The concept of brain death — first defined decades ago — still presents medical, ethical, and legal challenges despite its widespread acceptance in clinical practice and in law. This article reviews the medicine, law, and ethics of brain death, including the current inconsistencies in brain death determinations, which a lack of standardized federal policy promotes, and argues that a standard brain death policy to be used by all hospitals in all states should be created.
According to the standard objection, Kantian constructivism implicitly commits to value realism or fails to warrant objective validity of normative propositions. This paper argues that this objection gains some force from the special case of moral obligations. The case largely rests on the assumption that the moral domain is an eminent domain of special objects. But for constructivism there is no moral domain of objects prior to and independently of reasoning. The argument attempts to make some progress in the debate (...) by defending a robust conception of construction, which names a distinctive view of practical reasoning as transformative. (shrink)
Svrha je ove rasprave predstaviti koncepciju nacije u djelu Carla Cattanea. Kako značajan talijanski mislilac Carlo Cattaneo nikada nije sustavno izložio taj svoj koncept, ovaj se rad temelji na njegovoj sistematizaciji, što ju je u svojoj knjizi Krv i tlo izveo Nicolao Merker. U radu će se posebice pokazati kako Cattaneo eksplicira narav nacije polazeći od objektivnih konotacija i ne gubeći iz vida da su one utemeljene u ljudskoj svijesti, te da se moderna nacija iskazuje kao proizvod društvenog života. (...) Rad sljedstveno naglašava da se moderna nacija u Cattanea predstavlja kao biće izvornije od građanskog društva, a istovremeno usko povezano s idejom slobode i jednakosti. Konačno, rad pokušava ukazati na sličnost između Cattaneova lokalnog principa i austromarksističkog stajališta o kulturnoj autonomiji, kakvo je definirao Otto Bauer.The intention of this short essay is to present Carlo Cattaneo’s conception of the nation. Since Cattaneo never wrote an essay where he gave an exhaustive explanation of this concept, this paper develops on the basis of outlines made by Nicolao Merkel in the book Il sangue e la terra . In particular, this essay seeks to demonstrate that Cattaneo explicated the nature of nation starting with objective connotations, without overlooking that these connotations are pondered by human conscience, the modern nation being a product of social life. Consequently the paper highlights that the modern nation in Cattaneo is presented as being primordial to the origin of civil society and at the same time, intimately connected to the idea of freedom and equality. Finally, the paper tries to highlight the similarity between Cattaneo’s locality principal and the austro-marxist proposal of the cultural autonomy as defined by Otto Bauer. (shrink)
In various—often even opposing—ways, embodiment has always been crucial for feminism. Carla Lam’s important book addresses the fact that new reproductive technologies increasingly disembody reproduction for women; simply put, these technologies render women’s experience more akin to that of men. Birth becomes not only technologically mediated, but reproduction can now be taken out of the female body. This has both practical and theoretical implications. It is critical, therefore, that feminists both reflect upon the ramifications of NRTs and, at the (...) same time, consider how NRTs influence our understandings and experiences of reproduction—and of embodiment. Embodiment is changing, not just at the... (shrink)
Galavotti begins her book by stressing the centrality of probability to a whole range of philosophical problems. She writes 1: "Probability invests all branches of philosophical investigation, from epistemology to moral and political philosophy, and impinges upon major controversies, like that between determinism and indeterminism, or between free will and moral obligation, and problems such as: ‘What degree of certainty can human knowledge attain?’ ‘What is the relationship between probability and certainty?’" She then explains that her book will focus on (...) the interpretation of the notion of probability. Chapter 1 contains some general remarks about the notion of probability, and Chapter 2 presents a brief introduction to the formal calculus of probability. Then in the next five chapters Galavotti presents in turn the five main interpretations of probability, namely the classical, frequency, propensity, logical, and subjective.Galavotti's approach to the material is historical. She traces, through extensive quotations from, and discussions of, the principal authors, the development of each of the interpretations. In many cases, she deals with early advocates of the position who are often omitted, such as De Morgan, Boole, and Jevons in the case of the logical interpretation, and Donkin in the case of the subjective interpretation. At the same time, the story is often brought right up to the present with discussions of recent authors such as Richard Jeffrey and Patrick Suppes in the case of the subjective interpretation. Galavotti's book is an excellent advertisement for the virtues of …. (shrink)