Results for 'Causal reasoning'

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  1. Causal Reasoning in Physics.Mathias Frisch - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    Much has been written on the role of causal notions and causal reasoning in the so-called 'special sciences' and in common sense. But does causal reasoning also play a role in physics? Mathias Frisch argues that, contrary to what influential philosophical arguments purport to show, the answer is yes. Time-asymmetric causal structures are as integral a part of the representational toolkit of physics as a theory's dynamical equations. Frisch develops his argument partly through a (...)
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  2. Intervention, Causal Reasoning, and the Neurobiology of Mental Disorders: Pharmacological Drugs as Experimental Instruments.Jonathan Y. Tsou - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (2):542-551.
    In psychiatry, pharmacological drugs play an important experimental role in attempts to identify the neurobiological causes of mental disorders. Besides being developed in applied contexts as potential treatments for patients with mental disorders, pharmacological drugs play a crucial role in research contexts as experimental instruments that facilitate the formulation and revision of neurobiological theories of psychopathology. This paper examines the various epistemic functions that pharmacological drugs serve in the discovery, refinement, testing, and elaboration of neurobiological theories of mental disorders. I (...)
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  3. Causal Reasoning and Backtracking.James M. Joyce - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 147 (1):139 - 154.
    I argue that one central aspect of the epistemology of causation, the use of causes as evidence for their effects, is largely independent of the metaphysics of causation. In particular, I use the formalism of Bayesian causal graphs to factor the incremental evidential impact of a cause for its effect into a direct cause-to-effect component and a backtracking component. While the “backtracking” evidence that causes provide about earlier events often obscures things, once we our restrict attention to the cause-to-effect (...)
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  4. Causal Reasoning.Christoph Hoerl - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (2):167-179.
    The main focus of this paper is the question as to what it is for an individual to think of her environment in terms of a concept of causation, or causal concepts, in contrast to some more primitive ways in which an individual might pick out or register what are in fact causal phenomena. I show how versions of this question arise in the context of two strands of work on causation, represented by Elizabeth Anscombe and Christopher Hitchcock, (...)
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  5.  32
    Causal Reasoning Through Intervention.York Hagmayer, Steven A. Sloman, David A. Lagnado & Michael R. Waldmann - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press.
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    Causal Reasoning and Meno’s Paradox.Melvin Chen & Lock Yue Chew - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-9.
    Causal reasoning is an aspect of learning, reasoning, and decision-making that involves the cognitive ability to discover relationships between causal relata, learn and understand these causal relationships, and make use of this causal knowledge in prediction, explanation, decision-making, and reasoning in terms of counterfactuals. Can we fully automate causal reasoning? One might feel inclined, on the basis of certain groundbreaking advances in causal epistemology, to reply in the affirmative. The aim (...)
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    Causal Reasoning with Ancestral Graphical Models.Jiji Zhang - 2008 - Journal of Machine Learning Research 9:1437-1474.
    Causal reasoning is primarily concerned with what would happen to a system under external interventions. In particular, we are often interested in predicting the probability distribution of some random variables that would result if some other variables were forced to take certain values. One prominent approach to tackling this problem is based on causal Bayesian networks, using directed acyclic graphs as causal diagrams to relate post-intervention probabilities to pre-intervention probabilities that are estimable from observational data. However, (...)
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  8. Causal Reasoning and the Diagnostic Process.Dominick A. Rizzi - 1994 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 15 (3):315-333.
    Background: Causal reasoning as a way to make a diagnosis seems convincing. Modern medicine depends on the search for causes of disease and it seems fair to assert that such knowledge is employed in diagnosis. Causal reasoning as it has been presented neglects to some extent the conception of multifactorial disease causes. Goal: The purpose of this paper is to analyze aspects of causation relevant for discussing causal reasoning in a diagnostic context.
     
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  9.  25
    Causal Reasoning and Clinical Practice: Challenges From Molecular Biology.Giovanni Boniolo & Raffaella Campaner - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):423-435.
    Not only has the philosophical debate on causation been gaining ground in the last few decades, but it has also increasingly addressed the sciences. The biomedical sciences are among the most prominent fields that have been considered, with a number of works tackling the understanding of the notion of cause, the assessment of genuinely causal relations and the use of causal knowledge in applied contexts. Far from denying the merits of the debate on causation and the major theories (...)
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  10. Plausible Causal Reasoning: A New Approach to Causal Non-Monotonic Reasoning.Patrick Marchisella - unknown - Australasian Journal of Logic 18 (4).
    Recent work by Marchisella exposed a gap in the literature on causal non-monotonic reasoning: what is needed is an approach whose primary motivation is the formal representation of the way in which humans typically reason with cause and effect. We extend the work of Marchisella, and propose a new type of causal non-monotonic reasoning, _Plausible Causal Reasoning_, which fills the gap in the literature. We propose some new principles which help characterise Plausible Causal (...), and suggest a family of non-monotonic logics which provides a suitable starting point for its formalisation. (shrink)
     
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  11.  32
    Categorization as Causal Reasoning⋆.Bob Rehder - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (5):709-748.
    A theory of categorization is presented in which knowledge of causal relationships between category features is represented in terms of asymmetric and probabilistic causal mechanisms. According to causal‐model theory, objects are classified as category members to the extent they are likely to have been generated or produced by those mechanisms. The empirical results confirmed that participants rated exemplars good category members to the extent their features manifested the expectations that causal knowledge induces, such as correlations between (...)
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  12.  9
    Causal Reasoning with Forces.Phillip Wolff & Aron K. Barbey - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  13.  35
    Causal Reasoning: Philosophy and Experiment.James Woodward - unknown
    This paper explores some interactions between normative/ philosophical/theoretical theorizing about causation and empirical research into causal reasoning and judgment of the sort conducted by psychologists and others. I attempt to extract some general morals regarding the kinds of interactions between the empirical and the more traditionally philosophical that in my experience have been most fruitful. I also compare the experimental work on which I focus with some of the research strategies employed in experimental philosophy.
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  14.  19
    Causal Reasoning as Informed by the Early Development of Explanations.Henry M. Wellman & David Liu - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 261--279.
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    Causal Reasoning in Economics: A Selective Exploration of Semantic, Epistemic and Dynamical Aspects.François Claveau - unknown
    Economists reason causally. Like many other scientists, they aim at formulating justified causal claims about their object of study. This thesis contributes to our understanding of how causal reasoning proceeds in economics. By using the research on the causes of unemployment as a case study, three questions are adressed. What are the meanings of causal claims? How can a causal claim be adequately supported by evidence? How are causal beliefs affected by incoming facts? In (...)
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  16.  8
    Causal Reasoning in Medicine: Analysis of a Protocol.Benjamin Kuipers & Jerome P. Kassirer - 1984 - Cognitive Science 8 (4):363-385.
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  17.  30
    Causal Reasoning About Genetics: Synthesis and Future Directions.Kate E. Lynch, Ilan Dar Nimrod, Paul Edmund Griffiths & James Morandini - 2019 - Behavior Genetics 2 (49):221-234.
    When explaining the causes of human behavior, genes are often given a special status. They are thought to relate to an intrinsic human 'essence', and essentialist biases have been shown to skew the way in which causation is assessed. Causal reasoning in general is subject to other pre-existing biases, including beliefs about normativity and morality. In this synthesis we show how factors which influence causal reasoning can be mapped to a framework of genetic essentialism, which reveals (...)
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  18. ‘The Most Sacred Tenet’? Causal Reasoning in Physics.Mathias Frisch - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (3):459-474.
    According to a view widely held among philosophers of science, the notion of cause has no legitimate role to play in mature theories of physics. In this paper I investigate the role of what physicists themselves identify as causal principles in the derivation of dispersion relations. I argue that this case study constitutes a counterexample to the popular view and that causal principles can function as genuine factual constraints. Introduction Causality and Dispersion Relations Norton's Skepticism Conclusion.
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  19.  97
    Causal Reasoning, Causal Probabilities, and Conceptions of Causation.Isabelle Drouet - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (4):761-768.
    The present paper deals with the tools that can be used to represent causation and to reason about it and, specifically, with their diversity. It focuses on so-called “causal probabilities”—that is, probabilities of effects given one of their causes—and critically surveys a recent paper in which Joyce argues that the values of these probabilities do not depend on one’s conception of causation. I first establish a stronger independence claim: I show that the very definition of causal probabilities is (...)
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  20.  11
    Causal Reasoning, Mental Rehearsal, and the Evolution of Primate Cognition.Robin Im Dunbar - 2000 - In Celia Heyes & Ludwig Huber (eds.), The Evolution of Cognition. MIT Press.
  21.  51
    Causal Reasoning in Physics.Jenann Ismael - 2016 - Philosophical Review Recent Issues 125 (3):431-435.
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  22.  4
    Structure Induction in Diagnostic Causal Reasoning.Björn Meder, Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2014 - Psychological Review 121 (3):277-301.
  23.  56
    Heritability and Causal Reasoning.Kate Lynch - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (1):25-49.
    Gene–environment covariance is the phenomenon whereby genetic differences bias variation in developmental environment, and is particularly problematic for assigning genetic and environmental causation in a heritability analysis. The interpretation of these cases has differed amongst biologists and philosophers, leading some to reject the utility of heritability estimates altogether. This paper examines the factors that influence causal reasoning when G–E covariance is present, leading to interpretive disagreement between scholars. It argues that the causal intuitions elicited are influenced by (...)
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  24. Causal Reasoning About Complex Physiological-Mechanisms by Novices.Vl Patel, Gj Groen & As Chawla - 1988 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (6):491-491.
     
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  25.  17
    The Collider Principle in Causal Reasoning: Why the Monty Hall Dilemma Is So Hard.Bruce D. Burns & Mareike Wieth - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133 (3):434-449.
  26.  12
    A Process Model of Causal Reasoning.Zachary J. Davis & Bob Rehder - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (5).
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  27.  51
    Causal Bayes Nets as Psychological Theories of Causal Reasoning: Evidence From Psychological Research.York Hagmayer - 2016 - Synthese 193 (4):1107-1126.
    Causal Bayes nets have been developed in philosophy, statistics, and computer sciences to provide a formalism to represent causal structures, to induce causal structure from data and to derive predictions. Causal Bayes nets have been used as psychological theories in at least two ways. They were used as rational, computational models of causal reasoning and they were used as formal models of mental causal models. A crucial assumption made by them is the Markov (...)
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  28. Manipulating Morality: Third‐Party Intentions Alter Moral Judgments by Changing Causal Reasoning.Jonathan Phillips & Alex Shaw - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (8):1320-1347.
    The present studies investigate how the intentions of third parties influence judgments of moral responsibility for other agents who commit immoral acts. Using cases in which an agent acts under some situational constraint brought about by a third party, we ask whether the agent is blamed less for the immoral act when the third party intended for that act to occur. Study 1 demonstrates that third-party intentions do influence judgments of blame. Study 2 finds that third-party intentions only influence moral (...)
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  29.  19
    Technology Led to More Abstract Causal Reasoning.Peter Gärdenfors & Marlize Lombard - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (4):1-23.
    Many animal species use tools, but human technical engagement is more complex. We argue that there is coevolution between technical engagement and advanced forms of causal cognition in the human lineage. As an analytic tool, we present a classification of different forms of causal thinking. Human causal thinking has become detached from space and time, so that instead of just reacting to perceptual input, our minds can simulate actions and forces and their causal consequences. Our main (...)
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  30.  51
    From Colliding Billiard Balls to Colluding Desperate Housewives: Causal Bayes Nets as Rational Models of Everyday Causal Reasoning.York Hagmayer & Magda Osman - 2012 - Synthese 189 (S1):17-28.
    Many of our decisions pertain to causal systems. Nevertheless, only recently has it been claimed that people use causal models when making judgments, decisions and predictions, and that causal Bayes nets allow us to formally describe these inferences. Experimental research has been limited to simple, artificial problems, which are unrepresentative of the complex dynamic systems we successfully deal with in everyday life. For instance, in social interactions, we can explain the actions of other's on the fly and (...)
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  31. Philosophical Perspectives on Causal Reasoning in Biology.C. Kenneth Waters & James Woodward (eds.) - forthcoming - University of Minnesota Press.
  32.  25
    Hume on Nonhuman Animals, Causal Reasoning, and General Thoughts.Ryo Tanaka - 2021 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 59 (2):205-229.
    The Southern Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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    Review of Mathias Frisch's Causal Reasoning in Physics. [REVIEW]Matt Farr - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (4).
    Review of 'Causal Reasoning in Physics' by Mathias Frisch for British Journal for Philosophy of Science.
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  34.  16
    Behavior Genetic Frameworks of Causal Reasoning for Personality Psychology.Daniel Briley, Jonathan Livengood & Jaime Derringer - 2018 - European Journal of Personality 32 (3).
    Identifying causal relations from correlational data is a fundamental challenge in personality psychology. In most cases, random assignment is not feasible, leaving observational studies as the primary methodological tool. Here, we document several techniques from behavior genetics that attempt to demonstrate causality. Although no one method is conclusive at ruling out all possible confounds, combining techniques can triangulate on causal relations. Behavior genetic tools leverage information gained by sampling pairs of individuals with assumed genetic and environmental relatedness or (...)
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  35. Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference.Judea Pearl - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    Causality offers the first comprehensive coverage of causal analysis in many sciences, including recent advances using graphical methods. Pearl presents a unified account of the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual and structural approaches to causation, and devises simple mathematical tools for analyzing the relationships between causal connections, statistical associations, actions and observations. The book will open the way for including causal analysis in the standard curriculum of statistics, artificial intelligence, business, epidemiology, social science and economics.
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  36. Commentary on Mathias Frisch's Causal Reasoning in Physics.Ney Alyssa - manuscript
    This is a commentary on Mathias Frisch's book Causal Reasoning in Physics (Cambridge 2014). This commentary was presented at the 2016 Pacific Division Meeting of the American Philosophical Association in a session sponsored by the Society for the Metaphysics of Science.
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  37.  57
    Children's Use of Counterfactual Thinking in Causal Reasoning.Paul L. Harris, Tim German & Patrick Mills - 1996 - Cognition 61 (3):233-259.
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  38. Logic and Causal Reasoning.Paul Needham - 1994
     
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  39.  38
    Variations in Causal Reasoning Causality and Causal Modelling in the Social Sciences: Measuring Variations.Jaakko Kuorikoski - 2011 - Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (3):301-305.
  40.  24
    Combining Social Concepts: The Role of Causal Reasoning.Ziva Kunda, Dale T. Miller & Theresa Claire - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14 (4):551-577.
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  41.  31
    The Ways of the Wise: Hume’s Rules of Causal Reasoning.Deborah Boyle - 2012 - Hume Studies 38 (2):157-182.
    In Hume’s own day, and for nearly two hundred years after that, readers interested in his account of causal reasoning tended to focus on the skeptical implications of that account. For example, in his 1757 View of the Principal Deistical Writers of the Last and Present Century, John Leland characterized Hume as “endeavouring to destroy all reasoning, from causes to effects, or from effects to causes.”1 According to this sort of reading, as Louis Loeb describes it, “there (...)
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  42.  27
    A Quantum Probability Model of Causal Reasoning.Jennifer S. Trueblood & Jerome R. Busemeyer - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
  43. A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework for Understanding Causal Reasoning and the Law.Jonathan A. Fugelsang & Kevin N. Dunbar - 2006 - In Semir Zeki & Oliver Goodenough (eds.), Law and the Brain. Oxford University Press. pp. 157--166.
  44. Why Attention is Not Explanation: Surgical Intervention and Causal Reasoning About Neural Models.Christopher Grimsley, Elijah Mayfield & Julia Bursten - 2020 - Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation.
    As the demand for explainable deep learning grows in the evaluation of language technologies, the value of a principled grounding for those explanations grows as well. Here we study the state-of-the-art in explanation for neural models for natural-language processing (NLP) tasks from the viewpoint of philosophy of science. We focus on recent evaluation work that finds brittleness in explanations obtained through attention mechanisms.We harness philosophical accounts of explanation to suggest broader conclusions from these studies. From this analysis, we assert the (...)
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  45.  20
    Artificial Intelligence Is Stupid and Causal Reasoning Will Not Fix It.J. Mark Bishop - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Artificial Neural Networks have reached “grandmaster” and even “super-human” performance across a variety of games, from those involving perfect information, such as Go, to those involving imperfect information, such as “Starcraft”. Such technological developments from artificial intelligence labs have ushered concomitant applications across the world of business, where an “AI” brand-tag is quickly becoming ubiquitous. A corollary of such widespread commercial deployment is that when AI gets things wrong—an autonomous vehicle crashes, a chatbot exhibits “racist” behavior, automated credit-scoring processes “discriminate” (...)
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    Hierarchical Bayesian Models as Formal Models of Causal Reasoning.York Hagmayer & Ralf Mayrhofer - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):36 - 45.
    (2013). Hierarchical Bayesian models as formal models of causal reasoning. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 36-45. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2012.700321.
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  47.  1
    Manipulating Morality: Third-Party Intentions Alter Moral Judgments by Changing Causal Reasoning.Jonathan Phillips & Alex Shaw - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (6):1320-1347.
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  48.  58
    Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference.Christopher Hitchcock & Judea Pearl - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (4):639.
    Judea Pearl has been at the forefront of research in the burgeoning field of causal modeling, and Causality is the culmination of his work over the last dozen or so years. For philosophers of science with a serious interest in causal modeling, Causality is simply mandatory reading. Chapter 2, in particular, addresses many of the issues familiar from works such as Causation, Prediction and Search by Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines. But philosophers with a more general (...)
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  49. Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference.Judea Pearl - 2000 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 64 (1):201-202.
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  50.  12
    The Special Status of Actions in Causal Reasoning in Rats.Kenneth J. Leising, Jared Wong, Michael R. Waldmann & Aaron P. Blaisdell - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (3):514-527.
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