Can we build endogenous expectations about the locus of occurrence of a target without being able to describe them? Participants performed cue–target detection tasks with different proportions of valid and invalid trials, without being informed of these proportions, and demonstrated typical endogenous effects. About half were subsequently able to correctly describe the cue–target relationships . However, even non-verbalizer participants showed endogenous orienting with peripheral cues , not depending solely on practice . Explicit instructions did not bring about dramatic advantages in (...) performance .With central symbolic cues, only verbalizers showed reliable endogenous effects . We concluded that endogenous orienting with peripheral cues can occur independently of participants developing explicit hypotheses about the cue–target relationships. (shrink)
Cet article entend déterminer l’apport original du concept de cause essentielle chez Dietrich de Freiberg à la théorie de la causalité. La première partie est consacrée à la définition de cette cause qui précontient l’essence de son effet sur un mode plus noble. Elle montre que cette idée se situe au croisement d’influences néoplatoniciennes, arabes, et qu’elle provient d’une discussion serrée de la thèse de la «cause par essence» d’Albert le Grand. La deuxième partie se focalise sur la fonction cardinale (...) de la cause essentielle dans l’oeuvre de Dietrich. En effet, ce concept permet d’expliquer, sur le plan cosmologique, l’unité de l’univers, le mouvement des cieux et des astres, et sur le plan noétique, de démontrer les propriétés de l’intellect agent, sa relation à l’intellect possible et aux intelligibles, et pour finir son rapport à l’âme. Il ressort de cette étude que la causalité essentielle sert à construire l’ordre des étants «conceptionnels» dans un ensemble cohérent et articulé. (shrink)
« Météorite tombé de l’autre côté du Rhin, Dietrich ne semble d’aucun temps philosophique assignable, rebelle à tous les « ismes », splendide, mais isolé – d’un mot : “Teutonique” ». C’est la connaissance de ce grand penseur, Theodoricus Teutonicus von Vriberg, Thierry ou Dietrich de Freiberg en français, que vient enrichir la thèse de doctorat d’Andrea Colli, publiée en 2010 aux éditions Marietti. Cette recherche prolonge la redécouverte de cet « épineux outsider » dont le coup de lancement ..
This edited work draws on a range of contributed expertise to trace the fortune of an Aristotelian thesis over different periods in the history of philosophy. It presents eight cases of direct or indirect challenges to the Aristotelian passive account of human cognition, taking the reader from late antiquity to the 20th century. Chapters analyse the effect of Aristotle’s account of cognition on later periods. In his influential De anima, Aristotle describes human cognition, both sensitive and intellectual, as the reception (...) of a form in the cognitive subject. Aristotle’s account has been commonly interpreted as fundamentally passive – the cognitive subject is a passive actor upon which a cognitive process is acted by the object. However, at least from the time of Alexander of Aphrodisias onwards, this interpretation has been challenged by authors who posit a fundamental active aspect of cognition. Readers will discover how one or more of three concerns – ontological superiority, direct realism and moral responsibility – drive the active accounts of cognition. Contributed chapters from top scholars examine how these three concerns lead thinkers to take issue with the idea that cognition is a passive process. The authors consider Jesuit accounts of cognition, Malebranche on judgment, and Wittgenstein on perception, as well as Stumpf on active cognition, among other relevant works. This book is ideally suited to scholars of philosophy, especially those with an interest in medieval epistemology, the influence of Aristotle, philosophy of mind and theories of cognition. (shrink)
This essay interprets the controversy over Richard Serra's monumental sculpture, Tilted Arc , which was designed for a public plaza in downtown Manhattan in 1979 and then torn down five years later after intense public outcry. Levine reads this controversy as characteristic of contemporary debates over the arts, which continue the tradition of the nineteenth century avant-garde, pitting art against a wider public, and insisting that art must deliberately resist mainstream tastes and values in favor of marginality and innovation. This (...) definition of art has posed a lasting dilemma for democratic societies: how, after all, should a democracy deal with art that represents an intentional rejection of the majority? The problem becomes even more intractable when it comes to avant-garde art commissioned for public spaces, where the art object can challenge public tastes and movements in a way that is inescapable for those who must live and work in the space. Disturbed by the imposition of a massive and incomprehensible art object in a public plaza, Serra's opponents argued that Tilted Arc frustrated a whole range of socially beneficial activities, labor and leisure alike. And they claimed that Serra's supporters were dangerously anti-democratic. But despite the avant-garde's challenge to majority tastes, this essay makes the case that it remains a democratic value to continue to sponsor avant-garde art in public spaces. (shrink)
_Race, Discourse and Labourism_ argues that the commonwealth of socialism is founded upon a well-concealed history of brutality and repression. Caroline Knowles details the historical conditions of the emergence of race through Labour's dealings with Indian independence negotiations and anti-semitism in the thirties, and the effects of this on the conceptions of black citizenship, multi-racialism and black representation in labour politics.
Ong, Caroline In the debate about euthanasia, it is important that we consider all views, including those which might not at first seem attractive to us. Whether we believe in God or not, the views of the Catholic Church make a significant contribution to this debate. The Church does not support the deliberate killing either of oneself or another person. It also emphasises our moral obligation to respect life and to uphold the dignity of each person.
Ong, Caroline Whilst the reason and purpose of suffering may never be fully understood, there are ways of enduring, transcending and growing resilience to how it affects us. Our experience of suffering lies in the web of perceptions that involve our physical, spiritual and cosmological beliefs. Referencing Pain Seeking Understanding: Suffering, Medicine and Faith, edited by Margaret E. Mohrmann and Mark J. Hanson, this article gives a brief exploration of some propositions as to why an all-powerful, good God would (...) allow suffering to exist. From these various perspectives and using examples cited in the book, the article proposes that the healing art of medicine, honed through years of experience, knowledge and wisdom, can help individual patients endure and transcend suffering, and be whole once again. (shrink)
Ong, Caroline There was once a strong belief amongst global HIV/AIDS organisations that the key to the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV was condom use. Other measures such as abstinence and being loyal to one partner were seen as beneficial, but secondary. Thirty years later, the evidence is mounting that behavioural change is much more effective in halting the spread of HIV than condoms.
Ong, Caroline As health systems become more complex, moral distress is increasingly being recognised as a significant phenomenon amongst health professionals. It can be described as the state of being distressed when one is unable to act according to what one believes to be morally right. It may compromise patient care, the health professional involved and the organisation. Cumulative experiences of incompletely resolved moral distress - a phenomenon which is called moral residue - may leave us susceptible to more (...) frequent and more severe moral distress. Clear open communication, respect, inclusivity, openness to differences, compassion, support, education and the capacity to grow in self-awareness are key aspects in minimising moral distress. Early recognition of its symptoms and addressing both personal and external constraints of actions can also minimise moral residue and build resilience to further distress. (shrink)
Ong, Caroline In February 2014, the Belgian parliament passed an amendment to the Belgian Act on Euthanasia of May 28th, 2002 removing the age limit of those requesting euthanasia provided that they have discerning capabilities and their parents approve. After mentioning briefly the arguments against legalising euthanasia, this article questions the ethical validity of removing the age limit, as well as the presumption that ending lives prematurely allows people to die with dignity. Caring for people who are vulnerable in (...) their suffering is the proper goal of the healing professions, not terminating lives. (shrink)
The true story of Dr. Caroline Crocker's experience as an adjunct science professor at George Mason University. Addresses her teaching techniques, methodology, and perceived discrimination. Also provides a semi-biographical account of her experience with students.
During the 18th Century there was an explosion of female writing as well as a demand from women for fiction. This was predominently met by the growing number of circulating libraries and together with the rapid and rather inferior methods of production, precluded a high survival rate for the mass of this genre. This has resulted in a general scarcity and inaccessability of English novels of this period with, until recently, a corresponding shortage of critical knowledge and study. New introductions (...) specially commissioned from Dr Peter Garside, University of Wales Collge of Cardiff, and Dr Caroline Franklin, Trinity College Carmarthen, put these neglected works in the wider context of the development of English Literature. The choice of books reprinted in this first series of 'British Novels in the 18th and 19th Century' also reflects the varied motives of authorship during that period. (shrink)
Editor's introduction to the Bulletin for the Study of Religion 44.4 (2015): -/- Specifically, this introduction presents a panel of appears responding to Caroline Schaffalitzky de Muckadell's JAAR article on essentialist definitions of religion, an Open Letter to the AAR from Kat Daley-Bailey (and comments on the problems facing adjunct faculty with regard to the AAR annual meeting), a standalone article by Joseph Laycock on the Irving, Texas controversy Ahmed Ahmed Mohamed’s homemade clock (taken as a bomb threat), an (...) interview with the editors of the Practicum blog, and finally an Editor's Corner announcement with comment on a new subscription arrangement with NAASR. (shrink)
The National Library of France owns an uncommon illuminated manuscript of the Book of Job : the Parisinus graecus 135. Written in Greek in 1361/62, it is illustrated with a very large iconographic cycle , which combines Byzantine and gothic styles. The examination of the historical background allows us to bring forth the general meaning of the manuscript and to locate its origin with some probability in the Papal entourage and the Byzantine latinophile circles. The analysis of the iconographic cycle (...) of the manuscript shows that it is likely inspired by the theology developed in the literal commentary of Thomas of Aquinas on the Book of Job. Remarkably, this author is intensively translated in Greek in the middle of the fourteenth century in Byzantium under the aegis of the Emperor John VI Cantacuzenus. (shrink)
Patientenverfügungen werden häufig als Ausdruck eines Bestrebens verstanden, ausschließlich selbst über die eigene Behandlung am Lebensende oder in anderen medizinisch kritischen Situationen entscheiden zu wollen. Kritische Stimmen wenden sich gegen eine Marginalisierung von Angehörigen oder ein verkürztes Verständnis von Autonomie, welches von der Relationalität als Grundgegebenheit menschlicher Existenz abstrahiert. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird zunächst der rechtliche Rahmen beschrieben, der die Praxis bezüglich Patientenverfügungen und Stellvertretern in der Schweiz bestimmt. Zudem werden in der Schweiz verfügbare Patientenverfügungsformulare hinsichtlich der darin vorgesehenen Rolle (...) von Angehörigen bzw. nahe stehenden Personen analysiert. Abschließend soll gefragt werden, ob Patientenverfügungen, wie sie derzeit im Schweizer Kontext genutzt werden, wirklich als Instrumente rein individualistischer Selbstbestimmung verstanden werden können. (shrink)
ZusammenfassungPatientenverfügungen werden häufig als Ausdruck eines Bestrebens verstanden, ausschließlich selbst über die eigene Behandlung am Lebensende oder in anderen medizinisch kritischen Situationen entscheiden zu wollen. Kritische Stimmen wenden sich gegen eine Marginalisierung von Angehörigen oder ein verkürztes Verständnis von Autonomie, welches von der Relationalität als Grundgegebenheit menschlicher Existenz abstrahiert. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird zunächst der rechtliche Rahmen beschrieben, der die Praxis bezüglich Patientenverfügungen und Stellvertretern in der Schweiz bestimmt. Zudem werden in der Schweiz verfügbare Patientenverfügungsformulare hinsichtlich der darin vorgesehenen Rolle (...) von Angehörigen bzw. nahe stehenden Personen analysiert. Abschließend soll gefragt werden, ob Patientenverfügungen, wie sie derzeit im Schweizer Kontext genutzt werden, wirklich als Instrumente rein individualistischer Selbstbestimmung verstanden werden können. (shrink)
Penelope Maddy’s Second Philosophy is one of the most well-known ap- proaches in recent philosophy of mathematics. She applies her second-philosophical method to analyze mathematical methodology by reconstructing historical cases in a setting of means-ends relations. However, outside of Maddy’s own work, this kind of methodological analysis has not yet been extensively used and analyzed. In the present work, we will make a first step in this direction. We develop a general framework that allows us to clarify the procedure and (...) aims of the Second Philosopher’s investigation into set-theoretic methodology; pro- vides a platform to analyze the Second Philosopher’s methods themselves; and can be applied to further questions in the philosophy of set theory. (shrink)
In the late 1940s and early 1950s Lorenzen developed his operative logic and mathematics, a form of constructive mathematics. Nowadays this is mostly seen as the precursor to the more well-known dialogical logic and one could assumed that the same philosophical motivations were present in both works. However we want to show that this is not always the case. In particular, we claim, that Lorenzen’s well-known rejection of the actual infinite as stated in Lorenzen (1957) was not a major motivation (...) for operative logic and mathematics. In this article, we claim that this is in fact not the case. Rather, we argue for a shift that happened in Lorenzen’s treatment of the infinite from the early to the late 1950s. His early motivation for the development of operativism is concerned with a critique of the Cantorian notion of set and related questions about the notion of countability and uncountability; only later, his motivation switches to focusing on the concept of infinity and the debate about actual and potential infinity. (shrink)
Since Freud, psychoanalysis has always concerned itself with questions of art, creativity, politics, and war. This collection of essays from leading writers on psychoanalysis explores questions of culture through a close dialogue between psychoanalytic clinical and academic traditions. Culture and the Unconscious is a major contribution to these debates. With accessible introductions to its central themes, the book opens up conversations between the spheres of art, academia and psychoanalysis, revealing points of commonality and divergence.
A large body of literature supports the notion that the language used in informed consent forms is not comprehensible to most research participants. Creating comprehensible informed consent forms for international research presents a further challenge because they are generally written first in English and then translated into the local language. The Kenya Medical Research National Ethical Review Committee determines readability of English consent forms before translation; however, it is neither their policy nor practice to determine whether the forms, once translated (...) into Kiswahili, are of comparable readability to the English forms. Thus, the aim of this study is to measure and compare the text difficulty in 10 pairs of English informed consent forms and their translated Kiswahili forms. The results show that a readable English-language consent form does not necessarily result in a readable form once translated into Kiswahili. (shrink)
Ambrosianus B 165 sup., a 14th-cent. Constantinopolitan manuscript containing Proclus' In Parmenidem, was once owned by the Cardinal Bessarion, who has read, corrected and annotated the text with remarkable care. In this contribution, we provide an analysis of Bessarion's work on this manuscript, thus offering a case-study of his philological method. We also discuss some quotations from this text in Bessarion's works, which testify to the importance of his knowledge of Proclus for his own writings. In addition, Bessarion's Greek scholia (...) on books II and III of Proclus' commentary are edited here for the first time. (shrink)