José María Albareda was an applied chemist and a prominent member of the Roman Catholic organization, Opus Dei, who played a crucial role in organizing the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas , the new scientific institution created by the Franco regime in 1939. The paper analyses first the formative years in Albareda's scientific biography and the political and social context in which he became an Opus Dei fellow. Then it discusses the CSIC's innovative features compared with the Junta para Ampliación (...) de Estudios , the institution in charge of scientific research and science policy in Spain from 1907 up to the Civil War . Next it goes into Albareda's ideas about science and science policy. Finally, it shows how they shaped the organization of the CSIC, of which Albareda was the General Secretary from 1939 to his untimely death in 1966. (shrink)
There is an uncanny unanimity about the founding role of Kepler's Dioptrice in the theory of optical instruments and for classical geometric optics generally. It has been argued, however, that for more than fifty years optical theory in general, and Dioptrice in particular, was irrelevant for the purposes of telescope making. This article explores the nature of Kepler's achievement in his Dioptrice . It aims to understand the Keplerian 'theory' of the telescope in its own terms, and particularly its links (...) to Kepler's theory of vision. It deals first with Kepler's way to circumvent his ignorance of the law of refraction, before turning to Kepler's explanations of why lenses magnify and invert vision. Next, it analyses Kepler's account of the properties of telescopes and his suggestions to improve their designs. The uses of experiments in Dioptrice , as well as the explicit and implicit references to della Porta's work that it contains, are also elucidated. Finally, it clarifies the status of Kepler's Dioptrice vis-à-vis , classical geometrical optics and presents evidence about its influence in treatises about the practice of telescope making during roughly the first two-thirds of the seventeenth century. (shrink)
The paper tries to rebut an objection to materialism. Anti-Materialists have argued that mental processes do not appear to be mere physical processes in the brain, And that secondary qualities such as sounds do not appear to be mere vibrations in the air. So materialists must admit that introspection and perception involve at least the illusion of the falsity of materialism. Using the headless woman illusion as a model, It is shown how the illusion is generated, And that it is (...) exactly what we ought to expect even if materialism is true. (shrink)
In this paper I put forward what I think is a new approach to the problem of induction. I sketched the approach in brief sections of a book published in 1983. The same idea had occurred to the English philosopher John Foster and he presented it in a paper at about the same time.
This paper deals with Hobbes's theory of optical images, developed in his optical magnum opus, ‘A Minute or First Draught of the Optiques’, and published in abridged version in De homine. The paper suggests that Hobbes's theory of vision and images serves him to ground his philosophy of man on his philosophy of body. Furthermore, since this part of Hobbes's work on optics is the most thoroughly geometrical, it reveals a good deal about the role of mathematics in Hobbes's philosophy. (...) The paper points to some difficulties in the thesis of Shapin and Schaffer, who presented geometry as a ‘paradigm’ for Hobbes's natural philosophy. It will be argued here that Hobbes's application of geometry to optics was dictated by his metaphysical and epistemological principles, not by a blind belief in the power of geometry. Geometry supported causal explanation, and assisted reason in making sense of appearances by helping the philosopher understand the relationships between the world outside us and the images it produces in us. Finally the paper broadly suggests how Hobbes's theory of images may have triggered, by negative example, the flourishing of geometrical optics in Restoration England. (shrink)
Intersectionality has become the primary analytic tool that feminist and anti-racist scholars deploy for theorizing identity and oppression. This paper exposes and critically interrogates the assumptions underpinning intersectionality by focusing on four tensions within intersectionality scholarship: the lack of a defined intersectional methodology; the use of black women as quintessential intersectional subjects; the vague definition of intersectionality; and the empirical validity of intersectionality. Ultimately, my project does not seek to undermine intersectionality; instead, I encourage both feminist and anti-racist scholars to (...) grapple with intersectionality's theoretical, political, and methodological murkiness to construct a more complex way of theorizing identity and oppression. (shrink)
El siguiente ensayo busca explorar la tesis según la cual en la atestación o reconocimientode sí, el sí-mismo que está en juego está atestiguado primeramente de modo prospectivo. Atestiguarse esreconocerse no en sí, sino en un envío, en una conminación que resulta del encuentro con lo otro; de estemodo, se puede afirmar que la identidad personal es ante todo una identidad de éxodo, es decir enviada.Para el análisis de estas tesis quisiéramos centrarnos en la fenomenología hermenéutica del hombre capazque desarrolla (...) Ricoeur de modo explícito en Soi-même comme un autre, y que ya ha bosquejado desdeLe volontaire et l'involontaire. Con ello interrogaremos en qué sentido las capacidades son un modo deser respondiente del sí-mismo ante lo otro que lo envía, y luego interrogaremos, en los márgenes de lahermenéutica bíblica del autor, el alcance de lo que significa responder para el sí-mismo. (shrink)
Resumen: El siguiente trabajo tiene por objetivo examinar la Nueva fenomenología en Francia, a través de las obras de Marion, Romano y Barbaras. Nuestra hipótesis de lectura es que estas fenomenologías, por un lado la de Marion y Romano, y por el otro la de Barbaras, coinciden en dos cuestiones: 1) el privilegio que otorgan a la donación y, 2) la necesidad de pensar la subjetividad abandonando el paradigma de la subjetividad trascendental husserliano. Ambas propuestas requieren de un examen de (...) las intenciones metódicas de la fenomenología husserliana y es, en dicha discusión, que ganan, al mismo tiempo, la originalidad de su marcha fenomenológica.: The aim of this paper is to examine the new phenomenological tendencies in France through the works of Marion, Roman, and Barbaras. Our hypothesis is that these phenomenologies, on the one hand those of Marion and Romano, and on the other hand that of Barbaras, agree on two main points: 1) the priority given to donation and 2) the need to think about subjectivity by putting aside Husserl's paradigm of transcendental subjectivity. We suggest that both philosophical approaches require an examination of Husserl's methodological pretensions, because it is in this context that the originality of their own phenomenological ideas can be noticed. (shrink)
This article focuses on some theoretical developments prompted by the use and construction of telescopes in the first half of the seventeenth century. It argues that today's notion of "scientific instrument" cannot be used to categorize these optical devices or explain their impact on natural philosophy. The article analyzes in historical terms the construction of conceptual references for the telescope as an instrument of a new kind, which possessed capabilities and working principles unlike those of traditional "mathematical instruments." It shows (...) that through the 1650s, in both rhetorical and explanatory terms, first-rank telescope makers, theoreticians, and astronomers found it useful to equate the telescope with the eye, suggesting that the data the telescope produced was as reliable as that obtained in naked-eye vision. Kepler's and Descartes' theory of the telescope will be shown to dovetail uncannily with this understanding of the telescope. (shrink)
El presente artículo busca interrogar el pathos de la vida y de la existencia, a partir del estudiode las obras de Michel Henry y de Henri Maldiney. Dicho intento de ampliar la razón recobrando ladimensión afectiva de la vida o de la existencia ha orientado a la fenomenologíahacia una reflexión profunda sobre una inmanencia absoluta de la vida o sobre la apertura hacia elacontecimiento de sentido que es propia a la existencia. De este modo, nos pregunatremos quéfenomenología se apropia mejor (...) la tarea de ampliar la razón hacia la dimensióndel sentir y de la afectividad. (shrink)
El siguiente texto busca interrogar la dimensión atencional de la existencia humana a partir de los aportes realizados por Paul Ricœur en su obra fenomenológica temprana. Junto con ello, proponemos complementar la ética de la solicitud que el autor desarrolla en Soi-même comme un autre con una fenomenología de la atención que, a nuestro juicio, permite una comprensión enraizada en la experiencia humana de la que carece el análisis de la solicitud propuesto por Ricœur.
This paper is an essay-review of J. Yoder's "Unrolling Time: Christian Huygens and the Mathematization of Nature" (Cambridge, 1989). Highlighting the scholarly thoroughness and mathematical competence of Yoder's reconstruction of Huygens's heuristic path to his ground-breaking results on centrifugal force, cycloidal motion and evolutes, the essay also deals with Yoder's attempts to characterize Huygens's way of using mathematics in physical problems. In opposition to Yoder's thesis, this paper argues that evidence internal to Huygens's work as well as the contemporary reaction (...) to it suggest the existence of substantial methodological differences between Huygens's mathematization of nature and Newton's. (shrink)