23 found
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  1. Severity as a Priority Setting Criterion: Setting a Challenging Research Agenda.Mathias Barra, Mari Broqvist, Erik Gustavsson, Martin Henriksson, Niklas Juth, Lars Sandman & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2019 - Health Care Analysis 28 (1):25-44.
    Priority setting in health care is ubiquitous and health authorities are increasingly recognising the need for priority setting guidelines to ensure efficient, fair, and equitable resource allocation. While cost-effectiveness concerns seem to dominate many policies, the tension between utilitarian and deontological concerns is salient to many, and various severity criteria appear to fill this gap. Severity, then, must be subjected to rigorous ethical and philosophical analysis. Here we first give a brief history of the path to today’s severity criteria in (...)
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  2.  51
    The badness of death and priorities in health.Carl Tollef Solberg & Espen Gamlund - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundThe state of the world is one with scarce medical resources where longevity is not equally distributed. Given such facts, setting priorities in health entails making difficult yet unavoidable decisions about which lives to save. The business of saving lives works on the assumption that longevity is valuable and that an early death is worse than a late death. There is a vast literature on health priorities and badness of death, separately. Surprisingly, there has been little cross-fertilisation between the academic (...)
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  3.  42
    The disvalue of death in the global burden of disease.Carl Tollef Solberg, Ole Frithjof Norheim & Mathias Barra - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):192-198.
    In the Global Burden of Disease study, disease burden is measured as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The paramount assumption of the DALY is that it makes sense to aggregate years lived with disability (YLDs) and years of life lost (YLLs). However, this is not smooth sailing. Whereas morbidity (YLD) is something thathappens toan individual, loss of life itself (YLL) occurs when that individual’s life has ended. YLLs quantify something that involves no experience and does not take place among living individuals. (...)
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  4.  19
    The Devils in the DALY: Prevailing Evaluative Assumptions.Carl Tollef Solberg, Preben Sørheim, Karl Erik Müller, Espen Gamlund, Ole Frithjof Norheim & Mathias Barra - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):259-274.
    In recent years, it has become commonplace among the Global Burden of Disease study authors to regard the disability-adjusted life year primarily as a descriptive health metric. During the first phase of the GBD, it was widely acknowledged that the DALY had built-in evaluative assumptions. However, from the publication of the 2010 GBD and onwards, two central evaluative practices—time discounting and age-weighting—have been omitted from the DALY model. After this substantial revision, the emerging view now appears to be that the (...)
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  5. Saving People from the Harm of Death.Espen Gamlund & Carl Tollef Solberg (eds.) - 2019 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Death is something we mourn or fear as the worst thing that could happen―whether the deaths of close ones, the deaths of strangers in reported accidents or tragedies, or our own. And yet, being dead is something that no one can experience and live to describe. This simple truth raises a host of difficult philosophical questions about the negativity surrounding our sense of death, and how and for whom exactly it is harmful. The question of whether death is bad has (...)
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  6.  20
    Epicurean Priority-setting During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond.Bjørn Hol & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2023 - De Ethica 7 (2):63-83.
    The aim of this article is to study the relationship between Epicureanism and pandemic priority-setting and to explore whether Epicurus's philosophy is compliant with the later developed utilitarianism. We find this aim interesting because Epicurus had a different way of valuing death than our modern society does: Epicureanism holds that death—understood as the incident of death—cannot be bad (or good) for those who die (self-regarding effects). However, this account is still consistent with the view that a particular death can be (...)
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  7. Perspectives on evaluating deaths and their relevance to health policy.Espen Gamlund & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2019 - In Espen Gamlund & Carl Tollef Solberg (eds.), Saving People from the Harm of Death. New York: Oxford University Press.
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  8.  15
    Døden som et onde.Carl Tollef Solberg - 2019 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 54 (3):167-186.
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  9.  32
    Do not despair about severity—yet.Mathias Barra, Mari Broqvist, Erik Gustavsson, Martin Henriksson, Niklas Juth, Lars Sandman & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (8):557-558.
    In a recent extended essay, philosopher Daniel Hausman goes a long way towards dismissing severity as a morally relevant attribute in the context of priority setting in healthcare. In this response, we argue that although Hausman certainly points to real problems with how severity is often interpreted and operationalised within the priority setting context, the conclusion that severity does not contain plausible ethical content is too hasty. Rather than abandonment, our proposal is to take severity seriously by carefully mapping the (...)
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  10. Abort og fosterreduksjon: En etisk sammenligning.Silje Langseth Dahl, Rebekka Hylland Vaksdal, Mathias Barra, Espen Gamlund & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2019 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1:89-111.
    In recent years, multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR) has increasingly been the subject of debate in Norway, and the intensity reached a tentative maximum when Legislation Department delivered the interpretative statement § 2 - Interpretation of the Abortion Act in 2016 in response to the Ministry of Health (2014) requesting the Legislation Department to consider whether the Law on abortion allows for MFPR of healthy fetuses in multiple pregnancies. The Legislation Department concluded that current abortion laws allow MFPR within the framework (...)
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  11.  21
    Abortion and multifetal pregnancy reduction: An ethical comparison.Silje Langseth Dahl, Rebekka Hylland Vaksdal, Mathias Barra, Espen Gamlund & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2021 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1:51-73.
    In recent years, multifetal pregnancy reduction has increasingly been a subject of debate in Norway. The intensity of this debate reached a tentative maximum when the Legislation Department delivered their interpretative statement, Section 2 - Interpretation of the Abortion Act, in 2016 in response to a request from the Ministry of Health that the Legislation Department consider whether the Abortion Act allows for MFPR of healthy fetuses in multiple pregnancies. The Legislation Department concluded that the current abortion legislation [as of (...)
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  12.  5
    Verdien av mening og meningsløshet.Anders Malkomsen & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2021 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 56 (4):178-190.
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  13.  10
    Når er det verst å miste sitt liv? Relevansen av filosofiske grunnlagsteorier for helseprioriteringer.Espen Gamlund & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2014 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 49 (3-4):205-215.
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  14.  21
    Premature Death as a Normative Concept.Preben Sørheim, Mathias Barra, Ole Frithjof Norheim, Espen Gamlund & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2024 - Health Care Analysis 32 (2):88-105.
    The practical goal of preventing premature death seems uncontroversial. But the term ‘premature death’ is vague with several, sometimes conflicting definitions. This ambiguity results in several conceptions with which not all will agree. Moreover, the normative rationale behind the goal of preventing premature deaths is masked by the operational definition of existing measures. In this article, we argue that ‘premature death’ should be recognized as a normative concept. We propose that normative theories should be used to justify measures of premature (...)
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  15.  25
    Mandatory childhood vaccination: Should Norway follow?Espen Gamlund, Karl Erik Müller, Kathrine Knarvik Paquet & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2020 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1:7-27.
    _Systematic public vaccination constitutes a tremendous health success, perhaps the greatest achievement of biomedicine so far. There is, however, room for improvement. Each year, 1.5 million deaths could be avoided with enhanced immunisation coverage. In recent years, many countries have introduced mandatory childhood vaccination programmes in an attempt to avoid deaths. In Norway, however, the vaccination programme has remained voluntary. Our childhood immunisation programme covers protection for twelve infectious diseases, and Norwegian children are systematically immunised from six weeks to sixteen (...)
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  16.  7
    When Should Popular Views be Included in a Reflective Equilibrium?Borgar Jølstad, Niklas Juth, Carl Tollef Solberg & Mathias Barra - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-18.
    It has become increasingly common to conduct research on popular views on ethical questions. In this paper, we discuss when and to what extent popular views should be included in a reflective equilibrium process, thereby influencing normative theory. We argue that popular views are suitable for inclusion in a reflective equilibrium if they approximate considered judgments and examine some factors that plausibly contribute to the consideredness of popular views. We conclude that deliberation and familiarity contribute to the consideredness of popular (...)
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  17.  38
    Severity as a moral qualifier of malady.Carl Tollef Solberg, Mathias Barra, Lars Sandman & Bjorn Hoffmann - 2023 - BMC Medical Ethics 24 (1):1-7.
    The overarching aim of this article is to scrutinize how severity can work as a qualifier for the moral impetus of malady. While there is agreement that malady is of negative value, there is disagreement about precisely how this is so. Nevertheless, alleviating disease, injury, and associated suffering is almost universally considered good. Furthermore, the strength of a diseased person’s moral claims for our attention and efforts will inevitably vary. This article starts by reflecting on what kind of moral impetus (...)
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  18.  8
    Fødselens tragedie eller tragediens fødsel? Om Zapffe og eksistensens ytterkanter.Carl Tollef Solberg - 2023 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 58 (4):185-201.
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  19.  31
    Public health priority setting: A case for priority to the worse off in well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.Sindre August Horn, Mathias Barra, Ole Frithjof Norheim & Carl Tollef Solberg - forthcoming - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics.
    In Norway, priority for health interventions is assigned on the basis of three official criteria: health benefit, resources, and severity. Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have mainly happened through intersectoral public health efforts such as lockdowns, quarantines, information campaigns, social distancing and, more recently, vaccine distribution. The aim of this article is to evaluate potential priority setting criteria for public health interventions. We argue in favour of the following three criteria for public health priority setting: benefit, resources and improving the (...)
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  20.  9
    Can Geographically Targeted Vaccinations Be Ethically Justified? The Case of Norway During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Håkon Amdam, Ole Frithjof Norheim, Carl Tollef Solberg & Jasper R. Littmann - 2023 - Public Health Ethics 16 (2):139-151.
    This article discusses the fairness of geographically targeted vaccinations (GTVs). During the initial period of local and global vaccine scarcity, health authorities had to enact priority-setting strategies for mass vaccination campaigns against COVID-19. These strategies have in common that priority setting was based on personal characteristics, such as age, health status or profession. However, in 2021, an alternative to this strategy was employed in some countries, particularly Norway. In these countries, vaccine allocation was also based on the epidemiological situations in (...)
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  21.  10
    Reciprocity as an Argument for Prioritizing Health Care Workers for the COVID-19 Vaccine.Borgar Jølstad & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2023 - De Ethica 7 (2):28-43.
    During the recent debates on whether to prioritize health care workers for COVID-19 vaccines, two main lines of arguments emerged: one centered on maximizing health and one centered on reciprocity. In this article, we scrutinize the argument from reciprocity. The notions of fittingness and proportionality are fundamental for the act of reciprocating. We consider the importance of these notions for various arguments from reciprocity, showing that the arguments are problematic. If there is a plausible argument for reciprocity during the pandemic, (...)
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  22.  16
    Bør vi diskontere fremtidige helsegevinster?Carl Tollef Solberg, Mathias Barra & Bjarne Robberstad - 2020 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 55 (2-3):170-184.
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  23.  18
    Consistency is not overrated.Carl Tollef Solberg, Ole Frithjof Norheim & Mathias Barra - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):830-831.
    In a recent paper— The disvalue of death in the global burden of disease 1—we question the commensurability of the two components of the disability-adjusted life year — years lived with disability and years of life lost —and offer a tentative solution to this problem. In an exciting and constructive reply— Is consistency overrated? 2—philosopher S Andrew Schroeder argues that our concern about the DALY may be missing the mark by accepting the DALY as what he refers to as an (...)
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