Psychogenic non epileptic seizures (PNES) are clinical events of psychological nature. Video-electroencephalography monitoring (V-EEGM) is a valuable method for the diagnosis of PNES and may be combined with provocative tests to induce seizures. The use of placebo in provocative tests for the diagnosis of PNES is controversial because of associated deception, and contrasts with the use of truly decreasing epileptogenic threshold techniques such as hyperventilation and photo stimulation. We present a clinical case of a pregnant woman with a past history (...) of refractory epilepsy, admitted in the obstetric department due to unremitting seizures. In this clinical context, non-deceiving provocative tests such as hyperventilation and photo stimulation could be potentially harmful, nevertheless, the use of intravenous saline injection presented as a safer alternative to diagnose PNES and hence obviate an urgent caesarean. This case illustrates a disproportionate risk of causing harm when telling the truth, in comparison with the benefit of avoiding such risk, although deceiving the patient. This is a clinical example of how considerations concerning the use of placebo must be evaluated in an individual basis. (shrink)
Individuals with Parkinson’s disease and temporal lobe epilepsy have hallucinations and mild cognitive dysfunction. The objective of this work was to study dreams in PD and TLE patients using a common functional model of dream production involving the limbic and paralimbic structures.Dreams were characterised in early-stage PD and TLE patients with dream diaries classified by the Hall van de Castle system and were compared with matched controls.In PD, there were significant differences between patients’ dreams and those of controls: animals, physical (...) aggression, and a befriender were more common in patients, and aggressor and bodily misfortunes were less common. The dreams of patients with frontal dysfunction showed more aggressive features.TLE patients had lower recall than PD patients and a higher proportion of dreams involving family and familiar settings, lower proportions involving success, and a higher incidence of frontal dysfunction.The dreams of PD and TLE patients share important features. (shrink)
According to the standard objection, Kantian constructivism implicitly commits to value realism or fails to warrant objective validity of normative propositions. This paper argues that this objection gains some force from the special case of moral obligations. The case largely rests on the assumption that the moral domain is an eminent domain of special objects. But for constructivism there is no moral domain of objects prior to and independently of reasoning. The argument attempts to make some progress in the debate (...) by defending a robust conception of construction, which names a distinctive view of practical reasoning as transformative. (shrink)
O artigo tem por objetivo examinar a relação intrínseca entre o teatro e a filosofia a partir do estudo do verbo théorein, revelador de instigantes elementos constitutivos da arte dramática e da maestria especulativa. Cuida-se de um aprendizado do olhar que, no teatro e na filosofia, irá encontrar as condições propícias para o seu pleno exercício nas manifestações artísticas e filosóficas do século V a.C. em Atenas. A invenção do olhar representa um traço peculiar e profícuo da cultura grega, que (...) escreverá uma história artística e filosófica paradigmática para a civilização ocidental. Analisa a querela suscitada com a expulsão dos poetas e tragediógrafos da República de Platão. Destaca-se a importância da interdisciplinaridade como apreensão do humano e desenvolvimento de uma consciência crítica dos problemas artísticos e filosóficos. (shrink)
Este artigo aborda a temática do idoso nas Instituições de Longa Permanência, em face do envelhecimento bem-sucedido e da qualidade de vida. A revisão bibliográfica contempla os artigos entre o período 2006 a 2012 e um artigo de 2001. Consultaram-se as bases de dados da biblioteca virtual em saúde -..
This article aims to analyze the constitution of a subject of right capable of respect and esteem through the concept of capacity elaborated by Paul Ricœur. It intends to evaluate the capable, emancipated human being, the self that has an ethical and moral dimension and that is susceptible of ethical and juridical imputation, as it is explained in “Who is the Subject of Rights?” in The Just . There is an erratum for this article located here .  .
Svrha je ove rasprave predstaviti koncepciju nacije u djelu Carla Cattanea. Kako značajan talijanski mislilac Carlo Cattaneo nikada nije sustavno izložio taj svoj koncept, ovaj se rad temelji na njegovoj sistematizaciji, što ju je u svojoj knjizi Krv i tlo izveo Nicolao Merker. U radu će se posebice pokazati kako Cattaneo eksplicira narav nacije polazeći od objektivnih konotacija i ne gubeći iz vida da su one utemeljene u ljudskoj svijesti, te da se moderna nacija iskazuje kao proizvod društvenog života. (...) Rad sljedstveno naglašava da se moderna nacija u Cattanea predstavlja kao biće izvornije od građanskog društva, a istovremeno usko povezano s idejom slobode i jednakosti. Konačno, rad pokušava ukazati na sličnost između Cattaneova lokalnog principa i austromarksističkog stajališta o kulturnoj autonomiji, kakvo je definirao Otto Bauer.The intention of this short essay is to present Carlo Cattaneo’s conception of the nation. Since Cattaneo never wrote an essay where he gave an exhaustive explanation of this concept, this paper develops on the basis of outlines made by Nicolao Merkel in the book Il sangue e la terra . In particular, this essay seeks to demonstrate that Cattaneo explicated the nature of nation starting with objective connotations, without overlooking that these connotations are pondered by human conscience, the modern nation being a product of social life. Consequently the paper highlights that the modern nation in Cattaneo is presented as being primordial to the origin of civil society and at the same time, intimately connected to the idea of freedom and equality. Finally, the paper tries to highlight the similarity between Cattaneo’s locality principal and the austro-marxist proposal of the cultural autonomy as defined by Otto Bauer. (shrink)
Galavotti begins her book by stressing the centrality of probability to a whole range of philosophical problems. She writes 1: "Probability invests all branches of philosophical investigation, from epistemology to moral and political philosophy, and impinges upon major controversies, like that between determinism and indeterminism, or between free will and moral obligation, and problems such as: ‘What degree of certainty can human knowledge attain?’ ‘What is the relationship between probability and certainty?’" She then explains that her book will focus on (...) the interpretation of the notion of probability. Chapter 1 contains some general remarks about the notion of probability, and Chapter 2 presents a brief introduction to the formal calculus of probability. Then in the next five chapters Galavotti presents in turn the five main interpretations of probability, namely the classical, frequency, propensity, logical, and subjective.Galavotti's approach to the material is historical. She traces, through extensive quotations from, and discussions of, the principal authors, the development of each of the interpretations. In many cases, she deals with early advocates of the position who are often omitted, such as De Morgan, Boole, and Jevons in the case of the logical interpretation, and Donkin in the case of the subjective interpretation. At the same time, the story is often brought right up to the present with discussions of recent authors such as Richard Jeffrey and Patrick Suppes in the case of the subjective interpretation. Galavotti's book is an excellent advertisement for the virtues of …. (shrink)