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Chris Reed [34]Catherine L. Reed [7]C. Reed [5]Carrie E. Reed [4]
C. A. Reed [3]Cl Reed [3]Christopher Reed [2]Christine M. Reed [2]

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Charles Reed
Yale University (PhD)
  1. Argumentation Schemes.Douglas Walton, Chris Reed & Fabrizio Macagno - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides a systematic analysis of many common argumentation schemes and a compendium of 96 schemes. The study of these schemes, or forms of argument that capture stereotypical patterns of human reasoning, is at the core of argumentation research. Surveying all aspects of argumentation schemes from the ground up, the book takes the reader from the elementary exposition in the first chapter to the latest state of the art in the research efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, outlined (...)
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  2.  17
    Argumentation Schemes.Douglas Walton, Christopher Reed & Fabrizio Macagno - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides a systematic analysis of many common argumentation schemes and a compendium of 96 schemes. The study of these schemes, or forms of argument that capture stereotypical patterns of human reasoning, is at the core of argumentation research. Surveying all aspects of argumentation schemes from the ground up, the book takes the reader from the elementary exposition in the first chapter to the latest state of the art in the research efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, outlined (...)
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  3.  98
    Towards a Formal Account of Reasoning About Evidence: Argumentation Schemes and Generalisations. [REVIEW]Floris Bex, Henry Prakken, Chris Reed & Douglas Walton - 2003 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 11 (2-3):125-165.
    This paper studies the modelling of legal reasoning about evidence within general theories of defeasible reasoning and argumentation. In particular, Wigmore's method for charting evidence and its use by modern legal evidence scholars is studied in order to give a formal underpinning in terms of logics for defeasible argumentation. Two notions turn out to be crucial, viz. argumentation schemes and empirical generalisations.
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  4. Araucaria as a Tool for Diagramming Arguments in Teaching and Studying Philosophy .F. Macagno, D. Walton, G. Rowe & C. Reed - 2006 - Teaching Philosophy 29 (2):111-124,.
    This paper explains how to use a new software tool for argument diagramming available free on the Internet, showing especially how it can be used in the classroom to enhance critical thinking in philosophy. The user loads a text file containing an argument into a box on the computer interface, and then creates an argument diagram by dragging lines from one node to another. A key feature is the support for argumentation schemes, common patterns of defeasible reasoning historically know as (...)
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  5.  85
    Argumentation Schemes and Enthymemes.D. Walton & C. A. Reed - 2005 - Synthese 145 (3):339-370.
    The aim of this investigation is to explore the role of argumentation schemes in enthymeme reconstruction. This aim is pursued by studying selected cases of incomplete arguments in natural language discourse to see what the requirements are for filling in the unstated premises and conclusions in some systematic and useful way. Some of these cases are best handled using deductive tools, while others respond best to an analysis based on defeasible argumentations schemes. The approach is also shown to work reasonably (...)
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  6.  21
    Towards a Theory of Close Analysis for Dispute Mediation Discourse.Mathilde Janier & Chris Reed - 2017 - Argumentation 31 (1):45-82.
    Mediation is an alternative dispute resolution process that is becoming more and more popular particularly in English-speaking countries. In contrast to traditional litigation it has not benefited from technological advances and little research has been carried out to make this increasingly widespread practice more efficient. The study of argumentation in dispute mediation hitherto has largely been concerned with theoretical insights. The development of argumentation theories linked to computational applications opens promising new horizons since computational tools could support mediators, making sessions (...)
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  7. Argument Diagramming in Logic, Artificial Intelligence, and Law.Chris Reed, Douglas Walton & Fabrizio Macagno - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence, and Law 22 (1):87-109.
  8.  29
    The Argument Web: An Online Ecosystem of Tools, Systems and Services for Argumentation.Mark Snaith, Alison Pease, John Lawrence, Barbara Konat, Mathilde Janier, Rory Duthie, Katarzyna Budzynska & Chris Reed - 2017 - Philosophy and Technology 30 (2):137-160.
    The Argument Web is maturing as both a platform built upon a synthesis of many contemporary theories of argumentation in philosophy and also as an ecosystem in which various applications and application components are contributed by different research groups around the world. It already hosts the largest publicly accessible corpora of argumentation and has the largest number of interoperable and cross compatible tools for the analysis, navigation and evaluation of arguments across a broad range of domains, languages and activity types. (...)
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  9.  5
    Using Collaborative Models to Overcome Obstacles to Undergraduate Publication in Cognitive Neuroscience.Cindy M. Bukach, Kendall Stewart, Jane W. Couperus & Catherine L. Reed - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  10. Mining Arguments From 19th Century Philosophical Texts Using Topic Based Modelling.John Lawrence, Chris Reed, Simon McAlister, Andrew Ravenscroft, Colin Allen & David Bourget - 2014 - In Proceedings of the First Workshop on Argumentation Mining. Baltimore, USA: pp. 79-87.
    In this paper we look at the manual analysis of arguments and how this compares to the current state of automatic argument analysis. These considerations are used to develop a new approach combining a machine learning algorithm to extract propositions from text, with a topic model to determine argument structure. The results of this method are compared to a manual analysis.
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  11. On Argumentation Schemes and the Natural Classification of Arguments.J. Katzav & C. A. Reed - 2004 - Argumentation 18 (2):239-259.
    We develop conceptions of arguments and of argument types that will, by serving as the basis for developing a natural classification of arguments, benefit work in artificial intelligence. Focusing only on arguments construed as the semantic entities that are the outcome of processes of reasoning, we outline and clarify our view that an argument is a proposition that represents a fact as both conveying some other fact and as doing so wholly. Further, we outline our view that, with respect to (...)
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  12.  11
    Harnessing Rhetorical Figures for Argument Mining.John Lawrence, Jacky Visser & Chris Reed - 2017 - Argument and Computation 8 (3):289-310.
  13.  12
    Correspondence Between Th Pragma-Dialectical Disussion Model and the Argument Interchange Format.Jacky Visser, Floris Bex, Chris Reed & Bart Garssen - 2011 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 23 (36).
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  14.  4
    Theoretical Foundations for Illocutionary Structure Parsing1.Katarzyna Budzynska, Mathilde Janier, Chris Reed & Patrick Saint-Dizier - 2016 - Argument and Computation 7 (1):91-108.
  15.  37
    Evaluating Corroborative Evidence.Douglas Walton & Chris Reed - 2008 - Argumentation 22 (4):531-553.
    How should we evaluate an argument in which two witnesses independently testify to some claim? In fact what would happen is that the testimony of the second witness would be taken to corroborate that of the first to some extent, thereby boosting up the plausibility of the first argument from testimony. But does that commit the fallacy of double counting, because the second testimony is already taken as independent evidence supporting the claim? Perhaps the corroboration effect should be considered illogical, (...)
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  16. Multi-Level Computational Methods for Interdisciplinary Research in the HathiTrust Digital Library.Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen, Katy Börner, Robert Light, Simon McAlister, Andrew Ravenscroft, Robert Rose, Doori Rose, Jun Otsuka, David Bourget, John Lawrence & Chris Reed - 2017 - PLoS ONE 12 (9).
    We show how faceted search using a combination of traditional classification systems and mixed-membership topic models can go beyond keyword search to inform resource discovery, hypothesis formulation, and argument extraction for interdisciplinary research. Our test domain is the history and philosophy of scientific work on animal mind and cognition. The methods can be generalized to other research areas and ultimately support a system for semi-automatic identification of argument structures. We provide a case study for the application of the methods to (...)
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  17.  10
    Argumentation Schemes in Argument-as-Process and Argument-as-Product.Chris Reed & Douglas Walton - unknown
  18.  8
    A Domain Specific Language for Describing Diverse Systems of Dialogue.S. Wells & C. A. Reed - 2012 - Journal of Applied Logic 10 (4):309-329.
  19.  9
    There's More to Touch Than Meets the Eye: The Salience of Object Attributes for Haptics with and Without Vision.Roberta L. Klatzky, Susan J. Lederman & Catherine Reed - 1987 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 116 (4):356-369.
  20.  21
    Translating Toulmin Diagrams: Theory Neutrality in Argument Representation.Chris Reed & Glenn Rowe - 2005 - Argumentation 19 (3):267-286.
    The Toulmin diagram layout is very familiar and widely used, particularly in the teaching of critical thinking skills. The conventional box-and-arrow diagram is equally familiar and widespread. Translation between the two throws up a number of interesting challenges. Some of these challenges represent slightly different ways of looking at old and deep theoretical questions. Others are diagrammatic versions of questions that have already been addressed in artificial intelligence models of argument. But there are further questions that are posed as a (...)
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  21.  4
    Schemes of Inference, Conflict, and Preference in a Computational Model of Argument.Floris Bex & Chris Reed - 2011 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 23 (36).
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  22.  15
    Argumentation Schemes in Dialogue.Chris Reed & Douglas Walton - unknown
    This paper uses the language of formal dialectics to explore how argumentation schemes and their critical questions can be characterized as an extension to traditional dialectical systems. The aim is to construct a dialectical system in which the set of locutions is extended to include scheme-based moves the set of structural rules describes the roles that critical questioning can play; and the set of commitment rules distinguishes between exceptions and assumptions.
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  23.  7
    Applications of Argumentation Schemes.Chris Reed & Doug Walton - unknown
  24.  5
    Building Bridges Between Everyday Argument and Formal Representations of Reasoning.Kamila Dębowska, Paweł Łozinński & Chris Reed - 2009 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 16 (29).
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  25.  12
    Relative Contributions of Face and Body Configurations: Perceiving Emotional State and Motion Intention.Betsy App, Catherine L. Reed & Daniel N. McIntosh - 2012 - Cognition and Emotion 26 (4):690-698.
  26.  4
    The Development of Argument and Computation and Its Roots in the Lvov-Warsaw School.Chris Reed & Marcin Koszowy - 2011 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 23 (36).
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  27.  37
    Representing and Applying Knowledge for Argumentation in a Social Context.Chris Reed - 1997 - AI and Society 11 (1-2):138-154.
    The concept of argumentation in AI is based almost exclusively on the use of formal, abstract representations. Despite their appealing computational properties, these abstractions become increasingly divorced from their real world counterparts, and, crucially, lose the ability to express the rich gamut of natural argument forms required for creating effective text. In this paper, the demands that socially situated argumentation places on knowledge representation are explored, and the various problems with existing formalisations are discussed. Insights from argumentation theory and social (...)
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  28.  91
    A Formal Characterisation of Hamblin’s Action-State Semantics.Chris Reed & Timothy J. Norman - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (4):415 - 448.
    Hamblin's Action-State Semantics provides a sound philosophical foundation for understanding the character of the imperative. Taking this as our inspiration, in this paper we present a logic of action, which we call ST, that captures the clear ontological distinction between being responsible for the achievement of a state of affairs and being responsible for the performance of an action. We argue that a relativised modal logic of type RT founded upon a ternary relation over possible worlds integrated with a basic (...)
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  29. Dialectics, Dialogue and Argumentation: An Examination of Douglas Walton's Theories of Reasoning and Argument.C. Tindale & C. Reed (eds.) - 2010 - College Publications.
  30.  12
    Toulmin Diagrams in Theory & Practice: Theory Neutrality in Argument Representation.Chris Reed & Glenn Rowe - unknown
    The Toulmin diagram layout is very familiar and widely used, particularly in the teaching of critical thinking skills. The conventional box-and-arrow diagram is equally familiar and widespread. Translation between the two throws up a number of interesting challenges. Some of these challenges represent slightly different ways of looking at old and deep theoretical questions. Others are diagrammatic versions of questions that have already been addressed in artificial intelligence models of argument. But there are further questions that are posed as a (...)
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  31. The Price of Peace: Just War in the Twenty-First Century.Charles Reed & David Ryall (eds.) - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    Lively political and public debates on war and morality have been a feature of the post-Cold War world. The Price of Peace argues that a re-examination of the just war tradition is therefore required. The authors suggest that despite fluctuations and transformations in international politics, the just war tradition continues to be relevant. However they argue that it needs to be reworked to respond to the new challenges to international security represented by the end of the Cold War and the (...)
     
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  32.  4
    Commentary on van Laar.Chris Reed - unknown
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  33.  4
    Not Just Posturing.Catherine L. Reed, Valerie E. Stone & John E. McGoldrick - 2006 - In Günther Knoblich, Ian M. Thornton, Marc Grosjean & Maggie Shiffrar (eds.), Human Body Perception From the Inside Out. Oxford University Press. pp. 229.
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  34. Argument Schemes in Dialogue.C. Reed & D. Walton - 2007 - In Christopher W. Tindale Hans V. Hansen (ed.), Dissensus and the Search for Common Ground. Ossa.
     
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  35.  6
    Hand Function, Not Proximity, Biases Visuotactile Integration Later in Object Processing: An ERP Study.Daivik B. Vyas, John P. Garza & Catherine L. Reed - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 69:26-35.
  36.  9
    Building Monologue.Chris Reed - unknown
    To build an argument--and particularly an argument presented as a monologue--a writer must assemble and marshal a battery of supports for a claim. Some of those supports will be arranged in convergent structures, some as linked; some will be expressed, some will be left implicit; sometimes a support will need further support of its own--and sometimes, not. This paper explores the factors which lead a writer to make particular choices, the interactions between those factors, and the constraints on a w (...)
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  37.  5
    What Makes an Inquiry‐Oriented Science Teacher? The Influence of Learning Histories on Student Teacher Role Identity and Practice.Charles J. Eick & Cynthia J. Reed - 2002 - Science Education 86 (3):401-416.
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  38. Landscape Urbanism in Practice Philosophy of the Award-Winning Office.Chris Reed - 2010 - Topos: European Landscape Magazine 71:90.
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  39.  6
    Commentary on Krabbe.Chris Reed - unknown
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  40.  10
    Terrestrial Passage Theory of the Moon Illusion.Charles F. Reed - 1984 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113 (4):489-500.
  41.  20
    Luis A. Campos. Radium and the Secret of Life. 352 Pp., Figs., Bibl., Index. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2015. $55. [REVIEW]Cameron Reed - 2016 - Isis 107 (2):431-432.
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  42.  15
    Logic, Ethics, and Rhetoric of Research on Rape: A Reply to Mosher and Bond.James H. Korn, Timothy J. Huelsman & Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed - 1992 - Ethics and Behavior 2 (2):123 – 128.
    Mosher and Bond (this issue) suggest experimental designs that are not appropriate for the research purposes they criticize. In defending their own research, they make contradictory statements about the realism of their guided imagery procedure for simulating rape. They present data that we believe provide evidence for the possibility that wrongful harm occurred in their previous research. We assert our right to study the ethics of research and object to specious charges of having threatened sexual freedom and being associated with (...)
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  43.  3
    Persuasion Monologue.Chris Reed & Derek Long - unknown
    The emphasis in most process-oriented models of argumentation is placed heavily upon analysis of dialogue. The current work puts forward an account which examines the argumentation involved in persuasive monologue, drawing upon commitment-based theories of dialogue. The various differences between monologue and dialogue are discussed, with particular reference to the possibility of designing a monologue game in which commitments are dynamically incurred and updated as the monologue is created. Finally, the computational advantages of adopting such an approach are explored in (...)
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  44.  14
    Introduction: Theoretical and Technological Perspectives on Online Arguments.Chris Reed & Fabio Paglieri - 2017 - Philosophy and Technology 30 (2):131-135.
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  45.  18
    Divisions Within the Posterior Parietal Cortex Help Touch Meet Vision.Catherine L. Reed - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):218-218.
    The parietal cortex is divided into two major functional regions: the anterior parietal cortex that includes primary somatosensory cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that includes the rest of the parietal lobe. The PPC contains multiple representations of space. In Dijkerman & de Haan's (D&dH's) model, higher spatial representations are separate from PPC functions. This model should be developed further so that the functions of the somatosensory system are integrated with specific functions within the PPC and higher spatial representations. (...)
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  46. Raymond Aron, The Dawn of Universal History. New York: Basic Books, 2003, 518 Pp.(Indexed). ISBN 0-465-00408-3, $22.00 (Pb). Linda A. Bell, Beyond the Margins: Reflections of a Feminist Philosopher. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003, 245 Pp.(Indexed). ISBN 0-7914-5904-7, $17.95 (Pb). [REVIEW]E. Christian Brugger, Stella Chen, Carrie E. Reed, Cao Yuqing, Kim-Chong Chong, Sor-Hoon Tan & C. L. Ten - 2004 - Journal of Value Inquiry 38:433-435.
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  47.  33
    Introducing Argument & Computation.Guillermo R. Simari, Chris Reed, Iyad Rahwan & Floriana Grasso - 2010 - Argument and Computation 1 (1):1-5.
    Over the past decade or so, a new interdisciplinary field has emerged in the ground between, on the one hand, computer science – and artificial intelligence in particular – and, on the other, the area of philosophy concentrating on the language and structure of argument. There are now hundreds of researchers worldwide who would consider themselves a part of this nascent community. Various terms have been proposed for the area, including "Computational Dialectics," "Argumentation Technology," and "Argument-based Computing," but the term (...)
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  48.  18
    Recommendations to Support Interaction with Broadcast Debates: A Study on Older Adults’ Interaction with The Moral Maze.Rolando Medellin-Gasque, Chris Reed & Vicki L. Hanson - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (1):109-120.
  49.  19
    Agreeing to Differ: Modelling Persuasive Dialogue Between Parties With Different Values.Chris Reed - 2002 - Informal Logic 22 (3).
    In some cases of disagreement, particularly in ethics and law, it is impossible to provide any conclusive demonstration. The role of argument in such cases is to persuade rather than to prove. Drawing on ideas ofPerelrnan, we argue that persuasion in such cases relies on a recognition that the strength of such arguments will vary according to their audience, and depends on the comparative weight that the audiences gives to the social values that it advances. To model this, we introduce (...)
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  50.  14
    A Formal Characterisation of Hamblin’s Action-State Semantics.Chris Reed & Timothy J. Norman - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (4):415-448.
    Hamblin's Action-State Semantics provides a sound philosophical foundation for understanding the character of the imperative. Taking this as our inspiration, in this paper we present a logic of action, which we call ST, that captures the clear ontological distinction between being responsible for the achievement of a state of affairs and being responsible for the performance of an action. We argue that a relativised modal logic of type RT founded upon a ternary relation over possible worlds integrated with a basic (...)
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