In the so-called knowledge society, communication plays a key role in organizations. In traditional societies, the exchange of personal communication was conducted _face to face_. The development of new technologies has expanded the possibilities of transmitting more information within organizations and faster. Technology has brought greater opportunities for collective communication, as well as greater information management. The impact of these factors has led to some very significant changes in the business world. In these processes of change, within organizations, the role (...) of communication is increasingly playing a critical role. This article defends the relevance of ethical communication in 21st Century leadership. It is argued that leaders will find in ethical communication the means of gaining credibility and the confidence of their most immediate collaborators, their teams, the organizations they lead and the society in which the company operates. Taking the fundamental structure between internal and external communication as a starting point, the article describes the necessary conditions for leadership to develop ethical communication. It establishes the general and common characteristics of people-centered ethical communication, both as individuals and teams. Furthermore, it identifies the conditions that must generate ethical external communication through which leaders can convey messages to their target audience. For this purpose, the article is structured into the following sections: 1. The importance of communication within organizations. 2. Two levels of communication. 3. What is required of a leader-communicator in order to communicate well? 4. The basic Q&A of communication. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to undermine structural realism by testing the soundness of its three main theses. The first section presents the epistemic and ontic forms of structural realism. The following section defends that if scientific theories represent the structure of the world, structural realism needs a general account of representation. Representation is the crux of structural realism. Section 3 argues that structure/ontology distinction collapses. Mathematical structures are ontologyladen. Lastly, section 4 is devoted to analyse whether there is (...) a retention of mathematical structure across theory change. (shrink)
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is not new. Many entrepreneurs created and developed companies along the time, with a strong sense of ethical and social responsibility. This article presents an example of how CSR was conceived and put into practice when Caja de Pensiones para la Vejez y de Ahorros was created in Barcelona in 1905, following the life and ideas of its founder, Francesc Moragas, a lawyer with a deep commitment for social action and a successful conception (...) of the technical and economic dimensions of a financial and social institution. (shrink)
Pickering & Garrod (P&G) put forward the interesting idea that language production relies on forward modeling operating at multiple processing levels. The evidence currently available to substantiate this idea mostly concerns sensorimotor processes and not more abstract linguistic levels (e.g., syntax, semantics, phonology). The predictions that follow from the claim seem too general, in their current form, to guide specific empirical tests.
Understanding evolution beyond a gene-centered vision is a fertile ground for new questions and approaches. However, in this systemic perspective, we take issue with the necessity of the concept of information. Through the example of brain and language evolution, we propose the autonomous systems theory as a more biologically relevant framework for the evolutionary perspective offered by Jablonka & Lamb (J&L).
When Caja de Pensiones para la Vejez y de Ahorros, "la Caixa," was created in 1905, it was not only the transient response to a serious social, political, and economical problem, but also provided a permanent solution by creating a long-lasting social welfare institution. In addition, its founder understood the responsibility of social welfare institutions not as an isolated responsibility for each institution, but as part of a harmonious whole that is a real moral entity with a socio-economic character, with (...) autonomy and unity of nature, purpose, and form. The purpose of this article is to show how the corporate social responsibility conception of Francesc Moragas, the founder of "la Caixa," informed the activities of the new institution in a variety of dimensions, including its service to the customers, its economic strengths, the social work, and its participation in the creation of the public system of social security in Spain. (shrink)
América Latina fue un campo de experimentación del neoliberalismo durante más de tres décadas, y parte de la agenda política promovida conjuntamente por el Banco Mundial, el Fondo Monetario Internacional y la Secretaría del Tesoro del gobierno de Estados Unidos, en lo que a partir de entonces recibi..
The existence of sovereign rights over genetic resources is today well recognized in international law. However, the legal status of such resources in terms of property rights is still unclear. The consideration of this issue requires a clear distinction between physical and intangible property. Legislation in developed countries has extended patent protection to genetic resources, in addition to the protection of plant varieties via breeders' rights. The extension of protection and the implementation of the TRIPs Agreement may have important implications (...) for breeding programs and trade in seeds. While intellectual property protection of genetic resources is rapidly advancing, considerable work is still to be done to ensure the compensation for the informal innovations made by local and indigenous communities. (shrink)
The risks of uncontrolled dissemination of GMOs has made it clear that biosafety is a very relevant matter that goes beyond the State boundaries. This approach has had its corresponding reflection at the policy level, which reveals that the public powers and the legislators have been sensitive to this existing preoccupation in ever-growing sectors of society. From the European regulations, one can deduce a set of principles, which must guide the decisions of the public powers in matters related to biosafety: (...) precaution, authorisation and inspection, “step by step”, “case by case”, traceability and transparency, among other. (shrink)
People seem to differ in their visual search performance involving emotionally expressive faces when these expressions are seen on faces of others close to their age compared to faces of non-peers, known as the own-age bias. This study sought to compare search advantages in angry and happy faces detected on faces of adults and children on a pool of children and adults. The goals of this study were to examine the developmental trajectory of expression recognition and examine the development of (...) an OAB. Participants were asked to find a target face displaying an emotional expression among eight neutral faces. Results showed that children and adults found happy faces significantly faster than angry and fearful faces regardless of it being present on the faces of peers or non-peers. Adults responded faster to the faces of peers regardless of the expression. Furthermore, while children detected angry faces significantly faster compared to fearful ones, we found no such difference in adults. In contrast, adults detected all expressions significantly faster when they appeared on the faces of other adults compared to the faces of children. In sum, we found evidence for development in detecting facial expressions and also an age-dependent increase in OAB. We suggest that the happy face could have an advantage in visual processing due to its importance in social situations and its overall higher frequency compared to other emotional expressions. Although we only found some evidence on the OAB, using peer or non-peer faces should be a theoretical consideration of future research because the same emotion displayed on non-peers’ compared to peers’ faces may have different implications and meanings to the perceiver. (shrink)
The aim of this note is to undermine structural realism by testing the soundness of its main claim. If scientific theories represent the structure of the world, structural realism needs a general account of representation. Representation is the crux of structural realism, because structure/ontology distinction collapses. Mathematical structures are ontologyladen. DOI:10.5007/1808-1711.2010v14n2p201.
The aim of this note is to undermine structural realism by testing the soundness of its main claim. If scientific theories represent the structure of the world, structural realism needs a general account of representation. Representation is the crux of structural realism, because structure/ontology distinction collapses. Mathematical structures are ontologyladen. • DOI:10.5007/1808-1711.2010v14n2p201.
ResumenEl nuevo experimentalismo todavía no es muy conocido en España. Sin embargo, este artículo propone que el filósofo español Gustavo Bueno mantiene bastantes ideas comunes con el filósofo experimentalista Ian Hacking. Ambos centran su atención sobre la propia práctica experimental. En realidad, ambos conciben la ciencia como intervención o manipulación y, en consecuencia, critican el estatuto científico de la Astrofísica y la Cosmología. Finalmente, se muestra que el realismo materialista de Bueno guarda una posición paralela a la del realismo experimental (...) de Hacking.Palabras ClaveNuevo Experimentalismo, realismo científico, realismo de entidadesThe new experimentalist movement is not widely known as yet in Spain. However this paper suggests that the spanish philosopher Gustavo Bueno has many ideas in common with the experimentalist philosopher Ian Hacking. Both focus their attention upon experimental practice itself. Actually, they conceive science as intervention or manipulation and therefore they criticize the scientific role of Astrophysics and Cosmology. Finally, it is shown that Bueno’s point of view of materialist realism parallels the position held by Hacking about experimental realism.KeywordsNew Experimentalism, scientific realism, entity-realism. (shrink)
Gene editing is a particularly attractive subject in the Spanish context because it was precisely a scientist of this nationality -Professor Juan Francisco Martínez Mojica, at the University of Alicante-, who was the first to name and identify the function of this region of DNA present in some bacteria and archeas that acts as an immune mechanism against viruses and which has given rise to the gene editing technique known as CRISPR-Cas9. Martínez Mojica discovered that some bacteria and archeas were (...) able to identify and “cut” the DNA segments of the attacking viruses, incorporating them into their own genetic make-up. In this way they could recognize and degrade the specific DNA sequences of the virus against future attacks, a defense that could be inherited by the next generation of bacteria. It was this discovery that laid the foundations for the “genetic editing revolution”. (shrink)
Biolaw is an autonomous interdisciplinary legal discipline, with great theoretical and practical relevance because of its possible social effects. This contribution deal with the most relevant different approaches to bioethical problems according to the main juridical systems, as they are civil law and common law. A main topic is also the relation between Biolaw, Bioethics and Biopolitics.
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