Affiliation with a scientific area or degree program could affect one´s religious beliefs and acceptance of evolution; however, this issue has been poorly studied. Moreover, little information is available regarding Chilean university scientists’ views on religion and evolution. This study aims to provide the first documentation of the opinion of scientists at a Chilean University with regard to religion and evolution. This was done by conducting a personal survey of first and last year undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty. We (...) found that nonreligiosity, as well as acceptance of Darwinian evolution, increased with possession of an advanced degree and this correlation was stronger for individuals who study biology and physics in comparison to those who study chemistry. Although less than 30 percent of undergraduate students are atheists/agnostics, more than 70 percent of faculty members are atheist or agnostic. However, most of the surveyed scientists did not see a conflict between science and religion. (shrink)
Does it seem that education is somehow always lagging behind the latest technologies? In The Textbook and the Lecture: Education in the Age of New Media, Norm Friesen presents a longue durée study of the historical relationship between education and technologies of reading and writing in order to reframe accusations of ‘inertia’ in education. This is a useful introduction to a media history of education, finds Lavinia Marin, that offers insight for researchers and educational practitioners into the longstanding philosophical assumptions (...) underpinning their teaching practice. (shrink)
În studiul Laviniei Marin, Universitatea şi problema proprietăţii intelectuale, este discutată problema actuală a tipului de universitate pe care îl presupune noua economie a cunoaşterii. Pornind de la interesul pentru cuantificarea performanţelor universităţilor şi stabilirea de ierarhii, autoarea ajunge la unele teme epistemologice privind reportul dintre cunoaşterea teoretică şi cunoaşterea practică şi cel dintre cunoaşterea explicită şi cunoaşterea tacită într-o societate în care însăşi cunoaşterea devine un capital, iar inovarea este modul în care se realizează performanţă.
Utopics has two parts. The first is a study of Thomas More's Utopia, where the noun "utopia" appears for the first time. It attempts to provide the elements for a theoretical reflection on utopic signifying practice. The second part can be seen as an application of the first: It is an analysis of utopic and pseudo-topic spaces. Marin's analysis shows how utopian texts open the way to an alternative future.
The ten major essays in this volume constitute his definitive statement on the painter who inspired his most eloquent and probing commentary. 17 illustrations. "[Marin's] mandarin prose, as foreign to our age of mass culture as Poussin's ...
Cet article a déjà paru dans les Cahiers philosophiques, 2/2012, n° 129, p. 43-56. Nous remercions Claire Marin et les Cahiers philosophiques de nous avoir autorisé à le reproduire ici. On le trouvera également en ligne sur CAIRN. Résumé : Dans la mosaïque des textes ravaissoniens, il semble que la notion de rythme permette une lecture transversale. En effet, de l'analyse des rythmes naturels, du corps ou de la vie à celle des rythmes créés par l'homme pour domestiquer ce corps (...) par l'habitude ou (...) - Philosophie – Nouvel article. (shrink)
Based on the assumption that consumers will reward firms for their support of social programs, many organizations have adopted corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices. Drawing on social identity theory, a model of influence of CSR on loyalty is developed and tested using a sample of real consumers. Results demonstrate that CSR initiatives are linked to stronger loyalty both because the consumer develops a more positive company evaluation, and because one identifies more strongly with the company. Moreover, identity salience is shown (...) to play a crucial role in the influence of CSR initiatives on consumer loyalty when this influence occurs through consumer-company identification. A strong identifier is not necessarily in a constant state of salience, but activating identity salience of a particular consumer social identity (a company) will affect consumer reactions to product stimuli, increasing consumer loyalty. (shrink)
The extent to which people identify with an organization is dependent on the attractiveness of the organizational identity, which helps individuals satisfy one or more important self-definitional needs. However, little is known about the antecedents of company identity attractiveness (IA) in a consumer–company context. Drawing on theories of social identity and organizational identification, a model of the antecedents of IA is developed and tested. The findings provide empirical validation of the relationship between IA and corporate associations perceived by consumers. Our (...) results demonstrate that the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) contribution to company IA is much stronger than that of Corporate Ability (CA). This may be linked to increasing competition and of decreasing CA-based variation in the marketplace. (shrink)
Prior research has found attributions to mediate the relationship between the elements of corporate social responsibility activities and consumer responses to firms; however, the question of what variables determine consumer attributions of CSR remains partially unaddressed. This article analyzes why consumers make attributions of CSR that are either positive, or negative. The results obtained from two empirical studies indicate that company–cause fit, corporate ability, and interpersonal trust have a positive influence on the motives that consumers attribute to CSR, whereas corporate (...) hypocrisy has a negative effect. This research contributes to our understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying impactful consumer judgments and provides guidance for organizations in responding to such evaluations. (shrink)
In this paper, I will try to answer the question: How are we supposed to assess the expert’s opinion in an argument from the position of an outsider to the specialized field? by placing it in the larger context of the political status of epistemic authority. In order to do this I will first sketch the actual debate around the problem of expertise in a democracy and relate this to the issue of the status of science in society. Secondly, I (...) will review how Douglas Walton’s pragma-dialectical approach offers a practical procedure to assess the expert bias from a nonprofessional’s perspective. Thirdly, I will introduce the problem of group bias using insights from Bohman and Fischer and show how Walton’s solution does not address this specific type of bias. Lastly, I will try proposing a revision of Walton’s solution in order to address this problem. In order to make the explanation more easy to follow I will use a case study concerning the medical expertise in the public debate on second-hand smoke. (shrink)
This paper aims to reconstruct a possible answer to the classical Newman’s objection which has been used countless times to argue against structural realism. The reconstruction starts from the new strand of structural realism – informational structural realism – authored by Luciano Floridi. Newman’s objection had previously stated that all propositions which comprise the mathematical structures are merely trivial truths and can be instantiated by multiple models. This paper examines whether informational structural realism can overcome this objection by analysing the (...) previous attempts to answer this objection, attempts which either try to save the Ramseyfication of mathematical propositions or give up on it. The informational structural realism way is to attempt a third way, the neo-Kantian way inspired by the work of Ernst Cassirer, but also to change the formalism from a mathematical to an informational one. This paper shows how this original combination of neo-Kantianism, informational formalism and the method of levels of abstraction provide the tools to overcome Newman’s objection. (shrink)
Globalisation has given rise to a new field of debate due to the growing mobility of the workers and the consequent cultural diversity inside companies. In this sense, a complex world like ours demands a review of the professional profile which should include the so called intercultural competences as a structuring element of companies’ policy and strategic plan. Subsequently it is suggested that, as the intercultural competences affect the cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects, they actually imply a transformation of the (...) person’s identity. (shrink)
This article draws attention to a form of injustice in intimate relationships of care that is largely ignored in discussions about the legal rights and obligations of intimate partners. This form of injustice is connected to a feature of caregiving I call “flexibility,” in virtue of which caregiving requires “skills of flexibility.” I argue that the demands placed by these skills on caregivers create constraints that amount to “vulnerability to oppression.” To lift these constraints, caregivers are entitled to open-ended responses (...) to their work, responses that would enable them to pursue their own projects while providing care. Instead of protecting individual choice of intimate relationships, marriage law should protect these entitlements. (shrink)
Human beings inhabit a symbolic reality that articulates meaning. This is culture understood as a web of meanings that actually builds our identity by providing guidance in the complexity of our environment. It is the complex interplay between identity and alterity, between interiority and exteriority, between familiarity and strangeness. Worldviews set up borders that delimit one's own world and others' ground by establishing stereotypes and prejudices. This article presents the results of a research project on prejudices towards the other in (...) students majoring in Education and Psychology with the aim of offering some reflections on what is at stake in social exclusion policies. (shrink)
Se aborda la delimitación de lo que es una teoría de la verdad y la clasificación de las principales teorías elaboradas durante el siglo XX. Una teoría de la verdad ha de incluir al menos cuatro apartados: definición del concepto de verdad, determinación del criterio de verdad, distinción de los tipos de verdad y fijación del lugar sistemático de la verdad y de la teoría de la verdad en el marco del saber y de la acción. En segundo lugar, se (...) han clasificado las teorías de la verdad en siete grupos: teoría de la correspondencia (semánticas y no semánticas), teorías prooracionales, teorías fenomenologicas, teorías hermeneuticas, teóricas coherenciales, teorías pragmáticas y teorías intersubjetivistas de la verdad. (shrink)
This article studies the etiquette diffusion and the reform of behavior during the pastoral visit of D. Carlos Luiz D'Amour, south of the Diocese of Cuiabá, in 1886. The source is the diary written by the private secretary Canon Bento Severiano da Luz. In such diary, the paths of the party were narrated as well as its major events and achievements, having the bishop as the central character. One of the objectives of the trip was to spread new patterns of (...) behavior, feelings and etiquette, civilize Mato Grosso and establish a good Catholic society. The public appearances of the bishop had symbolic functions, i.e, the political and religious affirmation of the episcopal power in society, creating a sacred sphere embodied in his person. D. Carlos, in the game of power relations, sees himself compelled to submit to the etiquette as well as to pressure the diocesans to do the same. Every detail of the etiquette and the ceremonial has fulfilled the function of ostentatious self-representation. His suppression has abolished distances, the social distinctions and obliterated his authority and power. (shrink)
First published in 1975, this is a book of general intellectual interest about the role of the university in contemporary society and that of university teachers in relation to their subjects, their students, and their wider political commitments. Alan Montefiore offers preliminary analyses of the family of concepts most often invoked in discussions of these problems, taking the central dispute to be between those who hold a 'liberal' view of the university and those who regard this notion as illusory, dishonest (...) or undesirable. Six academics, representing, discuss issues of substantive conflict in light of Montefiore's initial distinctions. The volume is of particular interest to students of political and social philosophy, and political and educational theory. It is also intended for a wider readership among those who care about the political status of the universities and recognize the importance and difficulty of the problems involved in this. (shrink)
This essay deals with the energy crisis in the context of a philosophical reflection about the environment. The text presents a general view of the subject of energy and delves into the concepts of responsibility and care expressed by thinkers Hans Jonas and Martin Heidegger.
El artículo aborda la evolución de Fichte a lo largo del año1793, y en particular se enfrenta a la clásica consideración de la Reseña de Enesidenzo como momento de ruptura con Reinhold y punto de partida de la WL. Se afirma en este sentido que la distancia frente a Reinhold estaba ya dada en la lectura práctica que Fichte hace de Kant, encontrando ésta una primera manifestación en la 2' edición del VeKaO, respecto de la que muestranuna perfecta continuidad todos (...) los escritos del 93. A la luz de todo ello, la lectura de Enesidemo no habría sido el detonante deldescubrimiento de la WL, sino más bien el pretexto para elevar a un nivel sistemático y fundamental las ideas ya elaboradas por Fichte, lo que se traduce en la afirmación de un primer principio alternativo. (shrink)
This essay present shortly the differential character of the concepts of knowledge, epistemology and paradigm has in the development of the degree work or thesis. It begins with the discussion of these concepts, and then establishes the relation between those and the degree work.
En el siguiente artículo analizo con respecto a países con altos niveles de inmigración y en términos de legitimidad democrática, el reto que plantea la existencia en los mismos de sectores de la población que, por carecer de la nacionalidad del Estado de residencia, carecen de la plenitud de derechos y libertades que nutren el espacio de igualdad cívica en un orden liberal democrático. Centro mi análisis en el colectivo de los llamados "inmigrantes ilegales", que es el que está sujeto (...) a una mayor precariedad jurídica. A fin de superar la creciente disociación entre población y comunidad política exploro la necesidad de articular nuevos fundamentos de inclusión dentro del demos y propongo, entre ellos, el de la residencia y el arraigo social que generalmente la acompaña. La fuerza normativa de los fundamentos que exploro es, a mi entender, de suficiente entidad como para superar los reparos morales asociados al carácter "ilegal" del origen de la inmigración. Desde estas premisas concluyo con una valoración negativa de la reciente reforma de la Ley Orgánica 4/2000 sobre derechos y libertades de los extranjeros en España y su integración social que a la vez restringe el acceso a derechos y libertades de los llamados "ilegales" y dificulta los cauces de subsanación quasi-automática de su ilegalidad. (shrink)
El presente trabajo pretende establecer una íntima conexión entre el que considera un falso debate en torno a la modernidad y la pos modernidad y expresiones como fin de la historia, fin de las ideologías, y otras que desde ámbitos diversos vienen compitiendo por caracterizar el mundo actual. La hipótesis central es que esa constelación obedece a una lógica muy similar a la que llevó, a fines del XVIIII, a utilizar por pri mera vez el término nihilismo frente a la (...) que consideraba la Ilustración. La llamada posmodernidad no haría sino culminar esa tendencia, aunque en apariencia invirtiéndola mediante un mecanismo sutil fruto de la con fluencia de tradiciones dispares como la filosofía analítica anglosajona o la hermeneútica. De esa inversión surgiría una nueva teología, atea, invulnerable en virtud de su nihilismo, en la medida en que se asienta en la ausencia del fundamento, del referente o incluso de lo real mismo, y en cuyo seno se da incluso la apariencia de pluralismo o de la más plena secularización. A modo de ejemplo se contrastan los planteamientos bási cos de Habermas y Foucault, en cuanto ya clásicos de ese debate, y como compartiendo esa teología desde posiciones en apariencia dispares. (shrink)