Arguments by Utpaladeva and Abhinavagupta for evidence of a Self that is one and the same as the Great Lord Śiva are interpreted. The views of these authors are clarified and the contradictory relationship between the limited individual subject and the recognition of the true Self is shown. With the help of Utpaladeva's distinction between "seeing" and "noticing," a further interpretation is attempted. Some remarks are made concerning practical meditation and the theoretical presuppositions of this way of thinking in order (...) to find starting points for a comparison with Western philosophy. (shrink)
Pain, suffering and positive emotions in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and minimally conscious states (MCS) pose clinical and ethical challenges. Clinically, we evaluate behavioural responses after painful stimulation and also emotionally-contingent behaviours (e.g., smiling). Using stimuli with emotional valence, neuroimaging and electrophysiology technologies can detect subclinical remnants of preserved capacities for pain which might influence decisions about treatment limitation. To date, no data exist as to how healthcare providers think about end-of-life options (e.g., withdrawal of artificial nutrition (...) and hydration) in the presence or absence of pain in non-communicative patients. Here, we aimed to better clarify this issue by re-analyzing previously published data on pain perception (Prog Brain Res 2009 177, 329–38) and end-of-life decisions (J Neurol 2010 258, 1058–65) in patients with disorders of consciousness. In a sample of 2259 European healthcare professionals we found that, for VS/UWS more respondents agreed with treatment withdrawal when they considered that VS/UWS patients did not feel pain (77%) as compared to those who thought VS/UWS did feel pain (59%). This interaction was influenced by religiosity and professional background. For MCS, end-of-life attitudes were not influenced by opinions on pain perception. Within a contemporary ethical context we discuss (1) the evolving scientific understandings of pain perception and their relationship to existing clinical and ethical guidelines; (2) the discrepancies of attitudes within (and between) healthcare providers and their consequences for treatment approaches, and (3) the implicit but complex relationship between pain perception and attitudes toward life-sustaining treatments. (shrink)
This exploratory study is focused on the perceptions of science communication practitioners about the activities of scientists and the audiences of the marine sciences outreach in Portugal. Using the qualitative method of thematic analysis and collecting data through semistructured interviews of 14 practitioners of diverse professions, backgrounds, ages, and stages of career, it was found that the role of marine scientists in this area is traditionally viewed as reduced, but with a slight improvement in the past 5 to 10 years. (...) Despite having a historical connection with and curiosity about the sea, audiences were considered to have a mostly utilitarian interest in the marine sciences. Most practitioners had a view of science communication connected to the knowledge deficit model, with a minority articulating a more dialogical model. Although there are signs of conflict between science communicators and scientists, the proliferation of training opportunities in science communication at the national level, the perceived increase of interest and participation of marine scientists in public communication in the past years, and the consolidation of science communicators as part of the scientific community offer positive prospects for the future of outreach of marine sciences in Portugal. (shrink)
We study the case of two sibling species ofHippolais(Aves). Very little differences can be observed in the morphology of both species. The breeding area of these species are complementary. Roughly, one species breeds North and East of Europe (Hippolais icterina) while the other breeds South and West of Europe (Hippolais polyglotta). There exitst a narrow zone of sympatry passing through Burgundy. Since several years, it has been observed that this area of sympatry was moving in the North-East direction at a (...) European scale. This means that progressivelyH. icterina is declining and is replaced byH. polyglotta. Some assumptions can be made in order to explain this evolution, for instance competition or predation. Series of observations concerning the diets of nestlings of both species have been realized. These observations show some differences in the diet compositions. The breeding success of the two species has been studied. Numerical simulations of a competition model taking into account the observed differences between the food types eaten by the two species are presented. These simulations do not explain the regression ofH. icterina. Then, we present numerical simulations of a predation model with one predator attacking the nestlings of both species. These simulations show that with time one of the two preys must extinct. Predation rather than competition seems to be the right explanation. (shrink)
A scholarly account of an important and previously uninvestigated aspect of Bruno's philosophy. Yates sets out in the historian's careful way to show that "Bruno's philosophy and his religion are one and the same, and both are Hermetic." A treatment of the development of the Hermetic tradition from Ficino and Pico allows the author to show that "the philosophy of the infinite universe and the innumerable worlds... is not... scientific thinking" but a continuation of the tradition which was (...) mistakenly thought to stem from an ancient Egyptian magical religion. Although this is definitely the work of an historian, any philosopher interested in the beginnings of modern science or in Renaissance thought will find it a valuable aid and contribution.—K. A. M. (shrink)
Given recent advances in technology, connectivity, and the popularity of social media platforms, recent literature has devoted great attention to problematic Facebook use. However, exploring the potential predictors of problematic social media use beyond Facebook use has become paramount given the increasing popularity of multiple alternative platforms. In this study, a sample of 584 social media users was recruited to complete an online survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, patterns, and preferences of social media use, problematic social media use, social media use (...) motives, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that 6.68% of all respondents could be potentially classed as problematic users. Moreover, further analysis indicated that intrapersonal motive, negative affect, daily social media use, surveillance motive, and positive affect each predicted PSMU. These variables accounted for about 37% of the total variance in PSMU, with intrapersonal motive driving the greatest predictive contribution, over and above the effects of patterns of social media use and sociodemographic variables. These findings contribute to the increasing literature on PSMU. The results of this study are discussed in light of the existing literature on PSMU. (shrink)
Ian Hacking, Hacking and Latour on science studies and metaphysics: The Social Construction of What?Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-81200-X Bruno Latour, Pandora's Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science StudiesHarvard University Press, ISBN0-67-465336-X.
The claim that perception and action are commonly coded because they are indistinguishable at the distal level is crucial for theories of cognition. However, the consequences of this claim run deep, and the Theory of Event Coding (TEC) is not up to the challenge it poses. We illustrate why through a brief review of the evidence that led to the motor theory of speech perception.
Der Wiener Philosoph Franz Ungler ist ein eminenter Vertreter jener von Robert Reininger und Erich Heintel grundgelegten „Wiener Schule“, deren Hauptanliegen die Aneignung und Vergegenwärtigung der systematischen Errungenschaften der philosophischen Tradition ist. Als einer der wenigen Dialektiker des 20. Jahrhunderts erblickt Ungler die gedankliche Herausforderung dabei darin, einerseits nicht hinter die Errungenschaften der Transzendentalphilosophie in naive Ontologien zurückzufallen, andererseits die Probleme der Transzendentalphilosophie einer haltbaren Lösung zuzuführen. Dazu leistete er in seiner außergewöhnlich reichhaltigen und lebendigen Lehre einen bedeutsamen Beitrag. Diese (...) aus dem Nachlass veröffentlichte Vorlesung widmet sich dem anspruchsvollen Werk des Frankfurter Philosophen Bruno Liebrucks , der im Ausgang von denselben systematischen Grundmotiven die Sprache sowie die Logik ins Zentrum seines Denkens stellt. Dabei eröffnet er neue Perspektiven auf die Sprache und auf die Logik, die sich von jenen des Mainstream des 20. Jahrhunderts deutlich abheben. Ungler entwickelt in dieser Vorlesung die Grundlinien von Liebrucks' Kant- und Hegel-Interpretation, wie sie in dessen Opus magnum "Sprache und Bewußtsein" gegeben werden. Als Propädeutik zu dieser anspruchsvollen Darstellung soll eine Einleitung zur Denkergestalt Unglers und zu Liebrucks‘ denkerischer Entwicklung sowie dessen Begriff der Sprache dienen. (shrink)
En este breve trabajo se describe en modo sucinto el papel fundamental y determinante del problema de la gravitación universal en la historia de la cosmología moderna, indagándose asimismo los factores que le dieron origen, principalmente la proposición de la formulación de la ley de gravedad, sus antecedentes, y a su vez se repasan los problemas astrofísicos, astronómicos y filosóficos de este nuevo esquema cosmológico. El esquema de esta monografía transita un breve examen epistemológico, luego un repaso por el origen (...) y gestación del concepto de gravitación universal, y finalmente un análisis del desarrollo de la cosmología moderna, o newtoniana, entorno a los problemas implicados por la ley de gravedad. (shrink)