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Carla Bagnoli
University of Modena
  1. Constructivism in Metaethics.Carla Bagnoli - 2017 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Metaethical constructivism is the view that insofar as there are normative truths, they are not fixed by normative facts that are independent of what rational agents would agree to under some specified conditions of choice. The appeal of this view lies in the promise to explain how normative truths are objective and independent of our actual judgments, while also binding and authoritative for us. -/- Constructivism comes in several varieties, some of which claim a place within metaethics while others claim (...)
     
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  2. Constructivism in Metaethics.Carla Bagnoli - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Constructivism in ethics is the view that insofar as there are normative truths, for example, truths about what we ought to do, they are in some sense determined by an idealized process of rational deliberation, choice, or agreement. As a “first-order moral account”--an account of which moral principles are correct-- constructivism is the view that the moral principles we ought to accept or follow are the ones that agents would agree to or endorse were they to engage in a hypothetical (...)
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  3. Constructivism About Practical Knowledge.Carla Bagnoli - 2013 - In Constructivism in Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 153-182.
    It is largely agreed that if constructivism contributes anything to meta-ethics it is by proposing that we understand ethical objectivity “in terms of a suitably constructed point of view that all can accept” (Rawls 1980/1999: 307). Constructivists defend this “practical” conception of objectivity in contrast to the realist or “ontological” conception of objectivity, understood as an accurate representation of an independent metaphysical order. Because of their objectivist but not realist commitments, Kantian constructivists place their theory “somewhere in the space between (...)
     
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  4.  65
    Starting Points: Kantian Constructivism Reassessed.Carla Bagnoli - 2014 - Ratio Juris 27 (3):311-329.
    G. A. Cohen and J. Raz object that Constructivism is incoherent because it crucially deploys unconstructed elements in the structure of justification. This paper offers a response on behalf of constructivism, by reassessing the role of such unconstructed elements. First, it argues that a shared conception of rational agency works as a starting point for the justification, but it does not play a foundational role. Second, it accounts for the unconstructed norms that constrains the activity of construction as constitutive norms. (...)
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  5. Value in the Guise of Regret.Carla Bagnoli - 2000 - Philosophical Explorations 3 (2):169 – 187.
    According to a widely accepted philosophical model, agent-regret is practically significant and appropriate when the agent committed a mistake, or she faced a conflict of obligations. I argue that this account misunderstands moral phenomenology because it does not adequately characterize the object of agent-regret. I suggest that the object of agent-regret should be defined in terms of valuable unchosen alternatives supported by reasons. This model captures the phenomenological varieties of regret and explains its practical significance for the agent. My contention (...)
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  6. Constructivism in Ethics.Carla Bagnoli (ed.) - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Are there such things as moral truths? How do we know what we should do? And does it matter? Constructivism states that moral truths are neither invented nor discovered, but rather are constructed by rational agents in order to solve practical problems. While constructivism has become the focus of many philosophical debates in normative ethics, meta-ethics and action theory, its importance is still to be fully appreciated. These new essays written by leading scholars define and assess this new approach in (...)
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  7. Morality and the Emotions.Carla Bagnoli (ed.) - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    What is their relation to practical rationality? Are they roots of our identity or threats to our autonomy? This volume is born out of the conviction that philosophy provides a distinctive approach to these problems.
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  8. Respect and Loving Attention.Carla Bagnoli - 2003 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33 (4):483-516.
    On Kant's view, the feeling of respect is the mark of moral agency, and is peculiar to us, animals endowed with reason. Unlike any other feeling, respect originates in the contemplation of the moral law, that is, the idea of lawful activity. This idea works as a constraint on our deliberation by discounting the pretenses of our natural desires and demoting our selfish maxims. We experience its workings in the guise of respect. Respect shows that from the agent's subjective perspective, (...)
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  9. Self-Deception and Agential Authority. Constitutivist Account.Carla Bagnoli - 2012 - Humana Mente 5 (20):93-116.
    This paper takes a constitutivist approach to self-deception, and argues that this phenomenon should be evaluated under several dimensions of rationality. The constitutivist approach has the merit of explaining the selective nature of self-deception as well as its being subject to moral sanction. Self-deception is a pragmatic strategy for maintaining the stability of the self, hence continuous with other rational activities of self-constitution. However, its success is limited, and it costs are high: it protects the agent’s self by undermining the (...)
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  10.  49
    Authority as a Contingency Plan.Carla Bagnoli - 2019 - Philosophical Explorations 22 (2):130-145.
    Humean constructivists object to Kantian constructivism that by endorsing the constitutivist strategy, which grounds moral obligations in rational agency, this position discounts the impact of cont...
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  11.  30
    Emotions and the Dynamics of Reasons.Carla Bagnoli - 2018 - Journal of Value Inquiry 52 (3):347-363.
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  12. Respect and Membership in the Moral Community.Carla Bagnoli - 2007 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (2):113 - 128.
    Some philosophers object that Kant's respect cannot express mutual recognition because it is an attitude owed to persons in virtue of an abstract notion of autonomy and invite us to integrate the vocabulary of respect with other persons-concepts or to replace it with a social conception of recognition. This paper argues for a dialogical interpretation of respect as the key-mode of recognition of membership in the moral community. This interpretation highlights the relational and practical nature of respect, and accounts for (...)
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  13.  32
    Emotions and the Categorical Authority of Moral Reason.Carla Bagnoli - 2011 - In Morality and the Emotions. Oxford University Press. pp. 62.
  14. On Stephen Engstrom, The Form of Practical Knowledge.Carla Bagnoli - 2011 - Iris. European Journal of Philosophy and Public Debate 3 (6):191-203.
  15. L'autorita' Della Morale.Carla Bagnoli - 2007 - Feltrinelli.
    Capitolo I Il rispetto e l'ideale morale 1.1. Angeli, bruti e agenti 1.2. Il rispetto dell'altro 1.3. Il rispetto di sé 1.4. Auto−riflessione e auto−legislazione 1.5. Autonomia e individualità 1.6. Il rispetto e l'attenzione 1.7. Il rispetto e l'amore.
     
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  16. The Authority of Reflection.Carla Bagnoli - 2007 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 22 (1):43-52.
    This paper examines Moran’s argument for the special authority of the first-person, which revolves around the Self/Other asymmetry and grounds dichotomies such as the practical vs. theoretical, activity vs. passivity, and justificatory vs. explanatory reasons. These dichotomies qualify the self-reflective person as an agent, interested in justifying her actions from a deliberative stance. The Other is pictured as a spectator interested in explaining action from a theoretical stance. The self-reflective knower has authority over her own mental states, while the Spectator (...)
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  17. The Mafioso Case: Autonomy and Self-Respect.Carla Bagnoli - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (5):477-493.
    This article argues that immoralists do not fully enjoy autonomous agency because they are not capable of engaging in the proper form of practical reflection, which requires relating to others as having equal standing. An adequate diagnosis of the immoralist’s failure of agential authority requires a relational account of reflexivity and autonomy. This account has the distinctive merit of identifying the cost of disregarding moral obligations and of showing how immoralists may become susceptible to practical reason. The compelling quality of (...)
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  18. Humanitarian Intervention as a Perfect Duty. A Kantian Argument".Carla Bagnoli - 2005 - Nomos 47:117-148.
  19. Moral Constructivism: A Phenomenological Argument.Carla Bagnoli - 2002 - Topoi 21 (1-2):125-138.
  20. Constrained by Reason, Transformed by Love: Murdoch on the Standard of Proof.Carla Bagnoli - 2018 - In Browning Gary (ed.), Truth and Love. London: London: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 63-88.
     
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  21.  39
    Ethical Objectivity: The Test of Time.Carla Bagnoli - 2019 - Ratio 32 (4):325-338.
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  22. Moral Objectivity: A Kantian Illusion?Carla Bagnoli - 2015 - Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (1-2):31-45.
    Some moral claims strike us as objective. It is often argued that this shows morality to be objective. Moral experience – broadly construed – is invoked as the strongest argument for moral realism, the thesis that there are moral facts or properties.See e.g. Jonathan Dancy, “Two conceptions of Moral Realism,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 60 : 167–187. Realists, however, cannot appropriate the argument from moral experience. In fact, constructivists argue that to validate the ways we experience the objectivity of (...)
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  23. Kant in Metaethics: The Paradox of Moral Autonomy, Solved by Publicity.Carla Bagnoli - 2017 - In M. Altman (ed.), Kant Handbook. Palgrave. pp. 355-377.
    This chapter aims to situate Kant’s account of practical reason in metaethical debates. First, it explains the reasons why it is legitimate and instructive to discuss Kant’s relevance in contemporary metaethics, hence addressing some issues about the intended scope of metaethics and its relation to practical reason and psychology. Second, it defends an interpretation of Kant’s conception of autonomy, which avoids some paradoxes traditionally associated with self-legislation. Third, it shows that constructivism best captures Kant’s conception of practical reason and of (...)
     
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  24. Vulnerability and the Incompleteness of Practical Reason.Carla Bagnoli - 2016 - In Christine Strahele (ed.), Vulnerability, Autonomy and Applied Ethics. London: Routledge. pp. 13-32.
    In this chapter, I examine the concept of vulnerability as a complex constitutive feature of human agency and argue that it is both a constraint on and a resource for practical reasoning. When discussed as an ontological feature of human agency, vulnerability is primarily understood as an aspect of embodiment, which is problematic in different respects. First, in relation to the situatedness of human agency, vulnerability indicates that human agents are subjected to contextual contingencies. Second, in relation to temporality, vulnerability (...)
     
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  25. The Exploration of Moral Life.Carla Bagnoli - 2011 - In Justin Broakes (ed.), Iris Murdoch, philosopher. Oxford University Press.
    The most distinctive feature of Murdoch's philosophical project is her attempt to reclaim the exploration of moral life as a legitimate topic of philosophical investigation. In contrast to the predominant focus on action and decision, she argues that “what we require is a renewed sense of the difficulty and complexity of the moral life and the opacity of persons. We need more concepts in terms of which to picture the substance of our being” (AD 293).1 I shall argue that to (...)
     
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  26.  5
    Normativity and Emotional Vulnerability.Carla Bagnoli - 2020 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 46 (2):141-151.
    Are the emotions relevant for the theory of value and normativity? Is there a set of morally correct arrangements of emotions? Current debates are often structured as though there were only two theoretical options to approach these questions, a sentimentalist theory of some sort, which emphasizes the role of emotions in forming ethical behaviour and practical thought, and intellectualist rationalism, which denies that emotions can help at all in generating normativity and contributing to moral value, hence also denying that they (...)
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  27.  3
    La mente moral. Una invitación a la relectura de Iris Murdoch.Carla Bagnoli - 2013 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 60:39-54.
    Este artículo sostiene que Iris Murdoch se opone al no-cognitivismo porque este no tiene en cuenta los fenómenos morales dinámicos que son clave en cualquier exploración filosófica de la vida moral adecuada, es decir, la experiencia subjetiva de la moralidad, la diferencia y el cambio. El argumento de Murdoch pone en cuestión la dicotomía hecho/valor y cognitivo/emotivo, y propone un modelo de la mente complejo, sensible al tiempo y dinámico que se centra en el cambioy la transición. En este modelo (...)
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  28. “Moral Perception and Knowledge by Principles”.Carla Bagnoli - 2011 - In Jill Hernandez (ed.), New Intuitionism. Continuum. pp. 84.
  29. Change in View: Sensitivity to Facts in Prospective Rationality.Carla Bagnoli - 2016 - In G. Marchetti & S. Marchetti (eds.), The Contingency of Fact and the Objectivity of Values. Routledge. pp. 137-158.
    In this chapter, I offer a constructivist account of practical reasoning as both generative and transformative in response to calls from philosophers as diverse as Iris Murdoch and Gilbert Harman, who have urged the development of a more nuanced picture of reasoning that incorporates revisionary and revelatory changes in viewpoint. Within this context, I describe sensitivity to facts as a form of emotional engagement that is also partially constitutive of facts. I consider both the epistemological and ontological aspects of this (...)
     
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  30. Morality as Practical Knowledge.Carla Bagnoli - 2012 - Analytic Philosophy 53 (1):61-70.
    In his original essay, The Form of Practical Knowledge, Stephen Engstrom argues for placing Kant’s ethics in the tradition of practical cognitivism. My remarks are intended to highlight the merits of his interpretation in contrast to intuitionism and constructivism, understood as ways of appropriating Kant’s legacy. In particular, I will focus on two issues: first, the special character of practical knowledge—as opposed to theoretical knowledge and craft expertise; and second, the apparent tension between the demands of morality and the requirements (...)
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  31.  8
    Respect and Loving Attention.Carla Bagnoli - 2003 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33 (4):483-515.
    On Kant’s view, the feeling of respect is the mark of moral agency, and is peculiar to us, animals endowed with reason. Unlike any other feeling, respect originates in the contemplation of the moral law, that is, the idea of lawful activity. This idea works as a constraint on our deliberation by discounting the pretenses of our natural desires and demoting our selfish maxims. We experience its workings in the guise of respect. Respect shows that from the agent’s subjective perspective, (...)
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  32. Review of Christine M. Korsgaard, The Constitution of Agency: Essays on Practical Reason and Moral Psychology[REVIEW]Carla Bagnoli - 2009 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (6).
  33.  38
    The Autonomy of Morality.Carla Bagnoli - 2009 - Philosophical Review 118 (4):536-540.
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  34. The Alleged Paradox of Moral Perfection.Carla Bagnoli - 2006 - In Elvio Baccarini (ed.), Rationality in Belief and Action,. Rijeka.
    Some contemporary philosophers, notably B. Williams and S. Wolf, argue that moral perfection is not just an unsustainable ideal, but also an unreasonable one in that it thwarts and demotes all the various elements that contribute to personal well-being. More importantly, moral perfection seems to imply the denial of an identifiable personal self; hence the paradox of moral perfection. I argue that this alleged paradox arises because of a misunderstanding of the role of moral ideals, of their overridingness, and of (...)
     
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  35.  62
    Respect and Obligation: The Scope of Kant’s Constructivism.Carla Bagnoli - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 29-40.
  36.  24
    Claiming Responsibility for Action Under Duress.Carla Bagnoli - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (4):851-868.
    This paper argues that to understand the varieties of wrongs done in coercion, we should examine the dynamic normative relation that the coercer establishes with the coerced. The case rests on a critical examination of coercion by threat, which is proved irreducible to psychological inducement by overwhelming motives, obstruction of agency by impaired consent or deprivation of genuine choice. In contrast to physical coercion, coercion by threat requires the coercee’s participation in deliberation to succeed. For this kind of coercion to (...)
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  37. Rawls on the Objectivity of Practical Reason.Carla Bagnoli - 2001 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 1 (3):307-329.
    This article argues that Rawls’ history of ethics importantly contributes to the advancement of ethical theory, in that it correctly situates Kantian constructivism as an alternative to both sentimentalism and rational Intuitionism, and calls attention to the standards of objectivity in ethics. The author shows that by suggesting that both Intuitionist and Humean doctrines face the charge of heteronomy, Rawls appearsto adopt a Kantian conception of practical reason. Furthermore, Rawls follows Kant in assuming that ethical objectivity can be vindicated only (...)
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  38.  40
    The Form of Practical Knowledge, by Stephen Engstrom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009, 260 Pp. ISBN 978‐0‐674‐03287‐3 Hb $49.95. [REVIEW]Carla Bagnoli - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (2):340-345.
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  39. The Dilemma of Normative Supervenience: A Constructivist Solution.Carla Bagnoli - 2017 - In B. Brozek, Antonino Rotolo & J. Stelmach (eds.), Supervenience and Normativity. New York, Stati Uniti: pp. 105-122.
  40. Practical Knowledge, Equal Standing, and Proper Reliance on Others.Carla Bagnoli - forthcoming - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science.
    The analogy with craft suggests that moral development is similar to non-moral apprenticeship in some crucial ways: it is both an individual and a social achievement, resulting from one’s participation in social practices guided by the exemplary character of the wise. Moral cognitions are the object of practical reason, but practical reason is importantly incomplete: to be endowed with rational and emotional capacities is not sufficient to grasp and articulate true moral cognitions. Such capacities ought to be adequately exercised and (...)
     
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  41.  68
    Breaking Ties: The Significance of Choice in Symmetrical Moral Dilemmas.Carla Bagnoli - 2006 - Dialectica 60 (2):157–170.
    In symmetrical moral dilemmas, the agent faces a choice between two incompatible actions, which are equally justified on the basis of the same value. These cases are generally discounted as spurious or irrelevant on the assumption that, when there is no failure of commensurability, choice between symmetrical requirements is indifferent and can be determined by randomization. Alternatively, this article argues that the appeal to randomization allows the agent to overcome a deliberative impasse, but it does not really resolve the moral (...)
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  42.  48
    Rooted in the Past, Hooked in the Present: Vulnerability to Contingency and Immunity to Regret.Carla Bagnoli - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 92 (3):763-770.
    The perspective of deliberative choice is constitutively from here. This simple truth carries significant implications for our agency and integrity, some of which are the focus of Wallace's thought-provoking essay. Wallace is concerned with the discrepancy between our present attachments and the rational justification of past decisions, which threatens our personal and moral integrity. In what follows, I raise some questions about Wallace's claim that attachments make us immune to regret and, ultimately, about his account of the impact of contingency (...)
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  43. On Richard Moran's Authority and Estrangement. Author's Reply.Josep E. Corbi, Komarine Romdenh-Romluc, Josep L. Prades, Hilan Bensusan, Manuel de Pinedo, Carla Bagnoli & Richard Moran - 2007 - Theoria 22 (58).
  44.  55
    Hume Studies Referees, 2003–2004.Kate Abramson, Larry Arnhart, Carla Bagnoli, Martin Bell, Theodore Benditt, Christopher Berry, Deborah Boyle, John Bricke, Justin Broackes & Janet Broughton - 2004 - Hume Studies 30 (2):443-445.
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  45.  45
    Defeaters and Practical Knowledge.Carla Bagnoli - 2018 - Synthese 195 (7):2855-2875.
    This paper situates the problem of defeaters in a larger debate about the source of normative authority. It argues in favour of a constructivist account of defeasibility, which appeals to the justificatory role of normative principles. The argument builds upon the critique of two recent attempts to deal with defeasibility: first, a particularist account, which disposes of moral principles on the ground that reasons are holistic; and second, a proceduralist view, which addresses the problem of defeaters by distinguishing between provisional (...)
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  46. Blackburn Sulla Questione Normativa”.Carla Bagnoli - 2000 - Iride: Filosofia e Discussione Pubblica 30: 8-14.
    Se è un difetto della ragione essere incapaci di adottare certi mezzi, allo stesso modo è un difetto della ragione essere incapaci di adottare certi fini, dicono i kantiani. Secondo Blackburn questa tesi non-strumentalista deve la sua apparente validità ad una fallacia modale. Dal condizionale «Se si adotta il fine X, è necessario adottare il mezzo Y», si deriva il conseguente «Si deve adottare il mezzo Y», ci si interroga sulla natura del modale che occorre nel conseguente, poi si ricostruisce (...)
     
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  47.  9
    Review of Charles Larmore The Autonomy of Morality. [REVIEW]Carla Bagnoli - 2009 - Philosophical Review 118 (4):536-540.
  48. The Appeal of Kantian Intuitionism.Carla Bagnoli - 2009 - European Journal of Philosophy 17 (1):152-158.
  49.  56
    Hume Studies Referees 2005–2006.Kate Abramson, Donald Ainslie, Lilli Alanen, Julia Annas, Margaret Atherton, Carla Bagnoli, Donald Baxter, Martin Bell, Richard Bett & Colin Bird - 2006 - Hume Studies 32 (2):391-393.
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  50.  66
    Counting Without Numbers: A Non‐Aggregative Account of the Puzzle of Altruism.Carla Bagnoli - 2013 - Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (2):124-126.
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