6 found
  1.  56
    Reasoning About Relations: Spatial and Nonspatial Problems.Manuel Carreiras & Carlos Santamaria - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (3):191 – 208.
    Two experiments investigated the mental representation of spatial and nonspatial two-dimensional problems. The experiments were designed to contrast opposite predictions of the model theory of reasoning and the formal rules of inference theories. Half of the problems required more inferential steps but only one model, whereas the other half required fewer inferential steps but two models. According to the inference rules, theory problems that require more inferential steps should be harder, whereas the model-based theory predicts that problems that require two (...)
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  2.  56
    Reasoning From Double Conditionals: The Effects of Logical Structure and Believability.Carlos Santamaria, Juan A. Garcia-Madruga & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1998 - Thinking and Reasoning 4 (2):97-122.
    We report three experimental studies of reasoning with double conditionals, i.e. problems based on premises of the form: If A then B. If B then C. where A, B, and C, describe everyday events. We manipulated both the logical structure of the problems, using all four possible arrangements (or “figures” of their constituents, A, B, and C, and the believability of the two salient conditional conclusions that might follow from them, i.e. If A then C, or If C then A. (...)
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  3.  48
    Activation of End-Terms in Syllogistic Reasoning.Orlando Espino, Carlos Santamaria & Juan A. Garcia-Madruga - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (1):67 – 89.
    We report five experiments showing that the activation of the end-terms of a syllogism is determined by their position in the composite model of the premises. We show that it is not determined by the position of the terms in the rule being applied (Ford, 1994), by the syntactic role of the terms in the premises (Polk & Newell, 1995; Wetherick & Gilhooly, 1990), by the type of conclusion (Chater & Oaksford, 1999), or by the terms from the source premise (...)
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  4.  81
    An Antidote to Illusory Inferences.Carlos Santamaria & P. N. Johnson-Laird - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (4):313 – 333.
    The mental model theory predicts that reasoners normally represent what is true, but not what is false. One consequence is that reasoners should make "illusory" inferences, which are compelling but invalid. Three experiments confirmed the existence of such illusions based on disjunctions of disjunctions. They also established a successful antidote to them: Reasoners are much less likely to succumb to illusions if the inferences concern disjunctions of physical objects (alternative newspaper advertisements) rather disjunctions of the truth values of assertions. The (...)
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  5. Early and Late Processes in Syllogistic Reasoning: Evidence From Eye-Movements.Orlando Espino, Carlos Santamaría, Enrique Meseguer & Manuel Carreiras - 2005 - Cognition 98 (1):B1-B9.
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  6.  13
    Theories of Reasoning and the Representational Level: A Reply to Oaksford.Carlos Santamaría, Orlando Espino & Juan A. García-Madruga - 2001 - Thinking and Reasoning 7 (2):209-213.