonement is available to the inclusivist. I develop an inclusivist interpretation of the atonement that incorporates his four features of atonement, along with a subjective dimension that need (...)
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  42. Is Man the Phoenix? A Study of Immortality.Bruce Reichenbach & Stanley Krippner - 1984 - Religious Studies 20 (4):697-699.
     
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  43. John H. Hick: "Death and Eternal Life". [REVIEW]Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1979 - The Thomist 43 (4):666-670.
    I review John Hick's "Death and Eternal life," in which he explores philosophical anthropologies invoked by believers in life after death, provides a critical survey of various Christian and Eastern approaches to life after death, and develops various pareschatologies and eschatologies.
     
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  44. John J. Shepherd, "Experience, Inference, and God". [REVIEW]Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1976 - The Thomist 40 (3):488.
    I review John Shepherd's "Experience, Inference and God," in which he contends that we can argue to God's existence abductively from religious experience. He goes on to flesh out the nature of this Cosmos-Explaining Being, describing the properties of the deity that emerge from the argument from contingency.
     
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  45. Leonard Kennedy, Ed.: "Thomistic Papers IV". [REVIEW]Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1990 - The Thomist 54 (2):371.
    Review of a Thomist critique of the Reformed Epistemology of Alvin Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff. The authors contend that P & W misunderstand Aquinas and that their own project of Reformed epistemology is either inadequate or mistaken.
     
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  46.  36
    Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski, "The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge". [REVIEW]Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1993 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 31 (1):133.
    Review of Zagzebski's book, which develops a defense of the position that freedom is compatible with divine foreknowledge. After critiquing previous attempts at reconciliation, including Boethius, Ockham, and Molina, she develops her own view that the relation between God's knowledge and human existence must accord with human models of knowing.
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  47.  22
    On Being a Professor: The Case of Socrates.Bruce Reichenbach - 1997 - In David W. Gill (ed.), SHOULD GOD GET TENURE? ESSAYS ON RELIGION AND HIGHER EDUCATION. Grand Rapids, MI: Wiiliam B. Eerdmans Publishers. pp. 8-26.
    It is commonly held that professors in university communities should not profess but should uphold the ideals of presuppositionless investigation, unbiased presentation of materials, and open dialogue. In particular it is believed that professors professing in the classroom is inconsistent with being a truly Socratic professor. I argue that this is a misreading of Socrates' claim not to know (be barren), but rather is a result of three myths: the myths of neutrality, of expressionism, and of denigration, and that when (...)
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  48.  49
    On Disembodied Resurrected Persons: A Reply: BRUCE R. REICHENBACH.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1982 - Religious Studies 18 (2):225-229.
    In a recent article in Religious Studies, Professor P. W. Gooch attempts to wean the orthodox Christian from anthropological materialism by consideration of the question of the nature of the post-mortem person in the resurrection. He argues that the view that the resurrected person is a psychophysical organism who is in some physical sense the same as the ante-mortem person is inconsistent with the Pauline view of the resurrected body; rather, according to him, Paul's view is most consistent with that (...)
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  49.  27
    Philosophy and Miracle: The Contemporary Debate. [REVIEW]Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1987 - International Philosophical Quarterly 27 (4):454-456.
    Review of David and Randall Basinger's "Philosophy and Miracle," in which they discuss the definition of miracle, the possibility of miracles, recognition of miracles, and the role of miracles in the problem of evil.
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  50.  24
    Price, Hick, and Disembodied Existence.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1979 - Religious Studies 15 (3):317 - 325.
    In his "Death and Eternal Life" John Hick criticizes H.H. Price's view of disembodied existence after death on the grounds that (1) Price cannot consistently hold that this world is a public or semi-public world, the joint product of a group of telepathically-interacting minds, and that this world is formed by the power of individual desire, and (2) in a world that is the product of the individual's desires, moral progress is impossible. I argue that there is no contradiction in (...)
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