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  1.  19
    The Need for Randomised Controlled Trials in Educational Research.Carole J. Torgerson & David J. Torgerson - 2001 - British Journal of Educational Studies 49 (3):316 - 328.
    This paper argues for more randomised controlled trials in educational research. Educational researchers have largely abandoned the methodology they helped to pioneer. This gold-standard methodology should be more widely used as it is an appropriate and robust research technique. Without subjecting curriculum innovations to a RCT then potentially harmful educational initiatives could be visited upon the nation's children.
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  2.  11
    Publication Bias: The Achilles’ Heel of Systematic Reviews?Carole J. Torgerson - 2006 - British Journal of Educational Studies 54 (1):89-102.
    The term 'publication bias' usually refers to the tendency for a greater proportion of statistically significant positive results of experiments to be published and, conversely, a greater proportion of statistically significant negative or null results not to be published. It is widely accepted in the fields of healthcare and psychological research to be a major threat to the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Some methodological work has previously been undertaken, by the author and others, in the field of educational (...)
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  3.  13
    Avoiding Bias in Randomised Controlled Trials in Educational Research.David J. Torgerson & Carole J. Torgerson - 2003 - British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (1):36-45.
    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are often seen as the 'gold standard' of evaluative research. However, whilst randomisation will ensure comparable groups, trials are still vulnerable to a range of biases that can undermine their internal validity. In this paper we describe a number of common threats to the internal validity of RCTs and methods of countering them. We highlight a number of examples from randomised trials in education and health care where problems of execution and analysis of the RCT has (...)
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  4.  13
    Publication Bias: The Achilles' Heel of Systematic Reviews?Carole J. Torgerson - 2006 - British Journal of Educational Studies 54 (1):89 - 102.
    The term 'publication bias' usually refers to the tendency for a greater proportion of statistically significant positive results of experiments to be published and, conversely, a greater proportion of statistically significant negative or null results not to be published. It is widely accepted in the fields of healthcare and psychological research to be a major threat to the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Some methodological work has previously been undertaken, by the author and others, in the field of educational (...)
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  5.  15
    Computer-Based Instruction for Improving Student Nurses' General Numeracy: Is It Effective? Two Randomised Trials.Hannah Ainsworth, Mollie Gilchrist, Celia Grant, Catherine Hewitt, Sue Ford, Moira Petrie, Carole J. Torgerson & David J. Torgerson - 2012 - Educational Studies 38 (2):151-163.
    In response to concern over the numeracy skills deficit displayed by student nurses, an online computer programme, ?Authentic World??, which aims to simulate a real-life clinical environment and improve the medication dosage calculation skills of users, was developed (Founded in 2004 Authentic World Ltd is a spin out company of Glarmorgan and Cardiff Universities, Cardiff, Wales UK.). Two randomised controlled trials were conducted, each at a UK University, in order to investigate the impact of Authentic World? on student nurses? general (...)
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  6.  15
    Do Volunteers in Schools Help Children Learn to Read? A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials.Carole J. Torgerson, Sarah E. King & Amanda J. Sowden - 2002 - Educational Studies 28 (4):433-444.
    The aim of unpaid volunteer classroom assistants is to give extra support to children learning to read. The impact of using volunteers to improve children's acquisition of reading skills is unknown. To assess whether volunteers are effective in improving children's reading, we undertook a systematic review of all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). An exhaustive search of all the main electronic databases was carried out (i.e. BEI, PsycInfo, ASSIA, PAIS, SSCI, ERIC, SPECTR, SIGLE). We identified eight experimental studies, of which (...)
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  7.  9
    The Use of Minimization to Form Comparison Groups in Educational Research.Carole J. Torgerson & David J. Torgerson - 2007 - Educational Studies 33 (3):333-337.
    Randomized controlled trials in educational research tend to be small. Small trials can have large, chance, imbalances in important covariates. For studies with sample sizes greater than 50, chance imbalances can be corrected using analysis of covariance; for small trials, however, statistical power is maximized if the trial is balanced and analysis of covariance is used in the analysis. The aim of the present study was to discuss methods of improving covariate balance in trial design and to demonstrate the method (...)
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