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Carla Bagnoli
University of Modena
  1. Constructivism in Metaethics.Carla Bagnoli - 2017 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Metaethical constructivism is the view that insofar as there are normative truths, they are not fixed by normative facts that are independent of what rational agents would agree to under some specified conditions of choice. The appeal of this view lies in the promise to explain how normative truths are objective and independent of our actual judgments, while also binding and authoritative for us. -/- Constructivism comes in several varieties, some of which claim a place within metaethics while others claim (...)
     
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  2. Constructivism in Metaethics.Carla Bagnoli - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Constructivism in ethics is the view that insofar as there are normative truths, for example, truths about what we ought to do, they are in some sense determined by an idealized process of rational deliberation, choice, or agreement. As a “first-order moral account”--an account of which moral principles are correct-- constructivism is the view that the moral principles we ought to accept or follow are the ones that agents would agree to or endorse were they to engage in a hypothetical (...)
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  3. Constructivism About Practical Knowledge.Carla Bagnoli - 2013 - In Constructivism in Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 153-182.
    It is largely agreed that if constructivism contributes anything to meta-ethics it is by proposing that we understand ethical objectivity “in terms of a suitably constructed point of view that all can accept” (Rawls 1980/1999: 307). Constructivists defend this “practical” conception of objectivity in contrast to the realist or “ontological” conception of objectivity, understood as an accurate representation of an independent metaphysical order. Because of their objectivist but not realist commitments, Kantian constructivists place their theory “somewhere in the space between (...)
     
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  4.  58
    Authority as a Contingency Plan.Carla Bagnoli - 2019 - Philosophical Explorations 22 (2):130-145.
    Humean constructivists object to Kantian constructivism that by endorsing the constitutivist strategy, which grounds moral obligations in rational agency, this position discounts the impact of cont...
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  5.  71
    Starting Points: Kantian Constructivism Reassessed.Carla Bagnoli - 2014 - Ratio Juris 27 (3):311-329.
    G. A. Cohen and J. Raz object that Constructivism is incoherent because it crucially deploys unconstructed elements in the structure of justification. This paper offers a response on behalf of constructivism, by reassessing the role of such unconstructed elements. First, it argues that a shared conception of rational agency works as a starting point for the justification, but it does not play a foundational role. Second, it accounts for the unconstructed norms that constrains the activity of construction as constitutive norms. (...)
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  6. Constructivism in Ethics.Carla Bagnoli (ed.) - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Are there such things as moral truths? How do we know what we should do? And does it matter? Constructivism states that moral truths are neither invented nor discovered, but rather are constructed by rational agents in order to solve practical problems. While constructivism has become the focus of many philosophical debates in normative ethics, meta-ethics and action theory, its importance is still to be fully appreciated. These new essays written by leading scholars define and assess this new approach in (...)
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  7.  33
    Emotions and the Dynamics of Reasons.Carla Bagnoli - 2018 - Journal of Value Inquiry 52 (3):347-363.
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  8. Moral Objectivity: A Kantian Illusion?Carla Bagnoli - 2015 - Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (1-2):31-45.
    Some moral claims strike us as objective. It is often argued that this shows morality to be objective. Moral experience – broadly construed – is invoked as the strongest argument for moral realism, the thesis that there are moral facts or properties.See e.g. Jonathan Dancy, “Two conceptions of Moral Realism,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 60 : 167–187. Realists, however, cannot appropriate the argument from moral experience. In fact, constructivists argue that to validate the ways we experience the objectivity of (...)
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  9. Value in the Guise of Regret.Carla Bagnoli - 2000 - Philosophical Explorations 3 (2):169 – 187.
    According to a widely accepted philosophical model, agent-regret is practically significant and appropriate when the agent committed a mistake, or she faced a conflict of obligations. I argue that this account misunderstands moral phenomenology because it does not adequately characterize the object of agent-regret. I suggest that the object of agent-regret should be defined in terms of valuable unchosen alternatives supported by reasons. This model captures the phenomenological varieties of regret and explains its practical significance for the agent. My contention (...)
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  10. Respect and Membership in the Moral Community.Carla Bagnoli - 2007 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (2):113 - 128.
    Some philosophers object that Kant's respect cannot express mutual recognition because it is an attitude owed to persons in virtue of an abstract notion of autonomy and invite us to integrate the vocabulary of respect with other persons-concepts or to replace it with a social conception of recognition. This paper argues for a dialogical interpretation of respect as the key-mode of recognition of membership in the moral community. This interpretation highlights the relational and practical nature of respect, and accounts for (...)
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  11. Kant in Metaethics: The Paradox of Moral Autonomy, Solved by Publicity.Carla Bagnoli - 2017 - In M. Altman (ed.), Kant Handbook. Palgrave. pp. 355-377.
    This chapter aims to situate Kant’s account of practical reason in metaethical debates. First, it explains the reasons why it is legitimate and instructive to discuss Kant’s relevance in contemporary metaethics, hence addressing some issues about the intended scope of metaethics and its relation to practical reason and psychology. Second, it defends an interpretation of Kant’s conception of autonomy, which avoids some paradoxes traditionally associated with self-legislation. Third, it shows that constructivism best captures Kant’s conception of practical reason and of (...)
     
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  12. The Mafioso Case: Autonomy and Self-Respect.Carla Bagnoli - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (5):477-493.
    This article argues that immoralists do not fully enjoy autonomous agency because they are not capable of engaging in the proper form of practical reflection, which requires relating to others as having equal standing. An adequate diagnosis of the immoralist’s failure of agential authority requires a relational account of reflexivity and autonomy. This account has the distinctive merit of identifying the cost of disregarding moral obligations and of showing how immoralists may become susceptible to practical reason. The compelling quality of (...)
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  13. Respect and Loving Attention.Carla Bagnoli - 2003 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33 (4):483-516.
    On Kant's view, the feeling of respect is the mark of moral agency, and is peculiar to us, animals endowed with reason. Unlike any other feeling, respect originates in the contemplation of the moral law, that is, the idea of lawful activity. This idea works as a constraint on our deliberation by discounting the pretenses of our natural desires and demoting our selfish maxims. We experience its workings in the guise of respect. Respect shows that from the agent's subjective perspective, (...)
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  14. Morality and the Emotions.Carla Bagnoli (ed.) - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    What is their relation to practical rationality? Are they roots of our identity or threats to our autonomy? This volume is born out of the conviction that philosophy provides a distinctive approach to these problems.
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  15. L'autorita' Della Morale.Carla Bagnoli - 2007 - Feltrinelli.
    Capitolo I Il rispetto e l'ideale morale 1.1. Angeli, bruti e agenti 1.2. Il rispetto dell'altro 1.3. Il rispetto di sé 1.4. Auto−riflessione e auto−legislazione 1.5. Autonomia e individualità 1.6. Il rispetto e l'attenzione 1.7. Il rispetto e l'amore.
     
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  16. The Exploration of Moral Life.Carla Bagnoli - 2011 - In Justin Broakes (ed.), Iris Murdoch, philosopher. Oxford University Press.
    The most distinctive feature of Murdoch's philosophical project is her attempt to reclaim the exploration of moral life as a legitimate topic of philosophical investigation. In contrast to the predominant focus on action and decision, she argues that “what we require is a renewed sense of the difficulty and complexity of the moral life and the opacity of persons. We need more concepts in terms of which to picture the substance of our being” (AD 293).1 I shall argue that to (...)
     
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  17.  35
    Emotions and the Categorical Authority of Moral Reason.Carla Bagnoli - 2011 - In Morality and the Emotions. Oxford University Press. pp. 62.
  18. Moral Constructivism: A Phenomenological Argument.Carla Bagnoli - 2002 - Topoi 21 (1-2):125-138.
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    Normativity and Emotional Vulnerability.Carla Bagnoli - 2020 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 46 (2):141-151.
    Are the emotions relevant for the theory of value and normativity? Is there a set of morally correct arrangements of emotions? Current debates are often structured as though there were only two theoretical options to approach these questions, a sentimentalist theory of some sort, which emphasizes the role of emotions in forming ethical behaviour and practical thought, and intellectualist rationalism, which denies that emotions can help at all in generating normativity and contributing to moral value, hence also denying that they (...)
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  20.  11
    Handbook of Legal Reasoning and Argumentation.Colin Aitken, Amalia Amaya, Kevin D. Ashley, Carla Bagnoli, Giorgio Bongiovanni, Bartosz Brożek, Cristiano Castelfranchi, Samuele Chilovi, Marcello Di Bello, Jaap Hage, Kenneth Einar Himma, Lewis A. Kornhauser, Emiliano Lorini, Fabrizio Macagno, Andrei Marmor, J. J. Moreso, Veronica Rodriguez-Blanco, Antonino Rotolo, Giovanni Sartor, Burkhard Schafer, Chiara Valentini, Bart Verheij, Douglas Walton & Wojciech Załuski (eds.) - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
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  21. The Authority of Reflection.Carla Bagnoli - 2007 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 22 (1):43-52.
    This paper examines Moran’s argument for the special authority of the first-person, which revolves around the Self/Other asymmetry and grounds dichotomies such as the practical vs. theoretical, activity vs. passivity, and justificatory vs. explanatory reasons. These dichotomies qualify the self-reflective person as an agent, interested in justifying her actions from a deliberative stance. The Other is pictured as a spectator interested in explaining action from a theoretical stance. The self-reflective knower has authority over her own mental states, while the Spectator (...)
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  22. Humanitarian Intervention as a Perfect Duty. A Kantian Argument".Carla Bagnoli - 2005 - Nomos 47:117-148.
  23.  29
    Claiming Responsibility for Action Under Duress.Carla Bagnoli - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (4):851-868.
    This paper argues that to understand the varieties of wrongs done in coercion, we should examine the dynamic normative relation that the coercer establishes with the coerced. The case rests on a critical examination of coercion by threat, which is proved irreducible to psychological inducement by overwhelming motives, obstruction of agency by impaired consent or deprivation of genuine choice. In contrast to physical coercion, coercion by threat requires the coercee’s participation in deliberation to succeed. For this kind of coercion to (...)
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  24. Morality as Practical Knowledge.Carla Bagnoli - 2012 - Analytic Philosophy 53 (1):61-70.
    In his original essay, The Form of Practical Knowledge, Stephen Engstrom argues for placing Kant’s ethics in the tradition of practical cognitivism. My remarks are intended to highlight the merits of his interpretation in contrast to intuitionism and constructivism, understood as ways of appropriating Kant’s legacy. In particular, I will focus on two issues: first, the special character of practical knowledge—as opposed to theoretical knowledge and craft expertise; and second, the apparent tension between the demands of morality and the requirements (...)
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  25. Morality and the Emotions.Carla Bagnoli (ed.) - 2011 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Emotions shape our mental and social lives, but their relation to morality is problematic: are they sources of moral knowledge, or obstacles to morality? Fourteen original articles by leading scholars in moral psychology and philosophy of mind explore the relation between emotions and practical rationality, value, autonomy, and moral identity.
     
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  26. Vulnerability and the Incompleteness of Practical Reason.Carla Bagnoli - 2016 - In Christine Strahele (ed.), Vulnerability, Autonomy and Applied Ethics. London: Routledge. pp. 13-32.
    In this chapter, I examine the concept of vulnerability as a complex constitutive feature of human agency and argue that it is both a constraint on and a resource for practical reasoning. When discussed as an ontological feature of human agency, vulnerability is primarily understood as an aspect of embodiment, which is problematic in different respects. First, in relation to the situatedness of human agency, vulnerability indicates that human agents are subjected to contextual contingencies. Second, in relation to temporality, vulnerability (...)
     
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  27.  9
    Respect and Loving Attention.Carla Bagnoli - 2003 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33 (4):483-515.
    On Kant’s view, the feeling of respect is the mark of moral agency, and is peculiar to us, animals endowed with reason. Unlike any other feeling, respect originates in the contemplation of the moral law, that is, the idea of lawful activity. This idea works as a constraint on our deliberation by discounting the pretenses of our natural desires and demoting our selfish maxims. We experience its workings in the guise of respect. Respect shows that from the agent’s subjective perspective, (...)
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  28. Self-Deception and Agential Authority. Constitutivist Account.Carla Bagnoli - 2012 - Humana Mente 5 (20):93-116.
    This paper takes a constitutivist approach to self-deception, and argues that this phenomenon should be evaluated under several dimensions of rationality. The constitutivist approach has the merit of explaining the selective nature of self-deception as well as its being subject to moral sanction. Self-deception is a pragmatic strategy for maintaining the stability of the self, hence continuous with other rational activities of self-constitution. However, its success is limited, and it costs are high: it protects the agent’s self by undermining the (...)
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  29.  15
    Reasoning: A Social Picture, Written by Anthony Simon Laden.Carla Bagnoli - 2016 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (5):603-606.
  30.  4
    La mente moral. Una invitación a la relectura de Iris Murdoch.Carla Bagnoli - 2013 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 60:39-54.
    Este artículo sostiene que Iris Murdoch se opone al no-cognitivismo porque este no tiene en cuenta los fenómenos morales dinámicos que son clave en cualquier exploración filosófica de la vida moral adecuada, es decir, la experiencia subjetiva de la moralidad, la diferencia y el cambio. El argumento de Murdoch pone en cuestión la dicotomía hecho/valor y cognitivo/emotivo, y propone un modelo de la mente complejo, sensible al tiempo y dinámico que se centra en el cambioy la transición. En este modelo (...)
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  31. Moral Perception and Knowledge by Principles.Carla Bagnoli - 2011 - In Jill Hernandez (ed.), The New Intuitionism. London: Continuum. pp. 84-105.
  32.  39
    The Autonomy of Morality.Carla Bagnoli - 2009 - Philosophical Review 118 (4):536-540.
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  33. On Richard Moran's Authority and Estrangement. Author's Reply.Josep E. Corbi, Komarine Romdenh-Romluc, Josep L. Prades, Hilan Bensusan, Manuel de Pinedo, Carla Bagnoli & Richard Moran - 2007 - Theoria 22 (58).
  34.  9
    Review of Charles Larmore The Autonomy of Morality. [REVIEW]Carla Bagnoli - 2009 - Philosophical Review 118 (4):536-540.
  35.  70
    Breaking Ties: The Significance of Choice in Symmetrical Moral Dilemmas.Carla Bagnoli - 2006 - Dialectica 60 (2):157–170.
    In symmetrical moral dilemmas, the agent faces a choice between two incompatible actions, which are equally justified on the basis of the same value. These cases are generally discounted as spurious or irrelevant on the assumption that, when there is no failure of commensurability, choice between symmetrical requirements is indifferent and can be determined by randomization. Alternatively, this article argues that the appeal to randomization allows the agent to overcome a deliberative impasse, but it does not really resolve the moral (...)
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    The Appeal of Kantian Intuitionism.Carla Bagnoli - 2009 - European Journal of Philosophy 17 (1):152-158.
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    Introduction.Carla Bagnoli - 2004 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):311-316.
    This volume collects articles in realism, anti-realism, and constructivism.
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  38.  3
    Breaking Ties: The Significance of Choice in Symmetrical Moral Dilemmas.Carla Bagnoli - 2006 - Dialectica 60 (2):157-170.
    In symmetrical moral dilemmas, the agent faces a choice between two incompatible actions, which are equally justified on the basis of the same value. These cases are generally discounted as spurious or irrelevant on the assumption that, when there is no failure of commensurability, choice between symmetrical requirements is indifferent and can be determined by randomization. Alternatively, this article argues that the appeal to randomization allows the agent to overcome a deliberative impasse, but it does not really resolve the moral (...)
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    Hume Studies Referees 2005–2006.Kate Abramson, Donald Ainslie, Lilli Alanen, Julia Annas, Margaret Atherton, Carla Bagnoli, Donald Baxter, Martin Bell, Richard Bett & Colin Bird - 2006 - Hume Studies 32 (2):391-393.
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  40.  58
    Hume Studies Referees, 2003–2004.Kate Abramson, Larry Arnhart, Carla Bagnoli, Martin Bell, Theodore Benditt, Christopher Berry, Deborah Boyle, John Bricke, Justin Broackes & Janet Broughton - 2004 - Hume Studies 30 (2):443-445.
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  41.  29
    Hume Studies Referees, 2007–2008.Donald Ainslie, Carla Bagnoli, Donald Baxter, Tom Beauchamp, Helen Beebee, Martin Bell, Deborah Boyle, John Bricke, Deborah Brown & Dorothy Coleman - 2008 - Hume Studies 34 (2):323-324.
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    Hume Studies Referees, 2003–2004.Larry Arnhart, Carla Bagnoli, Christopher Berry, Deborah Boyle, Janet Broughton, Stephen Buckle, Dario Castiglione, Kenneth Clatterbaugh, Phillip D. Cummins & Daniel Flage - 2004 - Hume Studies 30 (2):443-445.
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  43. On Stephen Engstrom, The Form of Practical Knowledge.Carla Bagnoli - 2011 - Iris. European Journal of Philosophy and Public Debate 3 (6):191-203.
  44. Attenzione congiunta e salienze condivise.Carla Bagnoli & Clotilde Calabi - 2005 - Nuova Civiltà Delle Macchine 23 (1):35-48.
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    Archard, David;, Deveaux, Monique;, Manson, Neil; and Weinstock, Daniel, Eds. Reading Onora O’Neill.New York: Routledge, 2013. Pp. 250. $44.95. [REVIEW]Carla Bagnoli - 2015 - Ethics 125 (4):1184-1189.
  46. Autonomy, Emotional Vulnerability and the Dynamics of Power.Carla Bagnoli - 2018 - In Sandrine Bergès & Alberto Siani (eds.), Women Philosophers on Autonomy. Londra, Regno Unito: pp. 208-225.
    Traditionally, philosophers have focused on whether and how emotions threaten autonomy, insofar as they lie outside the sphere of rational agency. That is, they have conceptualized emotional vulnerability as passivity. Second, they have considered how emotions are insensitive to rational judgment, focusing on cases in which emotions are dissonant or recalcitrant. Third, in recognizing the motivational force of emotions, philosophers have tracked their negative impact on rational deliberation. Indeed, emotions are often contrastive elements in rational deliberation. They appear to defeat (...)
     
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  47.  41
    A Philosophy to Live By: Engaging Iris Murdoch, by Maria Antonaccio.Carla Bagnoli - 2015 - Mind 124 (495):894-898.
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  48. Blackburn on the Normative Question.Carla Bagnoli - 2000 - Iride: Filosofia e Discussione Pubblica 30:8-14.
     
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  49. Compassion and Practical Reason: The Perspective of the Vulnerable.Carla Bagnoli - 2018 - In Carolyn Price & Justin Caouette (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Compassion. New York: Springer. pp. 77-94.
     
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  50. Compassion and Practical Reason: The Perspective of the Vulnerable.Carla Bagnoli - 2018 - In Carolyn Price & Justin Caouette (ed.), The Moral Psychology of Compassion. Heidelber/New York: pp. 77-94.
    Contemporary moral philosophers and philosophers of the emotions widely agree that Kant’s discussion of compassion is an unfortunate byproduct of his rationalistic and legalistic account of ethics. In fact, Kant departs from the solid established rationalist tradition not only in distancing himself from dogmatic and perfectionist rationalism but also in claiming that there is a practical use of reason, which commits him to acknowledge that reason directly guides rational agents by furnishing them motives for action. Kant’s argument is that reason (...)
     
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