_María Zambrano. __A Life of Poetic Reason and Political Commitment _de Beatriz Caballero Rodríguez y _The Cultural Legacy of María Zambrano_, editado por Xon de Ros y Daniela Omlor, son dos recientes aportaciones críticas al pensamiento de María Zambrano, pioneras en su contexto al constituir los dos primeros libros monográficos en lengua inglesa sobre esta filósofa y escritora. Por ello se abordarán en una reseña conjunta con el fin de mostrar la vigencia del pensamiento de Zambrano en el siglo XXI.
The article analyzes three different cases of clinical research in which children are asked to participate. Participation of children in researches is one of the major challenges for Bioethics and societies nowadays due to the tensions and issues concerning the guarantee of rights in clinical research, the responsibilities of the different actors involved, and the purpose of improving the quality of life without affecting scientific freedom and new knowledge production. The aim of the article is to establish the way in (...) which autonomy is exercised, considering ethical and regulative aspects within clinical research involving children. In order to achieve such a purpose, case study research methodology is employed, revealing the tensions and ethical issues involved in this particular kind of clinical research as well as considering international documents and the national regulation regarding this particular problem. (shrink)
The authors describe the intensity and orientation of the corporate social responsibility reporting in four Spanish industries and explore the relationship that exists between both concepts and an independent measurement of reputation for CSR. The results demonstrate that the CSR reporting is especially relevant and useful in the finance industry. Finance companies report significantly more CSR information than most industries in Spain, and this reporting is more closely linked to their CSRR than the CSR reporting of basic, consumer goods and (...) services industries. (shrink)
Background: Waiving parent permission can be an option in some epidemiological and social research with adolescents. However, exemptions have not been uniformly considered or applied. Our aim is to critically assess the different factors that could be taken into account when making decisions about waiving active parental permission in observational research with adolescents.DiscussionIn some cases alternatives to parental permission could be applied to protect the rights of both adolescents and parents and also to assure the benefits to adolescents as a (...) group that can come from appropriately conducted studies. However, the criteria of ensuring minimal risk can be difficult to define and apply and a distinction between harm and discomfort is reviewed. Waiving active parental permission could be acceptable when the risk of harm is minimal; when the research questions are related to an activity for which adolescents are not legally considered to be children; when the risk of harm or discomfort may increase if parental permission is required; and when risk of discomfort is low because the questionnaire is not potentially offensive for some adolescents and/or for some parents.SummaryStringent rules concerning parental permission in some studies could be detrimental to adolescents. A framework and a decision tree guide are proposed to help researchers and Research Ethics Committees in their decisions on whether active parental permission must be obtained. (shrink)
The accuracy of proxies when they interpret advance directives or apply substituted decision-making criteria has been called into question. It therefore became important to know if the Andalusian Advance Directive Form can help to increase the accuracy of proxies' predictions. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of the AADF on the accuracy of proxies' predictions about patients' preferences with that gained from informative and deliberative sessions about end-of-life decision making. A total of 171 pairs of patients (...) and their proxies were randomized to three groups. The control group's answers to the Life Sustaining Preferences Questionnaire were compared with their proxies' answers to the same questionnaire. In one intervention group, the patients had already completed the AADF and given it to their proxies, who used it to guide their own answers to the LSPQ. In the second intervention group, both patients and proxies attended two educative sessions guided by trained nurses and later filled in the LSPQ. Comparisons of accuracy and other variables showed a strong association with the discussion group. The findings show that promoting communication between patients and their proxies improves the accuracy of proxies' predictions much more than isolated use of the AADF form. (shrink)
_ Source: _Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 108 - 123 The following paper addresses itself to the question of ontology in the work of Jean-Luc Nancy. In so doing it attempts to read Nancy’s ontological project as a project of the deconstruction of structural forms of political violence. To this end, Nancy’s notion of “inoperative community” is brought into dialogue with Benjamin in order to show how, in Nancy’s work, ontology operates not as the refusal of critique, but as its (...) very condition. (shrink)
In Communitas: The Origin and Destiny of Community, Roberto Esposito develops a destructionist reading of political philosophy, interested in tracing modernity's attempt to constitute the political as a radical negation of our exposure to others. If the task of contemporary political thinking is to interrupt the myth of the common, without falling back completely into the negative and self-destructive power of immunization, political philosophy must be confronted with itself, searching within itself for the traces and points of departure – hermeneutic (...) supports – for such a destructive gesture. Esposito finds and develops these traces in a genealogical line that, starting with Hobbes, goes through Rousseau and Kant and ends with Heidegger and Bataille. By way of this genealogy, Esposito intends to show how modern philosophy would already have started to interrupt the dialectics between the immunization paradigm and the myth of the common. In this paper I argue that Hegel is not only an interesting figure but also an obligatory step in this effort, and in doing so I will pay particular attention to a notion of being-in-common that arises in The Spirit of Christianity and its Fate from his criticism of the violence of law. Hence, Hegel is read here in the light of an unexplored relationship to Esposito's work in Communitas. (shrink)
This paper explores the way in which Agamben takes part in the dialogue on “impolitical communities” that was inaugurated by J. L. Nancy and was soon followed by authors like M. Blanchot, J. Derrida and R. Esposito, among others. Although Agamben’s ontological exploration of ‘whatever being,’ followed later by the political idea of form-of-life, are still very close particularly to Nancy’s work, the article will show in which ways Agamben’s view of a political coming community explores different paths and moves (...) in unusual registers, that help to understand in new ways the kind of inoperativeness involved in a contemporary rethinking of community. The notion of experience of thought as potentiality and its relationship to that “tiny displacement” of the world which Agamben seems to connect with his idea of a coming community will play a central role in the analysis. (shrink)
Nuestra intención es apuntar hacia un marco de reflexión sobre el papel del silencio y el lenguaje a la luz del pensamiento de Oriente y Occidente. Nuestra experiencia del mundo y de nosotros mismos está siempre mediatizada por la interpretación que hacemos de ellos. El silencio por su parte puede ser un elemento adecuado para acercarnos a lo ignoto, al misterio, al “despertar”… No es de extrañar pues que hayan sido filósofos, poetas y místicos los que más han cantado las (...) excelencias del silencio. (shrink)
This paper traces and examines the different connotations given to the notion of “tragedy” in Paul Klee’s thought. From his early reflections on, Klee relates this notion to an intermediate and conflictive condition that characterizes human existence—an existence that takes place between heaven and earth, between the ethereal and the earthly. This essay focuses on how the connotations Klee gives to tragedy in different moments of his reflections transform the way he conceives the work of art. Hence, I will attempt (...) to show how Klee’s reflections relate the tragedy of human existence not only to the figure of the artist, understood as a tragic figure, but also to an idea of tragedy that the work produces and represents in its own particular way of coming into being. Thus, this paper poses a new approach to Klee’s suggestive proposal on modern art as well as to the meaning given to pictorial representation throughout his thought and artworks. (shrink)
This paper develops what we can call a first approach into a possible communication epistemology through certain conceptions from Serres. These conceptions are characterized by an open perspective that breaks the notions of limit, frontier, barrier and competence that have distinguished epistemolo..
La tarea de la filosofía consiste, para Fichte, en elevar a la conciencia al ámbito de su actuar originario de la mano de la reflexión trascendental. El filósofo sigue al Yo en su génesis, y su sistema se convierte en una "historia pragmática del espíritu humano". Esta "intuición intelec-tual" descu..