Against the standard reading of Isaiah Berlin's thought that drives a wedge between his early and subsequent work, this article suggests that his late normative anti-reductionism has roots in the early writings on meaning, semantics and truth. Berlin's anti-reductionist objection to logical positivists in the realm of semantics evince a sensitivity to reductionism, a recognition of the irreducibility of propositional meaning, a plea for the embededness of language in a temporal continuum, an anti-dualist call, and a celebration of the plural (...) and open-ended character of propositions, all of which keep broad affinity with his mature value pluralism in ethics and politics. The unity of concerns in Berlin's work brings about two implications. First, it sheds light on the fact that Berlin's ethical and political pluralism rests on views about semantics and ontology as well. Second, it offers a basis on which to deflect some current moral realist readings of his value pluralism, offering instead a history-laden understanding of his pluralism that provides more compelling grounds to understand the relationship between the latter and liberalism in Berlin's work. (shrink)
According to the standard objection, Kantian constructivism implicitly commits to value realism or fails to warrant objective validity of normative propositions. This paper argues that this objection gains some force from the special case of moral obligations. The case largely rests on the assumption that the moral domain is an eminent domain of special objects. But for constructivism there is no moral domain of objects prior to and independently of reasoning. The argument attempts to make some progress in the debate (...) by defending a robust conception of construction, which names a distinctive view of practical reasoning as transformative. (shrink)
This paper deals with some of the issues raisedabout the use of context in language, that is,the pragmatic side of the problem; morespecifically it aims to stress the significanceand complexity of context. In real life context is exploited both in production and in comprehension.I will deal here mainly with comprehension:after briefly referring to cognitive contextsand their interaction with knowledge andcomprehension, and touching on the relationbetween language and context, I will analyzethe uses of an indexical pronoun, we,which may both include and (...) exclude speaker/sand/or interlocutor/s, and cannot beinterpreted without referring to an`integrated' view of context. (shrink)
In various—often even opposing—ways, embodiment has always been crucial for feminism. Carla Lam’s important book addresses the fact that new reproductive technologies increasingly disembody reproduction for women; simply put, these technologies render women’s experience more akin to that of men. Birth becomes not only technologically mediated, but reproduction can now be taken out of the female body. This has both practical and theoretical implications. It is critical, therefore, that feminists both reflect upon the ramifications of NRTs and, at the (...) same time, consider how NRTs influence our understandings and experiences of reproduction—and of embodiment. Embodiment is changing, not just at the... (shrink)
Svrha je ove rasprave predstaviti koncepciju nacije u djelu Carla Cattanea. Kako značajan talijanski mislilac Carlo Cattaneo nikada nije sustavno izložio taj svoj koncept, ovaj se rad temelji na njegovoj sistematizaciji, što ju je u svojoj knjizi Krv i tlo izveo Nicolao Merker. U radu će se posebice pokazati kako Cattaneo eksplicira narav nacije polazeći od objektivnih konotacija i ne gubeći iz vida da su one utemeljene u ljudskoj svijesti, te da se moderna nacija iskazuje kao proizvod društvenog života. (...) Rad sljedstveno naglašava da se moderna nacija u Cattanea predstavlja kao biće izvornije od građanskog društva, a istovremeno usko povezano s idejom slobode i jednakosti. Konačno, rad pokušava ukazati na sličnost između Cattaneova lokalnog principa i austromarksističkog stajališta o kulturnoj autonomiji, kakvo je definirao Otto Bauer.The intention of this short essay is to present Carlo Cattaneo’s conception of the nation. Since Cattaneo never wrote an essay where he gave an exhaustive explanation of this concept, this paper develops on the basis of outlines made by Nicolao Merkel in the book Il sangue e la terra . In particular, this essay seeks to demonstrate that Cattaneo explicated the nature of nation starting with objective connotations, without overlooking that these connotations are pondered by human conscience, the modern nation being a product of social life. Consequently the paper highlights that the modern nation in Cattaneo is presented as being primordial to the origin of civil society and at the same time, intimately connected to the idea of freedom and equality. Finally, the paper tries to highlight the similarity between Cattaneo’s locality principal and the austro-marxist proposal of the cultural autonomy as defined by Otto Bauer. (shrink)
W artykule przedstawiam zastosowanie Jungowskiej koncepcji cienia do problematyki Innego.Wskazuję na możliwości teoretyczne, jakie otwiera przed refleksją etyczną Jungowskakoncepcja cienia, oferująca możliwość intrapersonalego rozważenia tego problemu. Koncepcjata daje możliwość odmiennego i pełniejszego spojrzenia na kwestie wolności, równości iodpowiedzialności.
Galavotti begins her book by stressing the centrality of probability to a whole range of philosophical problems. She writes 1: "Probability invests all branches of philosophical investigation, from epistemology to moral and political philosophy, and impinges upon major controversies, like that between determinism and indeterminism, or between free will and moral obligation, and problems such as: ‘What degree of certainty can human knowledge attain?’ ‘What is the relationship between probability and certainty?’" She then explains that her book will focus on (...) the interpretation of the notion of probability. Chapter 1 contains some general remarks about the notion of probability, and Chapter 2 presents a brief introduction to the formal calculus of probability. Then in the next five chapters Galavotti presents in turn the five main interpretations of probability, namely the classical, frequency, propensity, logical, and subjective.Galavotti's approach to the material is historical. She traces, through extensive quotations from, and discussions of, the principal authors, the development of each of the interpretations. In many cases, she deals with early advocates of the position who are often omitted, such as De Morgan, Boole, and Jevons in the case of the logical interpretation, and Donkin in the case of the subjective interpretation. At the same time, the story is often brought right up to the present with discussions of recent authors such as Richard Jeffrey and Patrick Suppes in the case of the subjective interpretation. Galavotti's book is an excellent advertisement for the virtues of …. (shrink)