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    Racing to the Precipice: A Model of Artificial Intelligence Development.Stuart Armstrong, Nick Bostrom & Carl Shulman - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (2):201-206.
  2.  23
    How Hard is Artificial Intelligence? Evolutionary Arguments and Selection Effects.Carl Shulman & Nick Bostrom - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (7-8):7-8.
    Several authors have made the argument that because blind evolutionary processes produced human intelligence on Earth, it should be feasible for clever human engineers to create human-level artificial intelligence in the not-too-distant future. This evolutionary argument, however, has ignored the observation selection effect that guarantees that observers will see intelligent life having arisen on their planet no matter how hard it is for intelligent life to evolve on any given Earth-like planet. We explore how the evolutionary argument might be salvaged (...)
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  3. How Hard is Artificial Intelligence? The Evolutionary Argument and Observation Selection Effects.Carl Shulman & B. Nick - forthcoming - Journal of Consciousness Studies.