Results for 'Categorization (Psychology'

144 found
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  1.  2
    Truth, Epistemic Ideals and the Psychology of Categorization.Robert N. McCauley - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:198 - 207.
    Recent theoretical work on the psychology of categorization emphasizes the role cognitive constructs play in perception and categorization. This approach supports Putnam's rejection of metaphysical realism. However, the experimental findings concerning basic level categories, in particular, suggest that robust stabilitites among our systems of empirical concepts persist in the face of considerable theoretical diversity and change. These stabilities undermine Putnam's strongest negative conclusions concerning the correspondence theory of truth (once it is uncoupled from metaphysical realism). The centrality of (...)
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  2.  5
    Categorization, Theories and Folk Psychology.Nick Chater - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):37.
  3.  22
    Positivist and Hermeneutic Principles in Psychology: Activity and Social Categorisation.László Garai & Margit Köcski - 1991 - Studies in East European Thought 42 (2):123-135.
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  4.  11
    Discourse and the Continuity of Reference: Representing Mental Categorization.Cornelia Zelinsky-Wibbelt - 2000 - Mouton De Gruyter.
    Chapter Introduction This work deals with two contrasting, but mutually interrelated capabilities of the human mind: reference and categorization. ...
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  5. Categorization and the Moral Order.Lena Jayyusi - 1984 - Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    INTRODUCTION My underlying concern in this work is with the sociological analysis and description of members' practical activities and their practical ...
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  6.  95
    Moral Psychology and the Mencian Creature.David Morrow - 2009 - Philosophical Psychology 22 (3):281-304.
    Recent work in various branches of philosophy has reinvigorated debate over the psychology behind moral judgment. Using Marc Hauser's categorization of theories as “Kantian,” “Humean,” or “Rawlsian” to frame the discussion, I argue that the existing evidence weighs against the Kantian model and partly in favor of both the Humean and the Rawlsian models. Emotions do play a causal role in the formation of our moral judgments, as the Humean model claims, but there are also unconscious principles shaping our (...)
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  7.  16
    Beyond Balance: To Understand “Bias,” Social Psychology Needs to Address Issues of Politics, Power, and Social Perspective.Alexander Haslam, Tom Postmes & Jolanda Jetten - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):341-342.
    Krueger & Funder's (K&F's) diagnosis of social psychology's obsession with bias is correct and accords with similar observations by self-categorization theorists. However, the analysis of causes is incomplete and suggestions for cures are flawed. The primary problem is not imbalance, but a failure to acknowledge that social reality has different forms, depending on one's social and political vantage point in relation to a specific social context.
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  8.  34
    Artifact Categorization and the Modal Theory of Artifact Function.Bence Nanay - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):515-526.
    Philosophers and psychologists widely hold that artifact categories – just like biological categories – are individuated by their function. But recent empirical findings in psychology question this assumption. My proposal is to suggest a way of squaring these findings with the central role function should play in individuating artifact categories. But in order to do so, we need to give up on the standard account of artifact function, according to which function is fixed by design, and replace it with a (...)
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  9. Classer Ou Collectionner?: Réconcilier Scientifiques Et Collectionneurs.Francis Rousseaux - 2007 - Academia Bruylant.
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  10.  51
    Proving Universalism Wrong Does Not Prove Relativism Right: Considerations on the Ongoing Color Categorization Debate.Yasmina Jraissati - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology (3):1-24.
    For over a century, the question of the relation of language to thought has been extensively discussed in the case of color categorization, where two main views prevail. The relativist view claims that color categories are relative while the universalistic view argues that color categories are universal. Relativists also argue that color categories are linguistically determined, and universalists that they are perceptually determined. Recently, the argument for the perceptual determination of color categorization has been undermined, and the relativist (...)
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  11.  6
    The Native Mind: Biological Categorization and Reasoning in Development and Across Cultures.Douglas L. Medin & Scott Atran - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (4):960-983.
    . This paper describes a cross-cultural and developmental research project on naïve or folk biology, that is, the study of how people conceptualize nature. The combination of domain specificity and cross-cultural comparison brings a new perspective to theories of categorization and reasoning and undermines the tendency to focus on “standard populations.” From the standpoint of mainstream cognitive psychology, we find that results gathered from standard populations in industrialized societies often fail to generalize to humanity at large. For example, similarity-driven (...)
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  12.  16
    Categories, Life, and Thinking.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):269.
  13.  2
    Social Categorization Influences Face Perception and Face Memory.Kurt Hugenberg, Steven G. Young, Donald F. Sacco & Michael J. Bernstein - 2011 - In Andy Calder, Gillian Rhodes, Mark Johnson & Jim Haxby (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press.
    Contained in the face is a vast body of social information, both fixed and flexible. Across multiple lines of converging evidence it has become increasingly clear that face processing is subject to one of the most potent and best understood of social cognitive phenomena: social categorization. This article reviews this research at the juncture of social psychology and face perception showing the interplay between social categorization and face processing. It lays out evidence indicating that social categories are extracted (...)
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  14.  21
    Rethinking Crowd Violence: Self-Categorization Theory and the Woodstock 1999 Riot.Stephen Vider - 2004 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (2):141–166.
    According to self-categorization theory , incidents of crowd violence can be understood as discrete forms of social action, limited by the crowd's social identity. Through an analysis of the riot at Woodstock 1999, this paper explores the uses and limitations of SCT in order to reach a more complex psychology of crowd behavior, particularly those instances that appear unmotivated, irrational, and destructive. Psychological and sociological literature are synthesized to explore the role of communication in establishing social norms within the (...)
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  15. Handbook of Color Psychology.Andrew J. Elliot, Mark D. Fairchild & Anna Franklin (eds.) - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    We perceive color everywhere and on everything that we encounter in daily life. Color science has progressed to the point where a great deal is known about the mechanics, evolution, and development of color vision, but less is known about the relation between color vision and psychology. However, color psychology is now a burgeoning, exciting area and this Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of emerging theory and research. Top scholars in the field provide rigorous overviews of work on color categorization, (...)
     
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  16. Dealing with Concepts: From Cognitive Psychology to Knowledge Representation.Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto - 2013 - Frontiers of Psychological and Behevioural Science 2 (3):96-106.
    Concept representation is still an open problem in the field of ontology engineering and, more generally, of knowledge representation. In particular, the issue of representing “non classical” concepts, i.e. concepts that cannot be defined in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, remains unresolved. In this paper we review empirical evidence from cognitive psychology, according to which concept representation is not a unitary phenomenon. On this basis, we sketch some proposals for concept representation, taking into account suggestions from psychological research. In (...)
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  17.  7
    Categorization: A Mechanism for Rapid Information Processing.Nancy W. Ingling - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (3):239.
  18.  96
    Common-Sense and Scientific Psychology.Matthew Nudds - 2001 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):171-180.
    In this paper I discuss the circumstances in which it would be right to revise a common-sense psychological categorisation -- such as the common-sense categorisation of emotions -- in the light of the results of empirical investigation. I argue that an answer to that question, familiar from eliminitivist arguments, should be rejected, and suggest that the issue turns on the ontological commitments of the explanations that common-sense psychological states enter into.
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  19.  2
    Category Dominance, Instance Dominance, and Categorization Time.Elizabeth F. Loftus - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):70.
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  20.  6
    Categorization Norms for Fifty Representative Instances.Elizabeth F. Loftus & Ronald W. Scheff - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):355.
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  21.  2
    Categorization Time with Categories Defined by Disjunctions and Conjunctions of Stimulus Attributes.Raymond S. Nickerson - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (2):211.
  22.  2
    Pronounceability Effects on Word-Nonword Encoding in Categorization and Recognition Tasks.Janet H. Walker - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):318-322.
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  23. Towards a Vygotskyan Cognitive Robotics: The Role of Language as a Cognitive Tool.Marco Mirolli - 2011 - New Ideas in Psychology 29:298-311.
    Cognitive Robotics can be defined as the study of cognitive phenomena by their modeling in physical artifacts such as robots. This is a very lively and fascinating field which has already given fundamental contributions to our understanding of natural cognition. Nonetheless, robotics has to date addressed mainly very basic, low­level cognitive phenomena like sensory­motor coordination, perception, and navigation, and it is not clear how the current approach might scale up to explain high­level human cognition. In this paper we argue that (...)
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  24.  5
    A Simplicity Principle in Unsupervised Human Categorization.Emmanuel M. Pothos & Nick Chater - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (3):303-343.
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  25.  21
    The Cyclical Ontogeny of Ontology: An Integrated Developmental Account of Object and Speech Categorization.Reese M. Heitner - 2004 - Philosophical Psychology 17 (1):45 – 57.
    More than a decade of experimental research confirms that external linguistic information provided in the form of word labels can induce a "mutually exclusive" bias against double naming and lead children to infer the name of novel objects and parts. Linguistic labels have also been shown to encourage more sophisticated reasoning, particularly with respect to superordinate and atypical object categorization. By contrast, however, the inverse possibility that the linguistic labeling of basic-level objects may also developmentally support the kind of (...)
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  26.  31
    Artifact and Tool Categorization.Sara Dellantonio, Claudio Mulatti & Remo Job - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):407-418.
    This study addresses the issue of artifact kinds from a psychological and cognitive perspective. The primary interest of the investigation lies in understanding how artifacts are categorized and what are the properties people rely on for their identification. According to a classical philosophical definition artifacts form an autonomous class of instances including all and only those objects that do not exist in nature, but are artificial, in the sense that they are made by an artĭfex. This definition suggests that artifacts (...)
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  27.  7
    Is an Apple Like a Fruit? A Study on Comparison and Categorisation Statements.Paula Rubio-Fernández, Bart Geurts & Chris Cummins - 2017 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 8 (2):367-390.
    Categorisation models of metaphor interpretation are based on the premiss that categorisation statements and comparison statements are fundamentally different types of assertion. Against this assumption, we argue that the difference is merely a quantitative one: ‘x is a y’ unilaterally entails ‘x is like a y’, and therefore the latter is merely weaker than the former. Moreover, if ‘x is like a y’ licenses the inference that x is not a y, then that inference is a scalar implicature. We defend (...)
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  28.  22
    Artifact and Artifact Categorization: Comparing Humans and Capuchin Monkeys.Stefano Borgo, Noemi Spagnoletti, Laure Vieu & Elisabetta Visalberghi - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):375-389.
    We aim to show that far-related primates like humans and the capuchin monkeys show interesting correspondences in terms of artifact characterization and categorization. We investigate this issue by using a philosophically-inspired definition of physical artifact which, developed for human artifacts, turns out to be applicable for cross-species comparison. In this approach an artifact is created when an entity is intentionally selected and some capacities attributed to it (often characterizing a purpose). Behavioral studies suggest that this notion of artifact is (...)
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  29.  29
    Studies of Categorization: A Review Essay of Neisser's 'Concepts and Conceptual Development' and Hamad's 'Categorical Perception'.William Bechtel - 1988 - Philosophical Psychology 1 (3):381-389.
    Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization ULRIC NEISSER, 1987 Cambridge, Cambridge University Press x+384 pp., $39.50 Categorical Perception STEVAN HARNAD, 1987 Cambridge, Cambridge University Press x+599 pp., $59.50.
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  30.  2
    Attention, Similarity, and the Identification–Categorization Relationship.Robert M. Nosofsky - 1986 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115 (1):39-57.
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  31.  46
    The Rules Versus Similarity Distinction.Emmanuel M. Pothos - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):1-14.
    The distinction between rules and similarity is central to our understanding of much of cognitive psychology. Two aspects of existing research have motivated the present work. First, in different cognitive psychology areas we typically see different conceptions of rules and similarity; for example, rules in language appear to be of a different kind compared to rules in categorization. Second, rules processes are typically modeled as separate from similarity ones; for example, in a learning experiment, rules and similarity influences would (...)
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  32. Prototypes and Conceptual Analysis.William Ramsey - 1992 - Topoi 11 (1):59-70.
    In this paper, I explore the implications of recent empirical research on concept representation for the philosophical enterprise of conceptual analysis. I argue that conceptual analysis, as it is commonly practiced, is committed to certain assumptions about the nature of our intuitive categorization judgments. I then try to show how these assumptions clash with contemporary accounts of concept representation in cognitive psychology. After entertaining an objection to my argument, I close by considering ways in which conceptual analysis might be (...)
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  33.  1
    The Precision of 12-Month-Old Infants’ Link Between Language and Categorization Predicts Vocabulary Size at 12 and 18 Months. [REVIEW]Brock Ferguson, Mélanie Havy & Sandra R. Waxman - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  34. How Basic-Level Objects Facilitate Question-Asking in a Categorization Task.Azzurra Ruggeri & Markus A. Feufel - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  35. Segmentation Precedes Face Categorization Under Suboptimal Conditions.Carlijn Van Den Boomen, Johannes J. Fahrenfort, Tineke M. Snijders & Chantal Kemner - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  36. Target Categorization with Primes That Vary in Both Congruency and Sense Modality.Kathryn Weatherford, Michael Mills, Anne M. Porter & Paula Goolkasian - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  37.  15
    Cognitive Science: A Philosophical Introduction.Rom Harré - 2002 - Sage Publications.
    This is the first major textbook to offer a truly comprehensive review of cognitive science in its fullest sense. Ranging across artificial intelligence models and cognitive psychology through to recent discursive and cultural theories Rom Harre offers a breathtakingly original yet accessible integration of the field. At its core this textbook addresses the question "is psychology a science?" with a clear account of scientific method and explanation and their bearing on psychological research. A pivotal figure in psychology and philosophy for (...)
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  38.  1
    Induction and Categorization in Young Children: A Similarity-Based Model.Vladimir M. Sloutsky & Anna V. Fisher - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133 (2):166-188.
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  39. Listening for the Norm: Adaptive Coding in Speech Categorization.Jingyuan Huang & Lori L. Holt - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  40.  2
    Exemplar Effects in Categorization and Multiple-Cue Judgment.Peter Juslin, Henrik Olsson & Anna-Carin Olsson - 2003 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (1):133.
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  41. Influences of Categorization on Perceptual Discrimination.Robert L. Goldstone - 1994 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 123 (2):178-200.
  42.  11
    Models of Categorization.John K. Kruschke - 2008 - In Ron Sun (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267--301.
  43. Processing Nasals with and Without Consecutive Context Phonemes: Evidence From Explicit Categorization and the N100.Heidrun Bien & Pienie Zwitserlood - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  44.  36
    The Theory-Theory of Moral Concepts.John Jung Park - 2015 - Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 3 (2).
    There are many views about the structure of concepts, a plausible one of which is the theory-theory. Though this view is plausible for concrete concepts, it is unclear that it would work for abstract concepts, and then for moral concepts. The goal of this paper is to provide a plausible theory-theory account for moral concepts and show that it is supported by results in the moral psychology literature. Such studies in moral psychology do not explicitly contend for the theory-theory of (...)
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  45.  1
    The Role of Bottom-Up Processing in Perceptual Categorization by 3- to 4-Month-Old Infants: Simulations and Data.Robert M. French, Denis Mareschal, Martial Mermillod & Paul C. Quinn - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133 (3):382-397.
  46.  1
    Temporal Dynamics of Categorization: Forgetting as the Basis of Abstraction and Generalization.Haley A. Vlach & Charles W. Kalish - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  47.  33
    A Marriage is an Artefact and Not a Walk That We Take Together: An Experimental Study on the Categorization of Artefacts. [REVIEW]Corrado Roversi, Anna M. Borghi & Luca Tummolini - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):527-542.
    Artefacts are usually understood in contrast with natural kinds and conceived as a unitary kind. Here we propose that there is in fact a variety of artefacts: from the more concrete to the more abstract ones. Moreover, not every artefact is able to fulfil its function thanks to its physical properties: Some artefacts, particularly what we call “institutional” artefacts, are symbolic in nature and require a system of rules to exist and to fulfil their function. Adopting a standard method to (...)
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  48.  3
    Categorization Under Time Pressure.Koen Lamberts - 1995 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 124 (2):161.
  49.  2
    Semantic Categorization Precedes Affective Evaluation of Visual Scenes.Lauri Nummenmaa, Jukka Hyönä & Manuel G. Calvo - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 139 (2):222-246.
  50. Concepts and Reference: Defending a Dual Theory of Natural Kind Concepts.Jussi Jylkkä - 2008 - Dissertation, University of Turku
    In this thesis I argue that the psychological study of concepts and categorisation, and the philosophical study of reference are deeply intertwined. I propose that semantic intuitions are a variety of categorisation judgements, determined by concepts, and that because of this, concepts determine reference. I defend a dual theory of natural kind concepts, according to which natural kind concepts have distinct semantic cores and non-semantic identification procedures. Drawing on psychological essentialism, I suggest that the cores consist of externalistic placeholder essence (...)
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