Results for 'Carol E. Cleland'

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  1. Recipes, Algorithms, and Programs.Carol E. Cleland - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (2):219-237.
    In the technical literature of computer science, the concept of an effective procedure is closely associated with the notion of an instruction that precisely specifies an action. Turing machine instructions are held up as providing paragons of instructions that "precisely describe" or "well define" the actions they prescribe. Numerical algorithms and computer programs are judged effective just insofar as they are thought to be translatable into Turing machine programs. Nontechnical procedures (e.g., recipes, methods) are summarily dismissed as ineffective on the (...)
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  2.  56
    On Effective Procedures.Carol E. Cleland - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (2):159-179.
    Since the mid-twentieth century, the concept of the Turing machine has dominated thought about effective procedures. This paper presents an alternative to Turing's analysis; it unifies, refines, and extends my earlier work on this topic. I show that Turing machines cannot live up to their billing as paragons of effective procedure; at best, they may be said to provide us with mere procedure schemas. I argue that the concept of an effective procedure crucially depends upon distinguishing procedures as definite courses (...)
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  3. Methodological and Epistemic Differences Between Historical Science and Experimental Science.Carol E. Cleland - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (3):447-451.
    Experimental research is commonly held up as the paradigm of "good" science. Although experiment plays many roles in science, its classical role is testing hypotheses in controlled laboratory settings. Historical science is sometimes held to be inferior on the grounds that its hypothesis cannot be tested by controlled laboratory experiments. Using contemporary examples from diverse scientific disciplines, this paper explores differences in practice between historical and experimental research vis-à-vis the testing of hypotheses. It rejects the claim that historical research is (...)
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  4. Defining 'Life'.Carol E. Cleland - unknown
    There is no broadly accepted definition of ‘life.’ Suggested definitions face problems, often in the form of robust counter-examples. Here we use insights from philosophical investigations into language to argue that defining ‘life’ currently poses a dilemma analogous to that faced by those hoping to define ‘water’ before the existence of molecular theory. In the absence of an analogous theory of the nature of living systems, interminable controversy over the definition of life is inescapable.
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  5. The Possibility of Alternative Microbial Life on Earth.Carol E. Cleland - unknown
    : Despite its amazing morphological diversity, life as we know it on Earth today is remarkably similar in its basic molecular architecture and biochemistry. The assumption that all life on Earth today shares these molecular and biochemical features is part of the paradigm of modern biology. This paper examines the possibility that this assumption is false, more specifically, that the contemporary Earth contains as yet unrecognized alternative forms of microbial life. The possibility that more than one form of life arose (...)
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  6.  71
    Life Without Definitions.Carol E. Cleland - 2012 - Synthese 185 (1):125-144.
    The question ‘what is life?’ has long been a source of philosophical debate and in recent years has taken on increasing scientific importance. The most popular approach among both philosophers and scientists for answering this question is to provide a “definition” of life. In this article I explore a variety of different definitional approaches, both traditional and non-traditional, that have been used to “define” life. I argue that all of them are deeply flawed. It is my contention that a scientifically (...)
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  7.  42
    Epistemological Issues in the Study of Microbial Life: Alternative Terran Biospheres?Carol E. Cleland - 2007 - Stud. Hist. Phil. Biol. And Biomed. Sci 38 (4):847-61.
    The assumption that all life on Earth today shares the same basic molecular architecture and biochemistry is part of the paradigm of modern biology. This paper argues that there is little theoretical or empirical support for this widely held assumption. Scientists know that life could have been at least modestly different at the molecular level and it is clear that alternative molecular building blocks for life were available on the early Earth. If the emergence of life is, like other natural (...)
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  8.  15
    Pluralism or Unity in Biology: Could Microbes Hold the Secret to Life?Carol E. Cleland - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):189-204.
    Pluralism is popular among philosophers of biology. This essay argues that negative judgments about universal biology, while understandable, are very premature. Familiar life on Earth represents a single example of life and, most importantly, there are empirical as well as theoretical reasons for suspecting that it may be unrepresentative. Scientifically compelling generalizations about the unity of life must await the discovery of forms of life descended from an alternative origin, the most promising candidate being the discovery of extraterrestrial life. Nonetheless, (...)
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  9. Is the Church-Turing Thesis True?Carol E. Cleland - 1993 - Minds and Machines 3 (3):283-312.
    The Church-Turing thesis makes a bold claim about the theoretical limits to computation. It is based upon independent analyses of the general notion of an effective procedure proposed by Alan Turing and Alonzo Church in the 1930''s. As originally construed, the thesis applied only to the number theoretic functions; it amounted to the claim that there were no number theoretic functions which couldn''t be computed by a Turing machine but could be computed by means of some other kind of effective (...)
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  10.  40
    Space: An Abstract System of Non-Supervenient Relations.Carol E. Cleland - 1984 - Philosophical Studies 46 (1):19 - 40.
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  11. Laws of Nature.Carol E. Cleland - 1995 - Review of Metaphysics 49 (2):406-408.
  12.  24
    Epistemological Issues in the Study of Microbial Life: Alternative Terran Biospheres?Carol E. Cleland - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (4):847-861.
    The assumption that all life on Earth today shares the same basic molecular architecture and biochemistry is part of the paradigm of modern biology. This paper argues that there is little theoretical or empirical support for this widely held assumption. Scientists know that life could have been at least modestly different at the molecular level and it is clear that alternative molecular building blocks for life were available on the early Earth. If the emergence of life is, like other natural (...)
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  13. Signatures of a Shadow Biosphere.Paul C. W. Davies, Carol E. Cleland & Christopher P. McKay - unknown
    Astrobiologists are aware that extraterrestrial life might differ from known life, and considerable thought has been given to possible signatures associated with weird forms of life on other planets. So far, however, very little attention has been paid to the possibility that our own planet might also host communities of weird life. If life arises readily in Earth-like conditions, as many astrobiologists contend, then it may well have formed many times on Earth itself, which raises the question whether one or (...)
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  14.  50
    The Difference Between Real Change and Mere Cambridge Change.Carol E. Cleland - 1990 - Philosophical Studies 60 (3):257 - 280.
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  15.  15
    Causality, Chance and Weak Non-Super Venience.Carol E. Cleland - 1985 - American Philosophical Quarterly 22 (4):287 - 298.
  16.  48
    Effective Procedures and Computable Functions.Carol E. Cleland - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (1):9-23.
    Horsten and Roelants have raised a number of important questions about my analysis of effective procedures and my evaluation of the Church-Turing thesis. They suggest that, on my account, effective procedures cannot enter the mathematical world because they have a built-in component of causality, and, hence, that my arguments against the Church-Turing thesis miss the mark. Unfortunately, however, their reasoning is based upon a number of misunderstandings. Effective mundane procedures do not, on my view, provide an analysis of ourgeneral concept (...)
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  17.  20
    Is a General Theory of Life Possible? Seeking the Nature of Life in the Context of a Single Example.Carol E. Cleland - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (4):368-379.
    Is one of the roles of theory in biology answering the question “What is life?” This is true of theory in many other fields of science. So why should not it be the case for biology? Yet efforts to identify unifying concepts and principles of life have been disappointing, leading some (pluralists) to conclude that life is not a natural kind. In this essay I argue that such judgments are premature. Life as we know it on Earth today represents a (...)
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  18.  12
    Lectures On Metaphysics 1934-1935.Carol E. Cleland - 1995 - Review of Metaphysics 48 (3):671-673.
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  19.  13
    'Turing Limit'. Some of Them (Steinhart, Copeland) Represent Extensions of Tur-Ing's Account, Whereas Others Defend Alternatives Notions of Effective Computability (Bringsjord and Zenzen, Wells).Carol E. Cleland - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12:157-158.
  20.  9
    Science and the Messy, Uncontrollable World of Nature.Carol E. Cleland & Sheralee Brindell - 2013 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 183.
    This chapter argues that doubts about the scientific status of the field sciences often rest on mistaken preconceptions about the nature of the evaluative relation between empirical evidence and hypothesis or theory, namely, that it is some sort of formal logical relation. It argues that there is a potentially more fruitful approach to understanding the nature of the support offered by empirical evidence to scientific hypotheses. The first part of the chapter briefly reviews the traditional philosophical take on the scientific (...)
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  21.  4
    Is Smolensky's Treatment of Connectionism on the Level?Carol E. Cleland - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):27.
  22.  2
    Review of Parsons. [REVIEW]Carol E. Cleland - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (4):605-607.
  23. Epistemological Issues in the Study of Microbial Life: Alternative Terran Biospheres?Carol E. Cleland - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (4):847-861.
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  24.  68
    Prediction and Explanation in Historical Natural Science.C. E. Cleland - 2011 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (3):551-582.
    In earlier work ( Cleland [2001] , [2002]), I sketched an account of the structure and justification of ‘prototypical’ historical natural science that distinguishes it from ‘classical’ experimental science. This article expands upon this work, focusing upon the close connection between explanation and justification in the historical natural sciences. I argue that confirmation and disconfirmation in these fields depends primarily upon the explanatory (versus predictive or retrodictive) success or failure of hypotheses vis-à-vis empirical evidence. The account of historical explanation (...)
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  25. Carol E. Cleland.Aa Derksen - 1986 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1).
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  26. Historical Science, Experimental Science, and the Scientific Method.Carol Cleland - manuscript
    Many scientists believe that there is a uniform, interdisciplinary method for the prac- tice of good science. The paradigmatic examples, however, are drawn from classical ex- perimental science. Insofar as historical hypotheses cannot be tested in controlled labo- ratory settings, historical research is sometimes said to be inferior to experimental research. Using examples from diverse historical disciplines, this paper demonstrates that such claims are misguided. First, the reputed superiority of experimental research is based upon accounts of scientific methodology (Baconian inductivism (...)
     
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  27.  61
    On the Individuation of Events.Carol Cleland - 1991 - Synthese 86 (2):229 - 254.
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  28.  3
    Assessing Cross-Sectoral and Cross-Jurisdictional Coordination for Public Health Emergency Legal Preparedness.Rick Hogan, Cheryl H. Bullard, Daniel Stier, Matthew S. Penn, Teresa Wall, John Cleland, James H. Burch, Judith Monroe, Robert E. Ragland, Thurbert Baker & John Casciotti - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 36 (s1):36-52.
  29.  4
    Improving Cross-Sectoral and Cross-Jurisdictional Coordination for Public Health Emergency Legal Preparedness.Cheryl H. Bullard, Rick D. Hogan, Matthew S. Penn, Janet Ferris, John Cleland, Daniel Stier, Ronald M. Davis, Susan Allan, Leticia van de Putte, Virginia Caine, Richard E. Besser & Steven Gravely - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 36 (s1):57-63.
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  30. Gibberellin: Inhibitor of an Inhibitor Of...?Nicholas P. Harberd, Kathryn E. King, Pierre Carol, Rachel J. Cowling, Jinrong Peng & Donald E. Richards - 1998 - Bioessays 20 (12):1001-1008.
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  31.  3
    Risk Stratification of Patients with Shoulder Pain Seen in Physical Therapy Practice.Jason R. Rodeghero, Joshua A. Cleland, Paul E. Mintken & Chad E. Cook - forthcoming - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
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  32. The Church-Turing Thesis: A Last Vestige of a Failed Mathematical Program.Carol Cleland - 2006 - In A. Olszewski, J. Wole'nski & R. Janusz (eds.), Church's Thesis After Seventy Years. Ontos Verlag. pp. 119-146.
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  33.  1
    Assessing Cross-Sectoral and Cross-Jurisdictional Coordination for Public Health Emergency Legal Preparedness.Rick Hogan, Cheryl H. Bullard, Daniel Stier, Matthew S. Penn, Teresa Wall, John Cleland, James H. Burch, Judith Monroe, Robert E. Ragland, Thurbert Baker & John Casciotti - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (s1):36-52.
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  34.  89
    The Nature of Life: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives From Philosophy and Science.Mark Bedau & Carol Cleland (eds.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Bringing together the latest scientific advances and some of the most enduring subtle philosophical puzzles and problems, this book collects original historical and contemporary sources to explore the wide range of issues surrounding the nature of life. Selections ranging from Aristotle and Descartes to Sagan and Dawkins are organised around four broad themes covering classical discussions of life, the origins and extent of natural life, contemporary artificial life creations and the definition and meaning of 'life' in its most general form. (...)
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  35. Measurement of Maternal and Child Mortality Morbidity and Health Care: Interdisciplinary Approaches.J. Ties Boerma, S. Meyer, E. Schulze, K. M. Cleaver, G. A. Schreiber, J. A. Adetunji, G. Kaufmann, J. Cleland, E. Garrett & A. Wear - 1994 - Journal of Biosocial Science 26 (4):469-77.
  36. Improving Cross-Sectoral and Cross-Jurisdictional Coordination for Public Health Emergency Legal Preparedness.Cheryl H. Bullard, Rick D. Hogan, Matthew S. Penn, Janet Ferris, John Cleland, Daniel Stier, Ronald M. Davis, Susan Allan, Leticia Van de Putte, Virginia Caine, Richard E. Besser & Steven Gravely - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (s1):57-63.
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  37. Effective Procedures and Causal Processes.Carol Cleland - forthcoming - Minds and Machines.
     
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  38. Keith M. Parsons: Drawing Out Leviathan. [REVIEW]Carol Cleland - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (4):605-607.
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  39.  4
    Francesco Petrarch, On Religious Leisure , Ed. And Trans. Susan S. Schearer. Introduction by Ronald G. Witt. New York: Italica Press, 2002. Paper. Pp. Xxv, 168. $15.The Secret, by Francesco Petrarch, with Related Documents, Ed. Carol E. Quillen. Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2003. Paper. Pp. Xiii, 178; 4 Black-and-White Figures and 3 Maps. [REVIEW]Angelo Mazzocco - 2005 - Speculum 80 (2):654-656.
  40.  1
    On Religious Leisure Francesco Petrarch Susan S. SchearerThe Secret, by Francesco Petrarch, with Related DocumentsFrancesco Petrarch Carol E. Quillen.Angelo Mazzocco - 2005 - Speculum 80 (2):654-656.
  41.  2
    Managing Editor: E. Grebenik Editors: J. Cleland, T. Dyson, J. Hobcraft, M. Murphy and R. Schofield.S. Clark, E. Colson, J. Lee & T. Scudder ten Thousand Tonga - 1995 - Journal of Biosocial Science 27 (2).
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  42.  14
    E. †Schofield Ayia Irini: The Western Sector. Results of Excavations Conducted by the University of Cincinnati Under the Auspices of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Edited with Contributions by Jack L. Davis and Carol Hershenson and Architectural Drawings by Whitney Powell-Cummer. Pp. Xx + 224, Pls. Mainz Am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern, 2011. Cased, €86. ISBN: 978-3-8053-4333-6. [REVIEW]Todd Whitelaw - 2013 - The Classical Review 63 (2):561-564.
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  43.  4
    Stephen Ogden, Carol Poster, Cathleen M. Bauschatz, Geoffrey Galt Harpham, Paul J. Korshin, Harvey L. Hix, William Walker, John Goodliffe, William Flesch, Anthony J. Cascardi, Graham Zanker, Ellen S. Fine, James G. Williams, John D. Cox, Véronique M. Fóti, Robert W. Burch, Susan B. Brill, John Durham Peters, David Gorman, Tony E. Jackson, Dora E. Polachek, Mark Stocker, Eric Dean, David Herman, Virginia A. La Charité, Edward E. Foster, C. W. Spinks, Paul M. Hedeen, Ruth Groenhout, Adriano P. Palma, Roblin Meeks, David Wetsel, Tom Conley, Dan Latimer, Michael Calabrese, Edward Donald Kennedy, Catharine Savage Brosman, Merold Westphal, Patrick Henry. [REVIEW]David Novitz - 1995 - Philosophy and Literature 19 (2):360.
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  44.  10
    Prophetic & Public: The Social Witness of U.S. Catholicism. By Kristin E. Heyerhandbook of Bioethics and Religion. By David E. Guinn, Ed.Future Perfect? God, Medicine and Human Dignity. By Celia Deane-Drummond and Peter Manley Scott, Eds.Health and Human Flourishing: Religion, Medicine, and Moral Anthropology. By Carol R. Taylor and Roberto Dell'Oro, Eds. [REVIEW]Gerard McGill - 2008 - Heythrop Journal 49 (3):501–507.
  45.  2
    (Frank G. Kirkpatrick. Together Bound: God, History, and the Religious Community. Pp. Xviii+195. .£27.50.Jonathan L. Kvanvig. The Problem of Hell. Pp. Viii+182. . £22.50.Anders Nordgren. Evolutionary Thinking: An Analysis of Rationality, Morality and Religion From an Evolutionary Perspective. Pp. 244. , 1994). SEK 218.Jean Porter. The Recovery of Virtue. Pp. 208. .Elizabeth S. Radcliffe and Carol J. White . Faith in Theory and Practice: Essays on Justifying Religious Belief. Pp. Xix + 235. .John E. Smith. Quasi-Religions: Humanism, Marxism and Nationalism. Pp. 154. . £11–99 Pbk. [REVIEW]Brian R. Clack - 1995 - Religious Studies 31 (1):145.
  46.  1
    The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky. Volume 1: Problems of General Psychology. Including the Volume Thinking and Speech. L. S. Vygotsky, Robert W. Rieber, Aaron S. Carton, Norris MinickThe Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky. Volume 2: The Fundamentals of Defectology . L. S. Vygotsky, Robert W. Rieber, Aaron S. Carton, Jane E. Knox, Carol B. StevensUnderstanding Vygotsky: A Quest for Synthesis. Rene van der Veer, Jaan Valsiner. [REVIEW]Josef Brozek - 1994 - Isis 85 (2):351-353.
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    Managing Editor: E. Grebenik Editors: J. Cleland, T. Dyson, J. Hobcraft, M. Murphy and R. Schofield.Jergen Bendictow - 1995 - Journal of Biosocial Science 27 (1).
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  48.  31
    Tribute to Carol Rausch Albright.Philip Hefner & Karl E. Peters - 1998 - Zygon 33 (4):685-685.
  49. Paul E. Griffiths, What Emotions Really Are. [REVIEW]Carol Slater - 1998 - Philosophy in Review 18:335-337.
  50.  21
    Marlene Grissum, R. N., M. S., and Carol Spengler, R. N., M. S.: 1976, Womanpower and Health Care, Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1976.; Claudia Dreifus (Ed.): 1977 Seizing Our Bodies: The Politics of Women's Health Random House, New York, 1977. [REVIEW]E. V. Spelman - 1982 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 7 (2):217-228.
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