Results for 'Carroll E. Izard'

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  1. The Many Meanings/Aspects of Emotion: Definitions, Functions, Activation, and Regulation.Carroll E. Izard - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (4):363-370.
    Many psychological scientists and behavioral neuroscientists affirm that “emotion” influences thinking, decision-making, actions, social relationships, well-being, and physical and mental health. Yet there is no consensus on a definition of the word “emotion,” and the present data suggest that it cannot be defined as a unitary concept. Theorists and researchers attribute quite different yet heuristic meanings to “emotion.” They show considerable agreement about emotion activation, functions, and regulation. The central goal of this article is to alert researchers, students, and other (...)
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  2.  22
    Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations.Carroll E. Izard - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (3):561-565.
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  3.  99
    Forms and Functions of Emotions: Matters of Emotion–Cognition Interactions.Carroll E. Izard - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (4):371-378.
    This article clarifies my current and seemingly ever-changing position on issues relating to emotions. The position derives from my differential emotions theory and it changes with new empirical findings and with insights from my own and others’ thinking and writing. The theory distinguishes between first-order emotions and emotion schemas. For example, it proposes that first-order negative emotions are attributable mainly to infants and young children in distress and to older individuals in emergency or highly challenging situations. Emotion schemas are defined (...)
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  4.  28
    Four systems for emotion activation: Cognitive and noncognitive processes.Carroll E. Izard - 1993 - Psychological Review 100 (1):68-90.
  5.  77
    Emotion Knowledge, Emotion Utilization, and Emotion Regulation.Carroll E. Izard, Elizabeth M. Woodburn, Kristy J. Finlon, E. Stephanie Krauthamer-Ewing, Stacy R. Grossman & Adina Seidenfeld - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (1):44-52.
    This article suggests a way to circumvent some of the problems that follow from the lack of consensus on a definition of emotion (Izard, 2010; Kleinginna & Kleinginna, 1981) and emotion regulation (Cole, Martin, & Dennis, 2004) by adopting a conceptual framework based on discrete emotions theory and focusing on specific emotions. Discrete emotions theories assume that neural, affective, and cognitive processes differ across specific emotions and that each emotion has particular motivational and regulatory functions. Thus, efforts at regulation (...)
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  6.  26
    Extending Emotion Science to the Study of Discrete Emotions in Infants.Carroll E. Izard, Elizabeth M. Woodburn & Kristy J. Finlon - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (2):134-136.
    Many emotion researchers would probably agree that at least some aspects of discrete emotions are evolutionarily conserved (e.g., the sensation/feeling component cannot be learned). Such agreement probably extends to the notion that aspects of emotions emerge in ontogeny as a function of developmental, learning, and cultural processes. Determining when and under what circumstances they emerge seems largely a matter for empirical research, though theories differ in their predictions and in the way they describe the relevant emotional-, cognitive-, and neuro-developmental processes.
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  7. More Meanings and More Questions for the term “Emotion”.Carroll E. Izard - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (4):383-385.
    I am very appreciative of those who wrote comments on my article. They raised some interesting and some quite challenging questions. Their responses seem quite in synchrony with my focus and intent—to reveal some problems that we need to address in advancing emotion science. The authors of the commentaries reflected some of the same sort of differences among themselves as I found among the emotion scientists whom I surveyed in search of a definition of emotion. Like the emotion scientists who (...)
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  8.  13
    The emergence of emotions and the development of consciousness in infancy.Carroll E. Izard - 1980 - In J. M. Davidson & Richard J. Davidson (eds.), The Psychobiology of Consciousness. Plenum. pp. 193--216.
  9.  51
    Emotions and emotion cognition contribute to the construction and understanding of mind.Carroll E. Izard - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):111-112.
    Carpendale & Lewis's (C&L's) interesting and insightful article did not integrate several potentially useful notions from emotion theory and research into their explanatory framework. I propose that emotions are indigenous elements of mind and that children's understanding of them is fundamental to their understanding of the mental life of self and others, understandings critical to the development of social and emotional competence.
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  10.  69
    Brain, emotions, and emotion-cognition relations.Carroll E. Izard, Christopher J. Trentacosta & Kristen A. King - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):208-209.
    Lewis makes a strong case for the interdependence and integration of emotion and cognitive processes. Yet, these processes exhibit considerable independence in early life, as well as in certain psychopathological conditions, suggesting that the capacity for their integration emerges as a function of development. In some circumstances, the concept of highly interactive emotion and cognitive systems seems a viable alternative hypothesis to the idea of systems integration.
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  11.  51
    Continuity and change in infants' facial expressions following an unanticipated aversive stimulus.Carroll E. Izard - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):463-464.
    I agree with Williams that evolutionary theory provides the best account of the pain expression. We may disagree as to whether pain has an emotional dimension or includes discrete basic emotions as integral components. I interpret basic emotion expressions that occur contemporaneously with pain expression as representing separate but highly interactive systems, each with distinct adaptive functions.
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  12.  15
    Editorial: Studies of the Development of Emotion-Cognition Relations.Carroll E. Izard - 1989 - Cognition and Emotion 3 (4):257-266.
  13.  13
    Emotion variables as personality traits.Carroll E. Izard - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (3):442-443.
  14.  8
    Human ethology and the ontogeny of emotional expressions.Carroll E. Izard - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1):39-39.
  15.  19
    Many ways to awareness: A developmental perspective on cognitive access.Carroll E. Izard, Paul C. Quinn & Steven B. Most - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):506-507.
    Block's target article makes a significant contribution toward sorting the neural bases of phenomenal consciousness from the neural systems that underlie cognitive access to it. However, data from developmental science suggest that cognitive access may be only one of several ways to access phenomenology. These data may also have implications for the visual-cognitive phenomena that Block uses to support his case.
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  16.  18
    Sex differences in emotion expression: Developmental, epigenetic, and cultural factors.Carroll E. Izard, Kristy J. Finlon & Stacy R. Grossman - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):395-396.
    Vigil's socio-relational framework of sex differences in emotion-expressive behavior has a number of interesting aspects, especially the principal concepts of reciprocity potential and perceived attractiveness and trustworthiness. These are attractive and potentially heuristic ideas. However, some of his arguments and claims are not well grounded in research on early development. Three- to five-year-old children did not show the sex differences in emotion-expressive behavior discussed in the target article. Our data suggest that Vigil may have underestimated the roles of epigenetic and (...)
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  17.  20
    The role of emotions in a systems view of depression.Carroll E. Izard - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (2):371-371.
  18.  29
    Evidence from young children regarding emotional responses to music.Steven John Holochwost & Carroll E. Izard - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):581-582.
    Juslin & Vll (J&V) propose a theoretical framework of how music may evoke an emotional response. This commentary presents results from a pilot study that employed young children as participants, and measured musically induced emotions through facial expressions. Preliminary findings support certain aspects of the proposed theoretical framework. The implications of these findings on future research employing the proposed framework are discussed.
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  19.  33
    Looking Across Domains to Understand Infant Representation of Emotion.Paul C. Quinn, Gizelle Anzures, Carroll E. Izard, Kang Lee, Olivier Pascalis, Alan M. Slater & James W. Tanaka - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (2):197-206.
    A comparison of the literatures on how infants represent generic object classes, gender and race information in faces, and emotional expressions reveals both common and distinctive developments in the three domains. In addition, the review indicates that some very basic questions remain to be answered regarding how infants represent facial displays of emotion, including (a) whether infants form category representations for discrete classes of emotion, (b) when and how such representations come to incorporate affective meaning, (c) the developmental trajectory for (...)
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  20.  71
    The Developmental Functions of Emotions: An Analysis in Terms of Differential Emotions Theory.Jo Ann A. Abe & Carroll E. Izard - 1999 - Cognition and Emotion 13 (5):523-549.
    A substantial body of theoretical literature testifies to the evolutionary functions of emotions. Relatively little has been written about their developmental functions. This article discusses the developmental functions of emotions from the perspective of differential emotions theory (DET; Izard, 1977, 1991). According to DET, although all the emotions retain their adaptive and motivational functions across the lifespan, different sets of emotions may become relatively more prominent in the different stages of life as they serve stage-related developmental processes. In the (...)
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  21.  27
    Looking Across Domains to Understand Infant Representation of Emotion.Paul C. Quinn, Gizelle Anzures, Carroll E. Izard, Kang Lee, Alan M. Slater, Olivier Pascalis & James W. Tanaka - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (2).
    A comparison of the literatures on how infants represent generic object classes, gender and race information in faces, and emotional expressions reveals both common and distinctive developments in the three domains. In addition, the review indicates that some very basic questions remain to be answered regarding how infants represent facial displays of emotion, including (a) whether infants form category representations for discrete classes of emotion, (b) when and how such representations come to incorporate affective meaning, (c) the developmental trajectory for (...)
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  22.  41
    God's Iconoclasm.Carroll E. Simcox - 1991 - The Chesterton Review 17 (3/4):546-547.
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  23. Is Death the End? The Christian Answer.Carroll E. Simcox - 1959
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  24. They Met at Philippi: A Devotional Commentary on Philippians.Carroll E. Simcox - 1958
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  25.  16
    The Rôle of Cyrus in Deutero-IsaiahThe Role of Cyrus in Deutero-Isaiah.Carroll E. Simcox - 1937 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 57 (2):158.
  26.  78
    Levels of emotion and levels of consciousness.Carroll Izard - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):96-98.
    Merker makes a strong case for the upper brain stem as being the neural home of primary or phenomenal consciousness. Though less emphasized, he makes an equally strong and empirically supported argument for the critical role of the mesodiencephalon in basic emotion processes. His evidence and argument on the functions of brainstem systems in primary consciousness and basic emotion processes present a strong challenge to prevailing assumptions about the primacy of cognition in emotion-cognition-behavior relations. (Published Online May 1 2007).
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  27.  48
    Reinforcement, emotion, and consciousness.Carroll Izard - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):202-204.
    Rolls presents a good integrative summary of the neural bases of emotions, adds new findings and insights, and takes a stance on controversial issues such as separate or distinct brain systems for processing emotion information and for planning and action. This commentary raises questions about his explanations of emotion activation, response to novelty, the evolution of emotions, and the phenomenal experience of emotions in human consciousness.
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  28.  26
    Colby's paranoia model: An old theory in a new frame?C. E. Izard & F. A. Masterson - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):539-540.
  29.  5
    Emotions in Personality and Culture.C. E. Izard - 1983 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 11 (4):305-312.
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  30.  16
    From stimulus-bound emotive command systems to drive-free emotions.C. E. Izard - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (3):433-434.
  31.  16
    Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion‐focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.Ronan E. O'Carroll, Tim Dalgleish, Lyndsey E. Drummond, Barbara Dritschel & Arlene Astell - 2006 - Cognition and Emotion 20 (3-4):488-505.
  32.  39
    Delhi, Agra, Fatehpur Sikri.E. B., Martin Hurlimann, Jean Carroll & Isobel Hatton - 1967 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 87 (2):216.
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  33.  11
    Pathways to Corporate Accountability: Corporate Reputation and Its Alternatives.Craig E. Carroll & Rowena Olegario - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 163 (2):173-181.
    The aim of our themed symposium is to explore the limits and possibilities of corporate reputation for enabling corporate accountability. We articulate three perspectives on corporate accountability. The communicative perspective equates accountability with disclosure and stakeholder engagement. The phenomenological perspective focuses on stakeholder expectations and reputation management. The consequential perspective focuses on effects/consequences. We then examine how corporate accountability is understood, how it relates to ideals, mission, and purpose, alternative pathways to corporate accountability, reputational consequences, and the role algorithms play (...)
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  34. Placebo-controlled manipulations of testosterone levels and dominance.Ronal E. O'Carroll - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):382-383.
    Mazur & Booth present an intriguing model of the relationship between circulating testosterone levels and dominance behaviour in man, but their review of studies on testosterone–behaviour relationships in man is selective. Much of the evidence they cite is correlational in nature. Placebo-controlled manipulations of testosterone levels are required to test their hypothesis that dominance levels are testosterone-dependent in man. The changes in testosterone level that follow behavioural experience may be a consequence of stress. Testosterone levels in man are determined by (...)
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  35.  10
    Creation in the age of modern science.William E. Carroll - 2013 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 42 (1):107-124.
    In this paper William Carroll argues that the alleged conflict between creation and science has its origin in a mistaken comprehension of the meaning of “creation”and the extent of explication that natural sciences can offer. Carroll explains that creation, a metaphysical and theological notion, affirms that everything which exists depends on one single cause which is God. But, on the other side, the object of study of natural sciences is the realm of changing things. Whereas creation speaks to (...)
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  36.  77
    Architectural Symbolism of Imperial Rome and the Middle AgesThe Railroad Station.Paul Zucker, E. Baldwin Smith & Carroll L. V. Meeks - 1957 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 16 (2):284.
  37. Understanding Research Misconduct: A Comparative Analysis of 120 Cases of Professional Wrongdoing.James Dubois, Emily E. Anderson, John Chibnall, Kelly Carroll, Tyler Gibb, Chiji Ogbuka & Timothy Rubbelke - 2013 - Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance 5 (20):320-338.
  38. Cornell College: Program in Science and Religion.William E. Carroll - 1998 - Zygon 33 (2):271-274.
    Cornell College in Mount Vernon, Iowa, has established a new interdisciplinary program in science and religion. One of the features of this program is an undergraduate major in science and religion that requires substantial course work in at least one of the natural sciences as well as course work in philosophy, religion, and history. As a result of a grant from the John Templeton Foundation, Cornell College will offer a special course, God and Physics: From Aquinas to Quantum Mechanics (April (...)
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  39.  33
    Big Bang Cosmology, Quantum Tunneling from Nothing, and Creation.William E. Carroll - 1988 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 44 (1):59-75.
  40. Divine agency, contemporary physics, and the autonomy of nature.William E. Carroll - 2008 - Heythrop Journal 49 (4):582-602.
  41. Science and Religion, 400 B.C. to A.D. 1500: From Aristotle to Copernicus. By Edward Grant.William E. Carroll - 2008 - Zygon 43 (3):745-747.
  42.  10
    Envisioning Ecological Sustainability: The Need and a Method.John E. Carroll - 1995 - Environmental Values 4 (2):167 - 168.
  43.  2
    Editorial: Imaginative culture and human nature: Evolutionary perspectives on the arts, religion, and ideology.Joseph Carroll, John A. Johnson, Emelie Jonsson, Rex E. Jung & Valerie van Mulukom - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
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  44.  18
    Parameter-setting in second language acquisition – explanans and explanandum.Susanne E. Carroll - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):720-721.
    Much second language acquisition (SLA) research confuses the representational and the developmental problems of language acquisition, assuming that attributes of a property theory will explain the transitions between the stages of a psychogrammar, or that induction will explain the properties of the representational systems which encode language. I argue that Principles and Parameter-setting theory deals only with the representational problem, and that induction must play a role in explaining the developmental problem. The conclusion is that both Epstein et al. and (...)
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  45.  21
    The Impact of Defense Expenses in Medical Malpractice Claims.Aaron E. Carroll, Parul Divya Parikh & Jennifer L. Buddenbaum - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (1):135-142.
    The objective of this study was to take a closer look at defense-related expenses for medical malpractice cases over time. We conducted a retrospective review of medical malpractice claims reported to the Physician Insurers Association of America's Data Sharing Project with a closing date between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 2008. On average a medical malpractice claim costs more than $27,000 to defend. Claims that go to trial are much more costly to defend than are those that are dropped, (...)
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  46.  15
    The Impact of Defense Expenses in Medical Malpractice Claims.Aaron E. Carroll, Parul Divya Parikh & Jennifer L. Buddenbaum - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (1):135-142.
    Whenever health care reform is debated, the state of the medical professional liability system in the United States re-emerges as an issue of importance. What exactly is broken with the MPL system and what the implications are is a point of contention among different stakeholder groups. Recent data demonstrate that medical liability premiums have been improving in recent years and the majority of premiums remained flat in 2010. General agreement still exists, however, that medical professional liability insurance premiums have become (...)
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  47.  25
    Unlocking Divine Action: Contemporary Science and Thomas Aquinas by Michael J. Dodds, O.P.William E. Carroll - 2016 - Nova et Vetera 14 (1):343-347.
  48.  48
    Stakeholder views regarding ethical issues in the design and conduct of pragmatic trials: study protocol.Stuart G. Nicholls, Kelly Carroll, Jamie Brehaut, Charles Weijer, Spencer Phillips Hey, Cory E. Goldstein, Merrick Zwarenstein, Ian D. Graham, Joanne E. McKenzie, Lauralyn McIntyre, Vipul Jairath, Marion K. Campbell, Jeremy M. Grimshaw, Dean A. Fergusson & Monica Taljaard - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):90.
    Randomized controlled trial trial designs exist on an explanatory-pragmatic spectrum, depending on the degree to which a study aims to address a question of efficacy or effectiveness. As conceptualized by Schwartz and Lellouch in 1967, an explanatory approach to trial design emphasizes hypothesis testing about the mechanisms of action of treatments under ideal conditions, whereas a pragmatic approach emphasizes testing effectiveness of two or more available treatments in real-world conditions. Interest in, and the number of, pragmatic trials has grown substantially (...)
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  49.  39
    Investigating reasoning with multiple integrated neuroscientific methods.Matthew E. Roser, Jonathan St B. T. Evans, Nicolas A. McNair, Giorgio Fuggetta, Simon J. Handley, Lauren S. Carroll & Dries Trippas - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  50.  17
    Effects of orienting tasks and instructions about associative structure on free recall and clustering.Robert E. Till, Carroll D. Johnston & James J. Jenkins - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (4):349-351.
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