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Carlo Martini [22]Carlo Maria Martini [4]
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Carlo Martini
Tilburg University
  1. Disagreement Behind the Veil of Ignorance.Ryan Muldoon, Chiara Lisciandra, Mark Colyvan, Carlo Martini, Giacomo Sillari & Jan Sprenger - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 170 (3):377-394.
    In this paper we argue that there is a kind of moral disagreement that survives the Rawlsian veil of ignorance. While a veil of ignorance eliminates sources of disagreement stemming from self-interest, it does not do anything to eliminate deeper sources of disagreement. These disagreements not only persist, but transform their structure once behind the veil of ignorance. We consider formal frameworks for exploring these differences in structure between interested and disinterested disagreement, and argue that consensus models offer us a (...)
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  2.  37
    Modeling the Social Organization of Science: Chasing Complexity Through Simulations.Carlo Martini & Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 7 (2):221-238.
    At least since Kuhn’s Structure, philosophers have studied the influence of social factors in science’s pursuit of truth and knowledge. More recently, formal models and computer simulations have allowed philosophers of science and social epistemologists to dig deeper into the detailed dynamics of scientific research and experimentation, and to develop very seemingly realistic models of the social organization of science. These models purport to be predictive of the optimal allocations of factors, such as diversity of methods used in science, size (...)
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  3. Resolving Disagreement Through Mutual Respect.Carlo Martini, Jan Sprenger & Mark Colyvan - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (4):881-898.
    This paper explores the scope and limits of rational consensus through mutual respect, with the primary focus on the best known formal model of consensus: the Lehrer–Wagner model. We consider various arguments against the rationality of the Lehrer–Wagner model as a model of consensus about factual matters. We conclude that models such as this face problems in achieving rational consensus on disagreements about unknown factual matters, but that they hold considerable promise as models of how to rationally resolve non-factual disagreements.
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  4. Consensual Decision-Making Among Epistemic Peers.Stephan Hartmann, Carlo Martini & Jan Sprenger - 2009 - Episteme 6 (2):110-129.
    This paper focuses on the question of how to resolve disagreement and uses the Lehrer-Wagner model as a formal tool for investigating consensual decision-making. The main result consists in a general definition of when agents treat each other as epistemic peers (Kelly 2005; Elga 2007), and a theorem vindicating the “equal weight view” to resolve disagreement among epistemic peers. We apply our findings to an analysis of the impact of social network structures on group deliberation processes, and we demonstrate their (...)
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  5.  97
    Experts in Science: A View From the Trenches.Carlo Martini - 2014 - Synthese 191 (1):3-15.
    In this paper I analyze four so-called “principles of expertise”; that is, good epistemic practices that are normatively motivated by the epistemological literature on expert judgment. I highlight some of the problems that the four principles of expertise run into, when we try to implement them in concrete contexts of application (e.g. in science committees). I suggest some possible alternatives and adjustments to the principles, arguing in general that the epistemology of expertise should be informed both by case studies and (...)
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  6. A Puzzle About Belief Updating.Carlo Martini - 2013 - Synthese 190 (15):3149-3160.
    In recent decades much literature has been produced on disagreement; the puzzling conclusion being that epistemic disagreement is, for the most part, either impossible (e.g. Aumann (Ann Stat 4(6):1236–1239, 1976)), or at least easily resolvable (e.g. Elga (Noûs 41(3):478–502, 2007)). In this paper I show that, under certain conditions, an equally puzzling result arises: that is, disagreement cannot be rationally resolved by belief updating. I suggest a solution to the puzzle which makes use of some of the principles of Hintikka’s (...)
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  7.  5
    Introduction: Evidence, Expertise and Argumentation in Evidence-Based Medicine.Fabrizio Macagno & Carlo Martini - forthcoming - Topoi:1-4.
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  8.  25
    Expertise and Institutional Design in Economic Committees.Carlo Martini - 2015 - Journal of Economic Methodology 22 (3):391-409.
    In this paper, I consider the problem of selecting and justifying a lost of principles of expertise as part of a methodology of expert judgment in economics. I argue that a methodology of expertise, trying to list and justify a number of principles of expertise, is in need of a theoretical background against which to select, evaluate, and weight each of the principles. I explain by means of case studies why problems arise for lack of such background, using the Bank (...)
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  9.  26
    Consensus Formation in Networked Groups.Carlo Martini - 2010 - In Henk W. de Regt (ed.), Epsa Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer. pp. 199--215.
    This paper applies the theory of networks to the problem of how agents should assign weights to other agents in the Lehrer-Wagner model for consensus formation. The Lehrer- Wagner theory of consensus is introduced, and the problem of weight assignment is highlighted as one of the open prob- lems for the theory. The paper argues that the application of the theory of networks to the Lehrer-Wagner model con- stitutes an interesting and fruitful option, among others, for the problem of weight (...)
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  10.  6
    What “Evidence” in Evidence-Based Medicine?Carlo Martini - forthcoming - Topoi.
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  11.  16
    The Role of Experts in the Methodology of Economics.Carlo Martini - 2014 - Journal of Economic Methodology 21 (1):77-91.
    Is subjective expert judgment a source of evidence in economics? In this paper, I will argue that it is, on a par with other sources like modeling, statistics, experimental, etc. I will also argue that it is not derivative, that is, reducible to the previous ones. But what is exactly the role of experts in economics? The contribution to the current methodological debate that I propose not only takes the role of expertise in economics as indispensable, but also suggests a (...)
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  12.  28
    Ad Hominem Arguments, Rhetoric, and Science Communication.Carlo Martini - 2018 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 55 (1):151-166.
    In this paper, I contend that evidence-focused strategies of science communication may be complemented by possibly more effective rhetorical arguments in current public debates on vaccines. I analyse the case of direct science communication - that is, communication of evidence - and show that it is difficult to effectively communicate evidential standards of science in the presence of well-equipped anti-science movements. Instead, I argue that effective rhetorical tools involve ad hominem strategies, that is, arguments involving claims of expertise. I provide (...)
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  13.  40
    Consensus Formation in Networked Groups.Carlo Martini - unknown
    This paper applies the theory of networks to the problem of how agents should assign weights to other agents in the Lehrer-Wagner model for consensus formation. The Lehrer- Wagner theory of consensus is introduced, and the problem of weight assignment is highlighted as one of the open prob- lems for the theory. The paper argues that the application of the theory of networks to the Lehrer-Wagner model con- stitutes an interesting and fruitful option, among others, for the problem of weight (...)
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  14.  21
    Applying Formal Social Epistemology to the Real World.Carlo Martini - 2012 - Analyse & Kritik 34 (2):383-398.
    The claim that diversity and independence have a net positive epistemic effect on the judgments of groups has been recently defended formally by Scott Page, among others, and popularized in Surowiecki’s The Wisdom of Crowds. In Meta-Induction and the Wisdom of Crowds Thorn and Schurz take issue with the claim that more diversity and independence in groups leads to better collective judgments. I argue that Thorn and Schurz’s arguments are helpful in clarifying a number of over-generalizations about diversity and independence (...)
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  15.  25
    Erratum To: Resolving Disagreement Through Mutual Respect. [REVIEW]Carlo Martini, Jan Sprenger & Mark Colyvan - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S3):669-670.
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  16.  20
    Road to Jerusalem.Carlo Maria Martini & Yaakov Mascetti - 2007 - Common Knowledge 13 (2-3):512-530.
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  17.  5
    Christian List and Philip Pettit's Group Agency: The Possibility, Design, and Status of Corporate Agents. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 240 Pp. [REVIEW]Carlo Martini - 2011 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 4 (2):117.
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  18.  6
    The Paradox Of Proof And Scientific Expertise.Carlo Martini - 2015 - Humana Mente 8 (28).
    In this paper I criticize the current standards for the acceptability of expert testimony in current US legislation. The standards have been the subject of much academic literature after the Frye and Daubert cases. I expose what I call the Paradox of Proof, and argue that the historical and current standards have sidestepped the problem of determining who is an expert and who is not in a court of law. I then investigate the problem of recognizing expertise from the layperson’s (...)
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  19.  8
    Editorial.Stephan Hartmann, Carlo Martini & Jan Sprenger - 2010 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 18 (2):277-277.
    Social epistemology is a relatively new and booming field of research. It studies the social dimension of the pursuit of acquiring true beliefs and requires philosophical as well as sociological and economic expertise. The insights gained in social epistemology are not only of theoretical interest; they also improve our understanding of social and political processes, as the field includes the analysis of group deliberation and group decision-making. However, surprisingly little work has so far been done on the epistemic properties of (...)
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  20.  2
    Review of Distributed Cognition and the Will: Individual Volition and Social Context. [REVIEW]Carlo Martini - 2009 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 15 (2).
    Distributed Cognition and the Will is a very ambitious collection of 13 essays exploring different facets of the relation between an “old problem” and a relatively recent field of studies . As Don Ross, one of the editors, points out in the very opening lines of the introduction, if there were a ranking of the major problems that have been discussed in roughly two and a half millennia of philosophical enquiry, the problem of the will would figure among the top (...)
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  21. Belief or Nonbelief? A Confrontation.Umberto Eco & Carlo Maria Martini - 2000
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  22.  61
    Formal Modeling in Social Epistemology.Stephan Hartmann, Carlo Martini & Jan Sprenger (eds.) - 2010 - Logic Journal of the IGPL (special issue).
    Special issue. With contributions by Rogier De Langhe and Matthias Greiff, Igor Douven and Alexander Riegler, Stephan Hartmann and Jan Sprenger, Carl Wagner, Paul Weirich, and Jesús Zamora Bonilla.
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  23. In Cosa Crede Chi Non Crede?Carlo Maria Martini & Umberto Eco - 1996
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  24. Review of Christian List and Philip Pettit’s Group Agency: The Possibility, Design, and Status of Corporate Agents. [REVIEW]Carlo Martini - 2011 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 4 (2):117-122.
  25. Sueno Una Europa Del Espíritu.Carlo Martini - 2001 - Revista Agustiniana 42:1206-1209.
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