Results for 'Categorization'

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  1. Colour Categorization and Categorical Perception.Robert Briscoe - 2020 - In Derek Brown & Fiona Macpherson (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Colour. Routledge. pp. 456-474.
    In this chapter, I critically examine two of the main approaches to colour categorization in cognitive science: the perceptual salience theory and linguistic relativism. I then turn to reviewing several decades of psychological research on colour categorical perception (CP). A careful assessment of relevant findings suggests that most of the experimental effects that have been understood in terms of CP actually fall on the cognition side of the perception-cognition divide: they are effects of colour language, for example, on memory (...)
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    The Categorization of Suicide.David Lester - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):281-281.
  3.  8
    Categorization and the Moral Order.Lena Jayyusi - 1984 - Routledge.
    First published in 1984, this is a study of categorization practices: how people categorize each other and their actions; how they describe, infer, and judge. The book presents a sociological analysis and description of practical activities and makes a cogent contribution to the study of how the moral order actually works in practical communicative contexts. Among the issues dealt with are: collectivity categorizations, the organization of lists and descriptions, moral attribution and inferences, and the relationship between standards of morality (...)
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    Categorization and the Moral Order.Lena Jayyusi - 1984 - Routledge.
    First published in 1984, this is a study of categorization practices: how people categorize each other and their actions; how they describe, infer, and judge. The book presents a sociological analysis and description of practical activities and makes a cogent contribution to the study of how the moral order actually works in practical communicative contexts. Among the issues dealt with are: collectivity categorizations, the organization of lists and descriptions, moral attribution and inferences, and the relationship between standards of morality (...)
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  5.  17
    Linguistic Categorization: Prototypes In Linguistic Theory.Kim Sterelny - 1992 - Review of Metaphysics 45 (4):884-885.
    This book aims to explain and defend a prototype theory of human judgment and discrimination. Taylor hopes to illuminate the psychological processes underlying both thought and language, when, for example, a fluttering object is recognized as a bird, or when the term "bird" is applied to it. More radically, he argues that the linguistic kinds themselves have a prototypical, or at least "nonclassical," structure. Whatever maybe true of birds or odd numbers, there is no essence of the past tense, nothing (...)
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  6. Dual Categorization and the Role of Aristotle’s Categories.Mark Ressler - manuscript
    In the Categories, Aristotle addresses two different cases of dual categorization, cases in which the same thing might appear in two different categories: relatives and secondary substances in the first case, qualities and relatives in the second. His treatment of these two cases is markedly different. Ackrill thinks dual categorization poses a dilemma for Aristotle’s project as a whole, but I argue that there is a dilemma only on particular understandings of Aristotle’s purpose in compiling the list of (...)
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  7.  34
    Categorization as Causal Reasoning⋆.Bob Rehder - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (5):709-748.
    A theory of categorization is presented in which knowledge of causal relationships between category features is represented in terms of asymmetric and probabilistic causal mechanisms. According to causal‐model theory, objects are classified as category members to the extent they are likely to have been generated or produced by those mechanisms. The empirical results confirmed that participants rated exemplars good category members to the extent their features manifested the expectations that causal knowledge induces, such as correlations between feature pairs that (...)
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  8. Hierarchical Categorization and the Effects of Contrast Inconsistency in an Unsupervised Learning Task.J. Davies & D. Billman - 1996 - In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 750.
  9. Categorization and Cognitive Science.H. Cohen & C. Leferbvre (eds.) - forthcoming - Elsevier.
     
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    Categorization and Concept Formation in Human Infants.Barbara Younger - 2010 - In Denis Mareschal, Paul Quinn & Stephen E. G. Lea (eds.), The Making of Human Concepts. Oxford University Press. pp. 245.
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    Categorization and challenges of utilitarianisms in the context of artificial intelligence.Štěpán Cvik - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):291-297.
    The debates about ethics in the context of artificial intelligence have been recently focusing primarily on various types of utilitarianisms. This article suggests a categorization of the various presented utilitarianisms into static utilitarianisms and dynamic utilitarianisms. It explains the main features of both. Then, it presents the challenges the utilitarianisms in each group need to be able to deal with. Since it appears that those cannot be overcome in the context of each group alone, the article suggests a possibility (...)
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    Membership Categorization and Storytelling.Dennis Day & Susanne Kjærbeck - 2019 - Pragmatics and Society 10 (3):359-374.
    In this paper, we demonstrate how the collaborative and sequential unfolding of a story ties into the constitution of a membership categorization device which we have glossed as ‘us and them’. The data come from a focus group activity where first and second generation immigrants to Denmark have been asked to discuss their situation in Denmark. Using Ethnomethodological Conversation and Membership Categorization Analysis, we present one story which involves a story-teller and his family and an elderly Danish couple (...)
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  13. Frontalparietal Networks Involved in Categorization and Item Working Memory.Kurt Braunlich, Javier Gomez-Lavin & Carol Seger - 2015 - NeuroImage 107:146-162.
    Categorization and memory for specific items are fundamental processes that allow us to apply knowledge to novel stimuli. This study directly compares categorization and memory using delay match to category (DMC) and delay match to sample (DMS) tasks. In DMC participants view and categorize a stimulus, maintain the category across a delay, and at the probe phase view another stimulus and indicate whether it is in the same category or not. In DMS, a standard item working memory task, (...)
     
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  14. Analogical Insight: Toward Unifying Categorization and Analogy.Eric Dietrich - 2010 - Cognitive Processing 11 (4):331-346.
    The purpose of this paper is to present two kinds of analogical representational change, both occurring early in the analogy-making process, and then, using these two kinds of change, to present a model unifying one sort of analogy-making and categorization. The proposed unification rests on three key claims: (1) a certain type of rapid representational abstraction is crucial to making the relevant analogies (this is the first kind of representational change; a computer model is presented that demonstrates this kind (...)
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  15. Categorization Using Direct and Indirect Similarity.E. Heit - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):494-494.
     
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  16. Categorization Versus Distance-Evidence From the Study of Cerebral Laterality.Jb Hellige & C. Michimata - 1988 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (6):516-516.
  17.  20
    Flexible Categorization Requires the Creation of Relational Features.Peter F. Dominey - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):23-24.
    Flexible categorization clearly requires an adaptive component, but at what level of representation? We have investigated categorization in sequence learning that requires the extraction of abstract rules, but no modification of sensory primitives. This motivates the need to make explicit the distinction between sensory-level “atomic” features as opposed to concept-level “abstract” features, and the proposal that flexible categorization probably relies on learning at the abstract feature level.
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    Contextual Categorization and Cognitive Phenomena.Charles Tijus - 2001 - In P. Bouquet V. Akman (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. pp. 316--329.
  19. Social Categorization Influences Face Perception and Face Memory.Kurt Hugenberg, Don Sacco, Steven Young & Michael Bernstein - 2011 - In Andy Calder, Gillian Rhodes, Mark Johnson & Jim Haxby (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press.
  20. Linguistic Categorization: Prototypes In Linguistic Theory.John R. TAYLOR - 1989
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  21.  34
    Atoms, Categorization and Conceptual Change.Paul Thagard & Ethan Toombs - unknown
  22.  1
    Membership Categorization Analysis: Wild and Promiscuous or Simply the Joy of Sacks?Richard Fitzgerald - 2012 - Discourse Studies 14 (3):305-311.
    The recent resurgence of Sacks’ work on membership categorization has highlighted the growing analytic interest in how members’ social category orientations operate at multiple levels of interactional work. One of the outcomes of this, highlighted in Stokoe’s discussion, is the re-emergence of the question of whether membership categorization analysis has been, is, or can be an approach in its own right. In this brief discussion I consider the emergence of ‘MCA’ as an approach to the study of social-knowledge-in-action, (...)
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  23.  18
    Categorization: A Mechanism for Rapid Information Processing.Nancy W. Ingling - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (3):239.
  24. Visual Categorization by Nonhuman-Primates.Dk Candland & Pg Judge - 1988 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (6):498-498.
  25.  19
    Categorization Norms for Fifty Representative Instances.Elizabeth F. Loftus & Ronald W. Scheff - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):355.
  26. Categorization and Identification.Kg White & F. Mcpherson - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):531-531.
     
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  27.  45
    Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices.M. T. H. Chi, P. J. Feltovich & R. Glaser - 1981 - Cognitive Science 5 (2):121-52.
    The representation of physics problems in relation to the organization of physics knowledge is investigated in experts and novices. Four experiments examine the existence of problem categories as a basis for representation; differences in the categories used by experts and novices; differences in the knowledge associated with the categories; and features in the problems that contribute to problem categorization and representation. Results from sorting tasks and protocols reveal that experts and novices begin their problem representations with specifiably different problem (...)
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  28. Categorization of Speech by Infants.Patricia K. Kuhl - 1985 - In Jacques Mehler & R. Fox (eds.), Neonate Cognition: Beyond the Blooming Buzzing Confusion. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 231--262.
     
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  29. Categorization, Typicality, and Shape Similarity.M. A. Kurbat, E. E. Smith & D. Medin - 1994 - In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. pp. 5--20.
     
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  30. Embodied Categorization.Pierre Poirier - unknown
  31. Categorization and the Parsing of Objects.Rachel Pevtzow & Robert L. Goldstone - 1994 - In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. pp. 717--722.
     
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  32. Categorization and Similarity Models.J. K. Kruschkea - 2001 - In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. pp. 1532--1535.
  33. Is Categorization in Visual Working Memory a Way to Reduce Mental Effort? A Pupillometry Study.Cherie Zhou, Monicque M. Lorist & Sebastiaan Mathôt - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (9).
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 9, September 2022.
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  34. Haptic Categorization of Objects by Multiple Dimensions.R. Klatzky, S. Lederman & C. Reed - 1987 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (5):328-328.
     
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    Cross-Categorization of Legal Concepts Across Boundaries of Legal Systems: In Consideration of Inferential Links.Fumiko Kano Glückstad, Tue Herlau, Mikkel N. Schmidt & Morten Mørup - 2014 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 22 (1):61-108.
    This work contrasts Giovanni Sartor’s view of inferential semantics of legal concepts with a probabilistic model of theory formation. The work further explores possibilities of implementing Kemp’s probabilistic model of theory formation in the context of mapping legal concepts between two individual legal systems. For implementing the legal concept mapping, we propose a cross-categorization approach that combines three mathematical models: the Bayesian Model of Generalization, the probabilistic model of theory formation, i.e., the Infinite Relational Model first introduced by Kemp (...)
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    Categorization of Investigation: Defining the Ethical Questions.Ray Godfrey - 2006 - Research Ethics 2 (1):15-18.
    This paper draws attention to a simple distinction that, when ignored, considerably distorts discussion of what should be subject to what form of ethical review and by whom. The distinction is between two types of ethical questions that can be asked about any investigation, and indeed about many other types of activity. First, there are questions of the kind: Is it ethical to conduct this investigation at all? Second, there are questions such as: How can this investigation be conducted in (...)
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  37.  8
    Two Categorization Patterns in Idiom Semantics.Chermen Gogichev - 2016 - Pragmatics and Cognition 23 (2):343-358.
    The article looks at idioms as categorization means. On the basis of linguistic analysis of semantic organization of idioms two patterns of idiomatic categorization are argued — general categorization and relevant property based categorization. Cognitive functions of idioms differ with regard to their role as categorization means, idioms can serve different categorization purposes according to two general cognitive processes — static and dynamic — including in a category or considering the given qualities as the (...)
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    Social Categorization Influences Face Perception and Face Memory.Kurt Hugenberg, Steven G. Young, Donald F. Sacco & Michael J. Bernstein - 2011 - In Andy Calder, Gillian Rhodes, Mark Johnson & Jim Haxby (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press.
    Contained in the face is a vast body of social information, both fixed and flexible. Across multiple lines of converging evidence it has become increasingly clear that face processing is subject to one of the most potent and best understood of social cognitive phenomena: social categorization. This article reviews this research at the juncture of social psychology and face perception showing the interplay between social categorization and face processing. It lays out evidence indicating that social categories are extracted (...)
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    Categorization of Hindi Phonemes by Neural Networks.A. Dev, S. S. Agrawal & D. R. Choudhury - 2003 - AI and Society 17 (3-4):375-382.
    The prime objective of this paper is to conduct phoneme categorization experiments for Indian languages. In this direction a major effort has been made to categorize Hindi phonemes using a time delay neural network (TDNN), and compare the recognition scores with other languages. A total of six neural nets aimed at the major coarse of phonetic classes in Hindi were trained. Evaluation of each net on 350 training tokens and 40 test tokens revealed a 99% recognition rate for vowel (...)
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  40. Categorization, Development Of.Jean M. Mandler - 2003 - In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group.
     
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  41. Artifact Categorization: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.Barbara C. Malt & Steven A. Sloman - 2007 - In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representaion. Oxford University Press. pp. 85--123.
  42.  1
    Categorization for Occasioned Semantics: Reanalysis of a Japanese Yamagata 119 Emergency Call.Reiko Hayashi - 2019 - Discourse Studies 21 (5):495-521.
    Without making any reference to traditional linguistic disciplines such as presupposition, implicature and indirect speech acts, this article analyzes how and what implicit meanings were constructed, structured and negotiated through an ambulance request call to the119 call center in Yamagata, Japan in 2011, while enhancing the cogency of the empirical approach independent from analytical theories. Through the occasioned taxonomic analysis of the occasioned semantics of the caller and the call-taker regarding the dispatch, the analysis captured definitive evidence on how a (...)
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  43.  8
    Categorization and Technology Innovation.Jeffrey M. Stibel - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (2):343-356.
    Theories on categorization have led to numerous technical innovations. Starting with artificial intelligence and neural models, scientists have leveraged psychological theories to drive forward innovative technology. More recently, software companies and Internet firms have implemented high technology software developed from cognitive theory. One class of systems rooted in the philosophical tradition stresses the importance of explanation and function. Another focuses on feature similarity and rule-based reasoning. Both approaches have had modest success and solve fundamental problems, but neither has achieved (...)
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  44. Recognition, Categorization and Detection-An Object-Oriented Approach Using a Top-Down and Bottom-Up Process for Manipulative Action Recognition.Zhe Li, Jannik Fritsch, Sven Wachsmuth & Gerhard Sagerer - 2006 - In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 212-221.
     
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  45.  5
    Categorization and the Narrative Structure of Science.Philip Lewin - 1994 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 27 (1):35 - 62.
  46.  20
    Object Categorization in Gofai Knowledge Representation: The Cyc Project.Robert Skipper Jr - 1994 - Southwest Philosophy Review 10 (2):69-83.
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  47. Metacognitive Deficits in Categorization Tasks in a Population with Impaired Inner Speech.Peter Langland-Hassan, Christopher Gauker, Michael J. Richardson, Aimee Deitz & Frank F. Faries - 2017 - Acta Psychologica 181:62-74.
    This study examines the relation of language use to a person’s ability to perform categorization tasks and to assess their own abilities in those categorization tasks. A silent rhyming task was used to confirm that a group of people with post-stroke aphasia (PWA) had corresponding covert language production (or “inner speech”) impairments. The performance of the PWA was then compared to that of age- and education-matched healthy controls on three kinds of categorization tasks and on metacognitive self-assessments (...)
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  48. Categorization of Conjunctively Defined Fuzzy-Sets of Visual-Stimuli.Ja Hampton - 1992 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (6):448-448.
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  49.  13
    Categorization as Nonparametric Bayesian Density Estimation.Thomas L. Griffiths, Adam N. Sanborn, Kevin R. Canini & Daniel J. Navarro - 2008 - In Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford (eds.), The Probabilistic Mind: Prospects for Bayesian Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press.
  50. Categorization as Nonparametric Bayesian Density Estimation.Thomas L. Griffiths, Adam N. Sanborn, Kevin R. Canini & Navarro & J. Daniel - 2008 - In Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford (eds.), The Probabilistic Mind: Prospects for Bayesian Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press.
     
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