Results for 'Category'

999 found
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  1.  59
    Category Mistakes.Ofra Magidor - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Category mistakes are sentences such as 'Green ideas sleep furiously' or 'Saturday is in bed'. They strike us as highly infelicitous but it is hard to explain precisely why this is so. Ofra Magidor explores four approaches to category mistakes in philosophy of language and linguistics, and develops and defends an original, presuppositional account.
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  2. Category Theory.Steve Awodey - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    A comprehensive reference to category theory for students and researchers in mathematics, computer science, logic, cognitive science, linguistics, and philosophy. Useful for self-study and as a course text, the book includes all basic definitions and theorems, as well as numerous examples and exercises.
     
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  3. Category-Theoretic Structure and Radical Ontic Structural Realism.Jonathan Bain - 2013 - Synthese 190 (9):1621-1635.
    Radical Ontic Structural Realism (ROSR) claims that structure exists independently of objects that may instantiate it. Critics of ROSR contend that this claim is conceptually incoherent, insofar as, (i) it entails there can be relations without relata, and (ii) there is a conceptual dependence between relations and relata. In this essay I suggest that (ii) is motivated by a set-theoretic formulation of structure, and that adopting a category-theoretic formulation may provide ROSR with more support. In particular, I consider how (...)
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  4. Category Norms of Verbal Items in 56 Categories A Replication and Extension of the Connecticut Category Norms.William F. Battig & William E. Montague - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (3p2):1.
    No categories
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  5. Category Mistakes Are Meaningful.Ofra Magidor - 2009 - Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (6):553-581.
    Category mistakes are sentences such as ‘Colourless green ideas sleep furiously’ or ‘The theory of relativity is eating breakfast’. Such sentences are highly anomalous, and this has led a large number of linguists and philosophers to conclude that they are meaningless (call this ‘the meaninglessness view’). In this paper I argue that the meaninglessness view is incorrect and category mistakes are meaningful. I provide four arguments against the meaninglessness view: in Sect. 2, an argument concerning compositionality with respect (...)
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  6. The Category of Occurrent Continuants.Rowland Stout - 2016 - Mind 125 (497):41-62.
    Arguing first that the best way to understand what a continuant is is as something that primarily has its properties at a time rather than atemporally, the paper then defends the idea that there are occurrent continuants. These are things that were, are, or will be happening—like the ongoing process of someone reading or my writing this paper, for instance. A recently popular philosophical view of process is as something that is referred to with mass nouns and not count nouns. (...)
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  7. The Category of the Person: Anthropology, Philosophy, History.Michael Carrithers, Steven Collins & Steven Lukes (eds.) - 1985 - Cambridge University Press.
    The concept that peope have of themselves as a 'person' is one of the most intimate notions that they hold. Yet the way in which the category of the person is conceived varies over time and space. In this volume, anthropologists, philosophers, and historians examine the notion of the person in different cultures, past and present. Taking as their starting point a lecture on the person as a category of the human mind, given by Marcel Mauss in 1938, (...)
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  8. Does Category Theory Provide a Framework for Mathematical Structuralism?Geoffrey Hellman - 2003 - Philosophia Mathematica 11 (2):129-157.
    Category theory and topos theory have been seen as providing a structuralist framework for mathematics autonomous vis-a-vis set theory. It is argued here that these theories require a background logic of relations and substantive assumptions addressing mathematical existence of categories themselves. We propose a synthesis of Bell's many-topoi view and modal-structuralism. Surprisingly, a combination of mereology and plural quantification suffices to describe hypothetical large domains, recovering the Grothendieck method of universes. Both topos theory and set theory can be carried (...)
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  9. Category-Based Induction in Conceptual Spaces.Matías Osta-Vélez & Peter Gärdenfors - 2020 - Journal of Mathematical Psychology 96.
    Category-based induction is an inferential mechanism that uses knowledge of conceptual relations in order to estimate how likely is for a property to be projected from one category to another. During the last decades, psychologists have identified several features of this mechanism, and they have proposed different formal models of it. In this article; we propose a new mathematical model for category-based induction based on distances on conceptual spaces. We show how this model can predict most of (...)
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  10. Category Theory as an Autonomous Foundation.Øystein Linnebo & Richard Pettigrew - 2011 - Philosophia Mathematica 19 (3):227-254.
    Does category theory provide a foundation for mathematics that is autonomous with respect to the orthodox foundation in a set theory such as ZFC? We distinguish three types of autonomy: logical, conceptual, and justificatory. Focusing on a categorical theory of sets, we argue that a strong case can be made for its logical and conceptual autonomy. Its justificatory autonomy turns on whether the objects of a foundation for mathematics should be specified only up to isomorphism, as is customary in (...)
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  11. Category Mistakes and Figurative Language.Ofra Magidor - 2015 - Philosophical Studies (1):1-14.
    Category mistakes are sentences such as ”The number two is blue’ or ”Green ideas sleep furiously’. Such sentences are highly infelicitous and thus a prominent view claims that they are meaningless. Category mistakes are also highly prevalent in figurative language. That is to say, it is very common for sentences which are used figuratively to be such that, if taken literally, they would constitute category mistakes. In this paper I argue that the view that category mistakes (...)
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  12. The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science.E. J. Lowe - 2005 - Clarendon Press.
    E. J. Lowe, a prominent figure in contemporary metaphysics, sets out and defends his theory of what there is. His four-category ontology is a metaphysical system which recognizes four fundamental categories of beings: substantial and non-substantial particulars and substantial and non-substantial universals. Lowe argues that this system has an explanatory power which is unrivalled by more parsimonious theories and that this counts decisively in its favour. He shows that it provides a powerful explanatory framework for a unified account of (...)
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  13.  37
    Category Rating Scales: Effects of Relative Spacing and Frequency of Stimulus Values.Allen Parducci & Linda F. Perrett - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (2):427.
  14.  12
    Category Judgments of Loudness in the Absence of an Experimenter-Induced Identification Function: Sequential Effects and Power-Function Fit.Lawrence M. Ward - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (2):179.
  15. Category Theory: A Gentle Introduction.Peter Smith - manuscript
    This Gentle Introduction is very much still work in progress. Roughly aimed at those who want something a bit more discursive, slower-moving, than Awodey's or Leinster's excellent books. -/- The current [Jan 2018] version is 291pp.
     
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  16.  13
    Category Mistakes.Ofra Magidor - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy.
  17.  13
    Category-Based Induction.Daniel N. Osherson, Edward E. Smith, Ormond Wilkie & Alejandro López - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (2):185-200.
  18. Category Theory is a Contentful Theory.Shay Logan - 2015 - Philosophia Mathematica 23 (1):110-115.
    Linnebo and Pettigrew present some objections to category theory as an autonomous foundation. They do a commendable job making clear several distinct senses of ‘autonomous’ as it occurs in the phrase ‘autonomous foundation’. Unfortunately, their paper seems to treat the ‘categorist’ perspective rather unfairly. Several infelicities of this sort were addressed by McLarty. In this note I address yet another apparent infelicity.
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  19. Category Theory and Set Theory as Theories About Complementary Types of Universals.David P. Ellerman - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (2):1-18.
    Instead of the half-century old foundational feud between set theory and category theory, this paper argues that they are theories about two different complementary types of universals. The set-theoretic antinomies forced naïve set theory to be reformulated using some iterative notion of a set so that a set would always have higher type or rank than its members. Then the universal u_{F}={x|F(x)} for a property F() could never be self-predicative in the sense of u_{F}∈u_{F}. But the mathematical theory of (...)
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  20.  25
    Category Judgment: A Range-Frequency Model.Allen Parducci - 1965 - Psychological Review 72 (6):407-418.
    No categories
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  21.  53
    Ratio Scales and Category Scales for a Dozen Perceptual Continua.S. S. Stevens & E. H. Galanter - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (6):377.
  22. Category Theory and the Foundations of Mathematics: Philosophical Excavations.Jean-Pierre Marquis - 1995 - Synthese 103 (3):421 - 447.
    The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of category theory in the foundations of mathematics. There is a good deal of confusion surrounding this issue. A standard philosophical strategy in the face of a situation of this kind is to draw various distinctions and in this way show that the confusion rests on divergent conceptions of what the foundations of mathematics ought to be. This is the strategy adopted in the present paper. It is divided into (...)
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  23.  45
    Category Independent Aesthetic Experience: The Case of Wine.David Sackris - 2013 - Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (1-2):111-120.
    Kendall Walton’s “Categories of Art” seeks to situate aesthetic properties contextually. As such, certain knowledge is required to fully appreciate the aesthetic properties of a work, and without that knowledge the ‘correct’ or ‘true’ aesthetic properties of a work cannot be appreciated. The aim of this paper is to show that the way Walton conceives of his categories and art categorization is difficult to square with certain kinds of aesthetic experience—kinds of experience that seems to defy this claim of (...)-dependence for aesthetic properties. The argument will be advanced for category-free aesthetic experience by considering Barry C. Smith’s account of wine-tasting and his description of his wine drinking ‘epiphany’. (shrink)
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  24.  17
    The Category of Node-and-Choice Preforms for Extensive-Form Games.Peter Streufert - 2018 - Studia Logica 106 (5):1001-1064.
    It would be useful to have a category of extensive-form games whose isomorphisms specify equivalences between games. Since working with entire games is too large a project for a single paper, I begin here with preforms, where a “preform” is a rooted tree together with choices and information sets. In particular, this paper first defines the category \, whose objects are “functioned trees”, which are specially designed to be incorporated into preforms. I show that \ is isomorphic to (...)
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  25.  94
    Category Induction and Representation.Stevan Harnad - 1987 - In Categorical Perception. Cambridge University Press.
    A provisional model is presented in which categorical perception (CP) provides our basic or elementary categories. In acquiring a category we learn to label or identify positive and negative instances from a sample of confusable alternatives. Two kinds of internal representation are built up in this learning by "acquaintance": (1) an iconic representation that subserves our similarity judgments and (2) an analog/digital feature-filter that picks out the invariant information allowing us to categorize the instances correctly. This second, categorical representation (...)
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  26. A One Category Ontology.L. A. Paul - forthcoming - In John A. Keller (ed.), Being, Freedom, and Method: Themes From the Philosophy of Peter van Inwagen. Oxford University Press.
    I defend a one category ontology: an ontology that denies that we need more than one fundamental category to support the ontological structure of the world. Categorical fundamentality is understood in terms of the metaphysically prior, as that in which everything else in the world consists. One category ontologies are deeply appealing, because their ontological simplicity gives them an unmatched elegance and spareness. I’m a fan of a one category ontology that collapses the distinction between particular (...)
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  27. Category Theory: The Language of Mathematics.Elaine Landry - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):27.
    In this paper I argue that category theory ought to be seen as providing the language for mathematical discourse. Against foundational approaches, I argue that there is no need to reduce either the content or structure of mathematical concepts and theories to the constituents of either the universe of sets or the category of categories. I assign category theory the role of organizing what we say about the content and structure of both mathematical concepts and theories. Insofar, (...)
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  28.  2
    Category and Continuum in Mental Comparisons.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Gregory L. Murphy, Mary E. Bemesderfer & Karen J. Feinstein - 1977 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 106 (4):341-375.
  29. Religion as a Category of Governance and Sovereignty.Trevor Stack, Naomi Goldenberg & Timothy Fitzgerald (eds.) - 2015 - Brill.
    Religious-secular distinctions have been crucial to the way in which modern governments have rationalised their governance and marked out their sovereignty – as crucial as the territorial boundaries that they have drawn around nations. The authors of this volume provide a multi-dimensional picture of how the category of religion has served the ends of modern government. They draw on perspectives from history, anthropology, moral philosophy, theology and religious studies, as well as empirical analysis of India, Japan, Mexico, the United (...)
     
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  30.  16
    Category-Theoretic Aspects of Abstract Elementary Classes.Michael J. Lieberman - 2011 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 162 (11):903-915.
    We highlight connections between accessible categories and abstract elementary classes , and provide a dictionary for translating properties and results between the two contexts. We also illustrate a few applications of purely category-theoretic methods to the study of AECs, with model-theoretically novel results. In particular, the category-theoretic approach yields two surprising consequences: a structure theorem for categorical AECs, and a partial stability spectrum for weakly tame AECs.
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  31.  32
    Category Theory and Physical Structuralism.Benjamin Eva - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (2):231-246.
    As a metaphysical theory, radical ontic structural realism is characterised mainly in terms of the ontological primacy it places on relations and structures, as opposed to the individual relata and objects that inhabit these relations/structures. The most popular criticism of ROSR is that its central thesis is incoherent. Bain attempts to address this criticism by arguing that the mathematical language of category theory allows for a coherent articulation of ROSR’s key thesis. Subsequently, Wüthrich and Lam and Lal and Teh (...)
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  32.  73
    Category Learning and Multiple Memory Systems.F. Gregory Ashby & Jeffrey B. O'Brien - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):83-89.
  33.  29
    Stimulus-Category Competition, Inhibition, and Affective Devaluation: A Novel Account of the Uncanny Valley.Anne E. Ferrey, Tyler J. Burleigh & Mark J. Fenske - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  34.  26
    The Category of Substance.Stephen Engstrom - 2018 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 21 (1):235-260.
    This paper considers a principal concept of metaphysics – the category of substance – as it figures in Kant’s critical program of establishing metaphysics as a science. Like Leibniz, Kant identifies metaphysical concepts through logical reflection on the form of cognitive activity. He thus begins with general logic’s account of categorical judgment as an act of subordinating predicate to subject. This categorical form is then considered in transcendental logic with reference to the possibility of its real use. Transcendental reflection (...)
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  35. Category Theory and the Foundations of Mathematics.J. L. Bell - 1981 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (4):349-358.
  36.  12
    Category Coherence and Category-Based Property Induction.Bob Rehder & Reid Hastie - 2004 - Cognition 91 (2):113-153.
  37.  20
    Category Selectivity of Human Visual Cortex in Perception of Rubin Face–Vase Illusion.Xiaogang Wang, Na Sang, Lei Hao, Yong Zhang, Taiyong Bi & Jiang Qiu - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  38.  62
    Category Transfer in Sequential Causal Learning: The Unbroken Mechanism Hypothesis.York Hagmayer, Björn Meder, Momme von Sydow & Michael R. Waldmann - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (5):842-873.
    The goal of the present set of studies is to explore the boundary conditions of category transfer in causal learning. Previous research has shown that people are capable of inducing categories based on causal learning input, and they often transfer these categories to new causal learning tasks. However, occasionally learners abandon the learned categories and induce new ones. Whereas previously it has been argued that transfer is only observed with essentialist categories in which the hidden properties are causally relevant (...)
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  39. Predicting Tumor Category Using Artificial Neural Networks.Ibrahim M. Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (2):1-7.
    In this paper an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, for predicting the category of a tumor was developed and tested. Taking patients’ tests, a number of information gained that influence the classification of the tumor. Such information as age, sex, histologic-type, degree-of-diffe, status of bone, bone-marrow, lung, pleura, peritoneum, liver, brain, skin, neck, supraclavicular, axillar, mediastinum, and abdominal. They were used as input variables for the ANN model. A model based on the Multilayer Perceptron Topology was established and trained (...)
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  40.  62
    Category Structure Affects the Developmental Trajectory of Children's Inductive Inferences for Both Natural Kinds and Artefacts.Julia R. Badger & Laura R. Shapiro - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (2):206-229.
    Inductive reasoning is fundamental to human cognition, yet it remains unclear how we develop this ability and what might influence our inductive choices. We created novel categories in which crucial factors such as domain and category structure were manipulated orthogonally. We trained 403 4–9-year-old children to categorise well-matched natural kind and artefact stimuli with either featural or relational category structure, followed by induction tasks. This wide age range allowed for the first full exploration of the developmental trajectory of (...)
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  41.  12
    Category Essence or Essentially Pragmatic? Creator’s Intention in Naming and What’s Really What.Barbara C. Malt & Steven A. Sloman - 2007 - Cognition 105 (3):615-648.
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  42.  99
    Category Theory and Concrete Universals.David P. Ellerman - 1988 - Erkenntnis 28 (3):409 - 429.
  43.  69
    A Category of the Human Mind.Marcel Mauss - 1985 - In Michael Carrithers, Steven Collins & Steven Lukes (eds.), The Category of the Person: Anthropology, Philosophy, History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1--25.
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  44.  36
    Category Contingent Aftereffects for Faces of Different Races, Ages and Species.Anthony C. Little, Lisa M. DeBruine, Benedict C. Jones & Corri Waitt - 2008 - Cognition 106 (3):1537-1547.
  45.  4
    Category Learning in Rhesus Monkeys: A Study of the Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) Tasks.J. David Smith, John Paul Minda & David A. Washburn - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133 (3):398-414.
  46.  36
    Category-Specified Value Statements.Sven Ove Hansson - 2006 - Synthese 148 (2):425-432.
    A value statement such as “she is a good teacher” is categoryspecified, i.e., the criteria of evaluation are specified as those that are applicable to a given category, in this case the category of teachers. In this study of categoryspecified value statements, certain categories are identified that cannot be used to specify value aspects. Special attention is paid to categories that are constituted by functional characteristics. The logical properties of value statements that refer to such categories are shown (...)
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  47.  20
    Using Category Structures to Test Iterated Learning as a Method for Identifying Inductive Biases.Thomas L. Griffiths, Brian R. Christian & Michael L. Kalish - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (1):68-107.
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  48.  23
    Fruits, Apples, and Category Mistakes: On Sport, Games, and Play.Angela J. Schneider - 2001 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 28 (2):151-159.
    (2001). Fruits, Apples, and Category Mistakes: On Sport, Games, and Play. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport: Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 151-159. doi: 10.1080/00948705.2001.9714610.
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  49.  11
    Category-Selective Attention Modulates Unconscious Processes in the Middle Occipital Gyrus.Shen Tu, Jiang Qiu, Ulla Martens & Qinglin Zhang - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):479-485.
    Many studies have revealed the top-down modulation on unconscious processing. However, there is little research about how category-selective attention could modulate the unconscious processing. In the present study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging , the results showed that category-selective attention modulated unconscious face/tool processing in the middle occipital gyrus . Interestingly, MOG effects were of opposed direction for face and tool processes. During unconscious face processing, activation in MOG decreased under the face-selective attention compared with tool-selective attention. This (...)
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  50.  23
    Artifact Category Membership and the Intentional-Historical Theory.Barbara C. Malt & Eric C. Johnson - 1998 - Cognition 66 (1):79-85.
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