There is a clear tendency in contemporary political/legal thought to limit agency to individual agents, thereby denying the existence and relevance of collective moral agency in general, and corporate agency in particular. This tendency is ultimately rooted in two particular forms of individualism – methodological and fictive (abstract) – which have their source in the Enlightenment. Furthermore, the dominant notion of moral agency owes a lot to Kant whose moral/legal philosophy is grounded exclusively on abstract reason and personal autonomy, to (...) the detriment of a due recognition of the socio-historical grounds of moral social conduct.I shall argue that an adequate theory of responsibility is needed, which does not only take into account individual responsibility, but also collective and corporate responsibility, capable of taking into consideration society and its problems. Furthermore, corporations are consciously and carefully structured organisations with different levels of management and have clearly defined aims and objectives, a central feature upon which I shall be focussing in this paper. (shrink)
In this article I will look into Corporate Legal Responsibility taking into account Levinas’s notion of infinite responsibility, as well as his understanding of ethical language. My account of Levinas’s philosophy will show that it challenges – breaking down – deeply entrenched distinctions in the dominant strands of moral philosophy, within which the theory of individual responsibility is embedded, such as between:(1) duty to others on the one hand and supererogation on the other; (2) perfect duty to others on the (...) one hand and imperfect duties to others on the other; (3) insiders and outsiders; kith and kin on the one hand and strangers on the other; Levinas’s moral vision is an inclusive one which embraces all of humanity (at least of those present today) irrespective of historical, linguistic, cultural differences and diversities. In other words, each has responsibilities for and duties towards all others. Of course, one might say that there is nothing new about a universalising ethics – after all Kantianism, liberalism as well as utilitarianism are well known instances. However, more crucially, all these traditional moral philosophies uphold the theory of individual responsibility, which is rooted in the philosophy of individualism. Such a philosophy can make sense only of the concept of individual moral/legal agency but not corporate agency. Therefore, in this article I will attempt to show that the Levinasian vision is able to help us change our view with respect to corporate responsibility. (shrink)
Considerando que a mulher que se encontra numa relação amorosa violenta, muitas vezes, persiste na manutenção dessa conjugalidade, este estudo objetivou investigar a experiência emocional de mulheres que vivenciam ou já vivenciaram uma relação conjugal violenta. Foram realizadas entrevistas individuais com seis mulheres beneficiárias de uma ONG dedicada à violência intrafamiliar. Cada entrevista foi mediada pela apresentação de uma narrativa interativa, a partir da qual a participante era convidada a inventar o desfecho. Após cada entrevista, a entrevistadora redigiu uma narrativa (...) transferencial sobre o encontro. O conjunto das narrativas transferenciais foi analisado psicanaliticamente à luz da Teoria dos Campos. Foi identificado o campo “Infeliz(es) para sempre”, em que as participantes manifestaram sofrimento radical frente à possibilidade de ficarem sozinhas, “preferindo” compartilhar a infelicidade com o cônjuge agressor a lidarem com o desamparo. Considera-se que tais achados podem auxiliar na intervenção dos profissionais que atuam junto a esse grupo social específico. (shrink)
In the context of interspecies play involving humans, we find limitations when it comes to understanding most species. One reason for this may be the fact that we tend to anthropomorphize the other to be able to empathize with it. In light of this, how can we infer communication signs of other species so we are able to connect with the nonhuman world? We look for answers to this question by adopting a phenomenological approach that allows us to decentre from (...) the anthropocentric perspective. We highlight animal studies, especially those that extend to them the notion of play, and the studies on interspecies playful interaction conducted in the context of animal‐computer interaction. In addition, we propose considering empathy as an interspecies dialogical bridge with nonhumans. Finally, we argue about an expansion of the field of interaction design as an approach to the connection with the nonhuman world. (shrink)
Este trabalho buscou discutir aspectos da relação entre liberdade e destino conformese apresentam em Grande sertão: veredas, de João Guimarães Rosa. Para isso, recorreu,principalmente, à ideia de evento, ou acontecimento, conforme pensada por Jacques Derrida.
The future of awake bruxism assessment will incorporate physiological data, possibly electromyography of the temporal muscles. But up to now, temporal muscle contraction patterns in awake bruxism have not been characterized to demonstrate clinical utility. The present study aimed to perform surface EMG evaluations of people assessed for awake bruxism to identify possible different subtypes. A 2-year active search for people with awake bruxism in three regions of the country resulted in a total of 303 participants. Their inclusion was confirmed (...) through non-instrumental approaches for awake bruxism: self-reported questionnaire and clinical exam, performed by three experienced and calibrated dentists. Also, 77 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Temporalis surface EMG was performed with a portable device. EMG signals were sent to a computer via Bluetooth 4.0 at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. Digital signal processing was performed using the commercial neuroUP software, transformed in RMS and then normalized for peak detection, in a 10 min session. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct subtypes of awake bruxism: phasic, tonic, and intermediate. Individuals with a predominance of EMG peaks/min were classified as the “phasic” subtype. Those with the highest EMG rest power were classified as the “tonic” subtype. There was also an “intermediate” subtype, when both variables remained low. Characterization of awake bruxism physiology is important for future establishment of instrumental assessment protocols and treatment strategies. (shrink)
This paper focuses on the set of problems regarding the HIV/AIDS crisis in the specific domain of corporate moral responsibility within a context of the Levinasian notion of proximity (infinite responsibility) and the Third. Against a totalitarian, homogeneous society, Levinas opens the way to a social pluralism, which has its sources in the disquiet provoked by the strangeness of the Other's face. Corporate responsibility, understood from this point of view, would not reduce institutional relations to an anonymous world of neutrality. (...) Corporate responsibility is unconditional in the sense that to be responsible is not a question of choice, but one of deep liberty, the liberty of taking the burden of the infinite responsibility for the Other customers, employees, the public at large and those who suffer in the world. This paper argues that it would then also mean that society (individuals, NGOs and governments) in accordance with the spirit of the Levinasian philosophy of infinite responsibility could exert pressure on corporations, such as pharmaceutical companies. Owing to their power, they could change their present responsibility policies to a more affirmative and engaged responsibility with regard to those who are ill and who suffer death or debilitation from HIV/AIDS and other prevalent diseases in the poorest parts of the world today. (shrink)