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  1. Theory of mind in nonhuman primates.C. M. Heyes - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):101-114.
    Since the BBS article in which Premack and Woodruff (1978) asked “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?,” it has been repeatedly claimed that there is observational and experimental evidence that apes have mental state concepts, such as “want” and “know.” Unlike research on the development of theory of mind in childhood, however, no substantial progress has been made through this work with nonhuman primates. A survey of empirical studies of imitation, self-recognition, social relationships, deception, role-taking, and perspective-taking suggests (...)
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    Theory of mind and other domain-specific hypotheses.C. M. Heyes - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1143-1145.
    The commentators do not contest the target article's claim that there is no compelling evidence of theory of mind in primates, and recent empirical studies further support this view. If primates lack theory of mind, they may still have other behavior control mechanisms that are adaptive in complex social environments. The Somatic Marker Mechanism (SMM) is a candidate, but the SMM hypothesis postulates a much weaker effect of natural selection on social cognition than the theory of mind hypothesis (on inputs (...)
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    Imagination and imitation: Input, acid test, or alchemy?C. M. Heyes - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):131-132.
    Immediate imitation is likely to be a major, direct input to Barresi & Moore's level 2 competence, but deferred imitation is unlikely to play a key role in the transition to level 3, because (1) the attribution of first person knowledge is neither a necessary cause nor an obvious consequence of deferred imitation, and (2) deferred imitation does not correlate phylogenetically with capacities that more plausibly either yield or reflect a concept of intentional agency.
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    Imitation without perspective-taking.C. M. Heyes - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):524-525.
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    Liberalism, chauvinism, and experimental thought.C. M. Heyes - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):134-148.
    The target article argued that there is currently no reliable evidence of theory of mind in nonhuman primates and proposed research methods for future use in this field. Some commentators judged the research proposals to be too chauvinist (in danger of falsely denying that primates attribute mental states), but a majority judged them to be too liberal (in danger of falsely affirming theory of mind in primates). The most valuable comments from both camps exemplified “experimental thought,” the obverse of “thought (...)
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