8 March, now known as International Women’s Day, is a day for feminist claims where demonstrations are organized in over 150 countries, with the participation of millions of women all around the world. These demonstrations can be viewed as collective rituals and thus focus attention on the processes that facilitate different psychosocial effects. This work aims to explore the mechanisms involved in participation in the demonstrations of 8 March 2020, collective and ritualized feminist actions, and their correlates associated with personal (...) well-being and collective well-being, collective efficacy and collective growth, and behavioral intention to support the fight for women’s rights. To this end, a cross-cultural study was conducted with the participation of 2,854 people from countries in Latin America and Europe, with a retrospective correlational cross-sectional design and a convenience sample. Participants were divided between demonstration participants and non-demonstrators or followers who monitored participants through the media and social networks. Compared with non-demonstrators and with males, female and non-binary gender respondents had greater scores in mechanisms and criterion variables. Further random-effects model meta-analyses revealed that the perceived emotional synchrony was consistently associated with more proximal mechanisms, as well as with criterion variables. Finally, sequential moderation analyses showed that proposed mechanisms successfully mediated the effects of participation on every criterion variable. These results indicate that participation in 8M marches and demonstrations can be analyzed through the literature on collective rituals. As such, collective participation implies positive outcomes both individually and collectively, which are further reinforced through key psychological mechanisms, in line with a Durkheimian approach to collective rituals. (shrink)
The psychosocial impacts of natural disasters are associated with the triggering of negative and positive responses in the affected population; also, such effects are expressed in an individual and collective sphere. This can be seen in several reactions and behaviors that can vary from the development of individual disorders to impacts on interpersonal relationships, cohesion, communication, and participation of the affected communities, among others. The present work addressed the psychosocial impacts of the consequences of natural disasters considering individual effects via (...) the impact of trauma and community effects, through the perception of social well-being, the valuation of the community and the social exchange of emotions. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between individual reactions and the evaluation of social and collective circumstances after the earthquake of 27F 2010 in Chile, through collective-type intervention variables not used in previous studies. For this purpose, a descriptive, ex post facto correlational and cross-sectional methodology was carried on, with the participation of 487 people affected by the 2010 earthquake, 331 women and 156 men, between 18 and 58 years old, from the provinces of Ñuble and Biobío, VIII region, Chile. The measurement was carried out 4 years after the earthquake and the results show that greater individual than collective involvements were found, mainly in the coastal zone of the region. The mediation analysis showed that the relationship between the intensity of the trauma and social well-being occurs through a route that considers social sharing of emotions and community appraisal. These results indicate that the overcoming of individual affectations to achieve social well-being occurs when in the immediate post-disaster phases the affected communities activate shared emotional and cognitive processes, which allow them to jointly face subsequent threats and abrupt changes. (shrink)
This paper shows the brain correlates of Cloninger’s personality model during the presentation of social scenarios under positive or negative valence situations. Social scenarios were constructed when participants played the Dictator game with two confederates that had two opposites roles as the cooperator and non-cooperator. Later the same day during a fMRI scanning session, participants read negative and positive situations that happened to confederates in the past. Participants were asked to think “how do you think those people felt during that (...) situation?” A dissimilarity matrix between stimuli were obtained from fMRI results. Results shown that Harm Avoidance trait people make use of right middle frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus to discriminate between Coop and NoCoop. Cooperation as a trait makes use of the right superior temporal gyrus and the right precuneus to discriminate between Coop and NoCoop in positive social scenarios. Finally, Self-directedness trait people make use of the right inferior parietal lobe to discriminate between Coop and NoCoop in negative social scenarios and the right precuneus to discriminate between Coop and Strangers. An intuitive link between discrimination findings and behavioral patterns of those personality traits is proposed. (shrink)
Se ha tratado de desprestigiar al postmodernismo y no se ha valorado su gran contribución a la cultura universal. El postmodernismo empieza a desarrollarse cuando el ser humano se da cuenta que no tan solo sus órganos de los sentidos pueden engañarlo, sino que también su intelecto, razón y sus facultades superiores más preciadas. Las caídas del positivismo y del racionalismo le abrieron la puerta, apoyado por la insuficiencia de la ciencia y la filosofía para entender el universo. La nomología (...) (legalidad) ha tenido que resignarse frente a la ideografía (procesos irrepetibles e irreversibles) para entender el desarrollo universal. La antinomia del mentiroso, el teorema de Gödel, los procesos caóticos, la impredecibilidad, la incertidumbre, son parte de sus elementos sustantivos. El postmodernismo ha condenado a los ideologismos nomológicos o raciales que terminaron en las masacres de la Revolución Francesa, el Nazismo y las dos Guerras Mundiales, entre otros. (shrink)
The Gait Deviation Index is a multivariate measure of overall gait pathology based on 15 gait features derived from three-dimensional kinematic data. GDI aims at providing a comprehensive, easy to interpret, and clinically meaningful metric of overall gait function. It has been used as an outcome measure to study gait in several conditions: cerebral palsy, post-stroke hemiparetic gait, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and Parkinson’s disease, among others. Nevertheless, its use in population with Spinal Cord Injury has not been studied yet. The (...) aim of the present study was to investigate the applicability of the GDI to SCI through the assessment of the relationship of the GDI with the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II. 3D gait kinematics of 34 patients with incomplete SCI was obtained. Besides, 3D gait kinematics of a sample of 50 healthy volunteers was also gathered with Codamotion motion capture system. A total of 302 and 446 strides were collected. GDI was calculated for each stride and grouped for each WISCI II level. HV data were analyzed as an additional set. Normal distribution for each group was assessed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Afterward, ANOVA tests were performed between each pair of WISCI II levels to identify differences among groups. The results showed that the GDI was normally distributed across all WISCI II levels in both iSCI and HV groups. Furthermore, our results showed an increasing relationship between the GDI values and WISCI II levels in subjects with iSCI, but only discriminative in WISCI II levels 13, 19, and 20. The index successfully distinguished HV group from all the individuals with iSCI. Findings of this study indicated that the GDI is not an appropriate multivariate walking metric to represent the deviation of gait pattern in adult population with iSCI from a normal gait profile when it is compared with the levels of walking impairment described by the WISCI II. Future work should aim at defining and validating an overall gait index derived from 3D kinematic gait variables appropriate for SCI, additionally taking into account other walking ability outcome measures. (shrink)
The influx of new groups into society, such as recently established religious groups whose practices differ from societal norms, may disturb relatively stable communities. This instability is exacerbated if these practices contravene long-held fundamental societal tenets, such as the protection of children. This situation now exists in Mexico, where the country's traditional Catholic and secular values clash with those of a religion introduced from the United States, Jehovah's Witnesses. The focal point for these clashes, as it has been elsewhere, is (...) in the bioethics arena. (shrink)
Metacognitive ability has been described as an important predictor of several processes involved in learning, including problem-solving. Although this relationship is fairly documented, little is known about the mechanisms that could modulate it. Given its relationship with both constructs, we decided to evaluate the impact of self-knowledge on PS. In addition, we inspected whether emotional and interpersonal variables could affect the relationship between metacognition and problem-solving. We tested a sample of 32 undergraduate students and used behavioural tasks and self-report questionnaires. (...) Contrary to the literature, we found no significant relationship between metacognition and problem-solving performance, nor a significant moderating effect when including emotional and interpersonal variables in the model. In contrast, we observed a significant moderating model combining metacognition, self-reported anxiety and attitudes towards social interdependence. It was found that participants with high metacognition reported attitudes unfavourable towards interdependence when they felt high anxiety. These results suggest that already anxious individuals with high metacognition would prefer to work alone rather than with others, as a coping mechanism against further anxiety derived from cooperation. We hypothesise that in anxiogenic contexts, metacognition is used as a tool to compare possible threats with one’s own skills and act accordingly, in order to maximise one’s own performance. Further studies are needed to understand how metacognition works in contexts adverse to learning. (shrink)
1) La obra Edipo rey, de Sófocles, es tomada como paradigma del reconocimiento de sí por sí mismo, aunque 2) podemos encontrar en la cultura judía pasajes de estructura en cierto modo similar, tal como se examinan a propósito del rey David. 3) De ahí pasamos a considerar el reconocimiento mutuo y la lucha por el reconocimiento de la mano de Hegel, algunos de cuyos límites se abordan. 4) Finalmente, se apuntan algunos otros importantes sentidos del término reconocimiento.
Theories of organization and management have offered several concepts and models which indicate that organizational values are an important factor for running organizations successfully. A still unexplained question concerns the creation of balanced organizational values, which can support the achievement of several different and even conflicting goals of modern organizations. To explore balanced organizational values in contemporary business practice, we tested different models of organizational values on a sample of Fortune 100 companies. Research results demonstrate that none of the proportions/ratios (...) of balance proposed by the main models of organizational values from existing literature possesses/presents the ideal balance that is currently pursued in the business field. As a conclusion, a new model of balanced organizational values is proposed. (shrink)
Por años, el sistema de selección universitaria ha enfrentado críticas por su intenso vínculo con características sociales y culturales de los y las postulantes, reproduciendo la segmentación que evidencia el espacio escolar. Para corregir estos sesgos, el año 2013 se incorporó el Ranking de notas como factor de ponderación, valorando componentes de trayectoria escolar y contexto educativo. El objetivo de este artículo es describir los impactos que ha tenido el Ranking de notas en el proceso de admisión 2018, en términos (...) de igualdad de oportunidades e inclusión de grupos. De metodología cuantitativa, este artículo usa bases de datos oficiales para realizar un análisis estadístico a los resultados de admisión 2018, construyendo índices y perfilando tendencias. Los resultados destacan el impacto positivo que ha tenido el Ranking sobre los puntajes ponderados y las tasas de selección, además de la compensación que hace a grupos históricamente relegados mediante la valoración del esfuerzo desplegado en contextos adversos. Las conclusiones argumentan que, si bien el Ranking es un eficiente mecanismo propulsor de mayor equidad en los procesos de selección universitaria, no es capaz de revertir la desigualdad y segmentación estructural del sistema educativo chileno. (shrink)
The angular momentum operators for a system of two spin-zero indistinguishable particles are constructed, using Isham’s Canonical Group Quantization method. This mathematically rigorous method provides a hint at the correct definition of (total) angular momentum operators, for arbitrary spin, in a system of indistinguishable particles. The connection with other configuration space approaches to spin-statistics is discussed, as well as the relevance of the obtained results in view of a possible alternative proof of the spin-statistics theorem.
El pluralismo en América Latina ha permitido en años recientes la aparición de manifestaciones religiosas complejas y multilaterales que se expresan más allá de la lógica del catolicismo tradicional. Estas opciones operan a través de mecanismos simbólicos provisionales, híbridos y flexibles, subjetivados mediante éticas polivalentes vinculadas a la participación de nuevos actores sociales, quienes mediante espacios hermenéuticos diversos construyen una discursividad política vinculada a la comprensión de Dios a mediante sistemas teológicos abiertos. Tal es el caso de la agrupación religiosa (...) conocida como CEGLA (Cristianos Evangélicos Gays y Lesbianas de Argentina), que constituye una manifestación de formas de socialización religiosa expresadas más allá de las instituciones católicas. (shrink)
The emergent Coronavirus Disease 2019 caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 could produce a maternal immune activation via the inflammatory response during gestation that may impair fetal neurodevelopment and lead to postnatal and adulthood mental illness and behavioral dysfunctions. However, so far, limited evidence exists regarding long-term physiological, immunological, and neurodevelopmental modifications produced by the SARS-CoV-2 in the human maternal-fetal binomial and, particularly, in the offspring. Relevant findings derived from epidemiological and preclinical models show that a MIA (...) is indeed linked to an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. We hypothesize that a gestational infection triggered by SARS-CoV-2 increases the risks leading to neurodevelopmental disorders of the newborn, which can affect childhood and the long-term quality of life. In particular, disruption of either the maternal or the fetal cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway could cause or exacerbate the severity of COVID-19 in the maternal-fetal binomial. From a translational perspective, in this paper, we discuss the possible manifestation of a MIA by SARS-CoV-2 and the subsequent neurodevelopmental disorders considering the role of the fetal-maternal cytokine cross-talk and the CAP. Specifically, we highlight the urgent need of preclinical studies as well as multicenter and international databanks of maternal-fetal psychophysiological data obtained pre-, during, and post-infection by SARS-CoV-2 from pregnant women and their offspring. (shrink)
The Patients’ Rights and Duties Act, promulgated in Chile in 2012, has made the informed consent process a critical step to respect the patient’s autonomy. It is then relevant to test health workers’ knowledge of the subject, especially in the surgery department. We carried out a quantitative study on 90 specialists from the surgery department in a public tertiary hospital, to whom a questionnaire was administered to test their knowledge of informed consent. We found that 76.6 % of the respondents (...) have a low level of knowledge, creating a setting in which patients’ rights can be violated. (shrink)
In western cultures, when it comes to places of worship and liturgies, music, acoustics and architecture go hand in hand. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the emotions evoked by music are enhanced by the acoustics of the space where the music was composed to be played on. We explored whether the emotional responses of western naïve listeners to two vocal pieces from the Renaissance, one liturgical and one secular, convolved with the impulse responses of four Christian (...) temples from the United Kingdom, were modulated by the appropriate piece/space matching. In an alternative forced choice task where participants had to indicate their preference for the original recording of the piece vs. the convolved one, no significant differences were found. However, in the tasks where participants rated their emotional in response to each piece and acoustic condition, the factorial ANCOVA analyses performed on the results revealed significant effects. We observed that, across pieces and spaces, participants found the temple-like acoustics as more transcendent, compared to the acoustics of the original version of the pieces. In addition, they rated the secular piece as more tender and the liturgical piece as more expressive in its original versions, compared to the convolved ones. We conclude that the acoustic signature of the four Christian temples causes an exaltation of certain emotions on listeners, although this effect is not associated to one or another musical piece. (shrink)
Cybernetics is a science characterized by the utopian search for new relationships between different areas of knowledge. After the Second World War, the best-known references in Western academia were Norbert Wiener’s approaches to this new discipline. However, there is another little-known hemisphere of this development that remains understudied and we claim is key for its history which refers to the pioneering work of scientists, engineers and cultural practitioners in Latin America, as well as the materialization of specific experiences that lead (...) us to reflect on the role that some regional milestones could have had in the global context. This volume of AI & Society covers points of view that were structured in the various most emblematic stages of these trajectories with the participation of agents that went beyond the assimilation and interpretation of external models, transforming themselves into fundamental and pioneering experiences, among others, the work of Mexican scientist Arturo Rosenblueth, or the impact of the concept of Autopoiesis. Through this article we introduce the outcome of the research—presented in great length in the contributions of this volume—on some of the main stages and trends that constituted the evolution of cybernetics in Latin America. The particular contributions of the authors in this issue have helped to reconstituting these contexts while developing a continuous horizon which also explores future practices. (shrink)
IntroductionThere is a need to maintain rehabilitation activities and motivate movement and physical activity during quarantine in individuals with Cerebral Palsy.ObjectiveThis paper sets out to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of using computer serious game in a non-immersive virtual reality implemented and evaluated completely remotely in participants with CP for Home-Based Telerehabilitation during the quarantine period for COVID-19.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional design, a total of 44 individuals participated in this study between March and June 2020, 22 of which had CP (...) and 22 typically developing individuals, matched by age and sex to the individuals with CP. Participants practiced a coincident timing game1 and we measured movement performance and physical activity intensity using the rating of perceived exertion Borg scale.ResultsAll participants were able to engage with the VR therapy remotely, reported enjoying sessions, and improved performance in some practice moments. The most important result in this cross-sectional study was the significant increasing in rating of perceived exertion in both groups during practice and with CP presenting a higher rating of perceived exertion.ConclusionChildren with CP enjoyed participating, were able to perform at the same level as their peers on certain activities and increased both their performance and physical activity intensity when using the game, supporting the use of serious games for this group for home therapy and interactive games.Clinical Trials Registrationhttps://Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04402034. Registered on May 20, 2020. (shrink)
Produto de uma pesquisa de pós-doutorado e de discussões promovidas em eventos internacionais da Rede Acadêmica Verano TIC, este artigo foi criado a partir da inquietude de três pesquisadores e parte do pressuposto de que a escola é, ou deveria ser, um espaço dinâmico de transformação. Assim, buscamos discutir os possíveis desdobramentos e caminhos que surgem na construção de um novo desenho da sociedade e, porque não dizer, de escola. De um modo geral, a pandemia de Covid-19 revelou narrativas, respostas, (...) incertezas e desencontros, em um estado geral de crises dentro da crise. A partir do depoimento de três professores experientes da educação básica, os quais são convidados a refletir sobre as mudanças da escola ao longo dos anos, este artigo traz uma discussão a partir de diferentes autores da educação e áreas afins. Vale ressaltar que este se baseia na abordagem qualitativa, adotando a análise dos depoimentos a partir de oito questões que norteiam o diálogo com os professores. Tendo em vista as reflexões promovidas, que abre uma janela para profundos debates sobre a escola e seu futuro pós Covid-19, se faz urgente um trabalho coletivo para pensar o modelo de escola e de formação que queremos e necessitamos. (shrink)
From an evolutionary perspective, phenotypic, social, and environmental factors help to shape the different costs and benefits of pursuing different reproductive strategies from one individual to another. Since men’s reproductive success is mainly constrained to women’s availability, their mating orientations should be partially calibrated by features that women prefer in a potential partner. For long-term relationships, women prefer traits that signal access to resources, protection skills, and the willingness to share them. Using generalized linear models with laboratory data taken from (...) a Chilean population, this study aimed to test whether real and potential resources, protection skills, and the willingness to provide resources and protection are related to mating orientation in men. Our predictions were: socioeconomic status would be positively associated with long-term and short-term mating orientation but for long-term-oriented individuals, this would be enhanced by having a more favorable parenthood disposition and strength would be positively related to long-term mating orientation in men with higher socioeconomic status and a favorable disposition toward parenthood and it would have a positive and direct association with short-term mating orientation. Our results partially supported the first hypothesis, since men with higher socioeconomic status were more long-term oriented, but parenting disposition did not moderate this effect. Contrary to our expectations, socioeconomic status was not related to short-term mating orientation. Strength appeared not to be significant for long-term mating orientation, even interacting with other traits. However, strength by itself was powerfully linked with a short-term mating orientation. Our results suggest that only some individuals that are attractive for long-term relationships are indeed long-term oriented and may reflect the overall conflict of interests between mating strategies among sexes. (shrink)
En el artículo se aborda la relación entre vida activa y vida contemplativa en Platón desde la República. Teniendo en cuenta la figura del rey filósofo argumentamos que en Platón no hay oposición alguna entre uno y otro modo de vida, sino que, al contrario, la vida filosófica tal como se presenta en el diálogo debe incluir tanto acción como contemplación. Esta tesis la sostendremos a partir de dos elementos: las características del conocimiento que alcanza el filósofo a través de (...) la contemplación y el necesario descenso que debe llevar a cabo el filósofo una vez ha aprehendido las Ideas. (shrink)
This introduction presents the two pieces written by Dr. Gasco-Hernandez and Dr. Luna-Reyes, for the fourth issue of the Association for Computing Machinery, Special Interest Groups on Computers and Society Newsletter. We introduce the articles through their main topics as linked elements to the OCDE strategies recommended for Digital Government and, specifically, to collaboration and openness as social-enablers.
El presente trabajo muestra un posible e inmediato ejemplo precursor del Patio de los Leones de la Alhambra de Granada. El monasterio de Santa Clara de Tordesillas fue un importante palacio construido por el rey de Castilla Pedro I en la década de los cincuenta del siglo xiv. En su interior existía un patio con pabellones adelantados de su eje principal. Al poco tiempo, Muhammad V, amigo del rey castellano, erigió después de 1362 el Palacio y el Patio de Los (...) Leones de la Alhambra. Mientras que en Tordesillas se dispuso una alberca en su centro, en Granada se optó por la solución del patio de crucero. La fórmula de los pabellones desplegada en el palacio de Pedro I tuvo que tomarse de los lavabos monumentales de los monasterios cistercienses cercanos. Gracias a las buenas relaciones existentes entre los dos monarcas, la solución pudo ser llevada de Tordesillas a Granada por artistas que estuvieran trabajando para los dos reinos. (shrink)
Resumen Los mensajes de Navidad del rey Juan Carlos I constituyen una de las pocas ocasiones en las que el jefe del Estado español se dirige a los españoles a través de la televisión. El objetivo principal de este artículo es analizar estos textos emitidos por el monarca en el período de su reinado. Estamos ante unos mensajes que los pronuncia el representante de la institución de la Corona, pero que no tienen el correspondiente refrendo legal. Son costumbres y (...) tradiciones aceptadas por todos. El estudio se lleva a cabo desde la perspectiva del análisis del discurso y desde la semiótica de la comunicación, para poner de relieve cómo el texto es utilizado con fines ideológicos para consolidar la imagen de la Monarquía, a la vez que la estructura del Estado. Las figuras del ethos y de la auctoritas reales se ponen de relieve cuando se quiere afianzar la imagen del monarca y de la institución que encarna. Los mensajes siguen el modelo de la oratoria clásica y se utilizan como medio para comentar, persuadir y arbitrar un marco de convivencia en España en la que el rey juega un papel de moderador entre el Estado y la ciudadanía. (shrink)