Yüzyıllardır tartışılagelen zihin-beden sorunu, günümüzde bilinç ve beyin arasındaki etkileşim problemi olarak ele alınmaktadır. Ortaya konan nörolojik verilerden hareketle, tamamen maddi bir organ olan beyin ile fiziksel özellikler taşımayan bilinç arasında, nasıl bir ilişki olduğunu açıklamak için felsefi kuramlar ileri sürülmektedir. Bu kuramlardan bazıları, bilinç ile beynin birbirinden tamamen bağımsız olduğunu iddia eden düalist kuramlardır. Bazıları ise, bu bağımsızlığı reddederek ikisinden birini diğerine indirgeme yolu ile çözüme ulaşmaya çalışan monist kuramlardır. Bu çalışmada, beyin-bilinç ilişkisini açıklamaya çalışan çağdaş felsefi kuramlar ele (...) alınacaktır. (shrink)
Bilinç ile beyin arasındaki ilişki, düşünce tarihi boyunca tartışma konusu olmuştur. Son yüzyıla kadar zihin-beden ya da ruh-madde gibi kavramlarla anılan bu mesele, nörolojinin ivme kazanmasıyla birlikte beyin ve bilinç arasındaki ilişkiye indirgenmiştir. Bu bağlamda, insanın beyninde ortaya çıkan bilinçlilik durumunun, başka bir deyişle fenomenal deneyimlerin, nasıl meydana geldiği ve beyin ile bilincin birbirlerini nasıl etkiledikleri, hem bilimsel verilerle hem de bu verilerden hareketle ortaya konan felsefi yaklaşımlarla açıklanmaya çalışılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, beyin ve bilinç arasındaki etkileşim sorununun nörolojinin verilerinden hareketle (...) nasıl ele alındığı incelenecektir. (shrink)
IntroductionDue to the actual limitation of training conditions, the freestyle skiing aerials winter training term is short. Training tasks such as adaptability training and developing new skills are needed in summer training. When facing different training environments, freestyle skiing aerial athletes’ executive control over their abilities could be affected, which can affect their performance. Therefore, we want to research the effect of training conditions on executive control in freestyle skiing aerials athletes and its neural mechanism.Materials and methodsThirty-two freestyle skiing aerials (...) athletes were recruited. We evaluated their executive control and used fNIRS to measure oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex during a rapid event-related design go/nogo task with different training condition-activated materials.ResultsAthletes’ behavior control in the summer condition has a lower accuracy than it is in the control condition. Athletes’ behavior control in the summer and winter training conditions had a longer reaction time than that in the control condition. The activation of the bilateral dlPFC and orbitofrontal cortex had a significant main effect across training conditions when freestyle skiing aerial athletes completed executive control tasks. The activation of athletes’ bilateral vlPFC and left dlPFC had an interaction between training conditions and behavioral control.ConclusionDifferent training conditions can lead to freestyle skiing aerial athletes executive control ability to drop, players in different training conditions show less activation on both sides of the vlPFC and orbitofrontal. The bilateral vlPFC and left dlPFC have an integrated effect on behavior inhibition across training conditions. (shrink)
To oni przywrócili pamięć o Norwidzie -- W poszukiwaniu formuły Norwidowskiego poematu. Trudny przypadek Szczesnej -- Norwid oczami młodzieży szkolnej, czyli jak pracujemy nad tekstami poety w jednym z warszawskich liceów -- "Tyś nie śmierci łup!" - Krasiński o Norwidzie -- "Nadzieja jest z prawdy" - o jednym cytacie z Norwida i jego znaczeniu w myśli Józefa Tischnera -- Kobiety-władczynie, czyli rzecz o Wandzie i Kleopatrze. Norwidowska "kwestia kobieca" w perspektywie feministycznej -- Literacka i filmowa przestrzeń Norwida (wstępny rekonesans) -- (...) Tak umiera poeta. Cyprian Kamil Norwid w Domu Św. Kazimierza -- Cyprian Kamil NOrwid na plakatach -- Warszawskim szlakiem Cypriana Kamila Norwida -- Rysunki i grafiki C.K. Norwida -- Dwór w Głuchach - Muzeum Norwida. Pałac w Dębinkach - nowo utworzone Muzeum Norwida -- Norwid w muzyce. Pieśni zadumy i nostalgii Krzysztofa Pendereckiego i opera-misterium Wanda Joanny Wnuk-Nazarowej. (shrink)
Lawami' al-Nazar fi Tahqiq Ma'ani al-Mukhtasar is Aḥmad b. Ya'qub al-Wallali's commentary on al-Sanusi's compendium of logic, al-Mukhtasar. Al-Wallali was the first commentator on al-Sanusi's compendium after the author's autocommentary. In this publication, Ibrahim Safri offers a critical edition of this work, together with a study of the author's life and oeuvre. Safri also tries to show the indirect influence of Avicennism on logic in the Maghribi tradition in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On the basis of his writings on (...) logic and philosophical theology, al-Wallali was considered a master of rational sciences by his contemporaries. (shrink)
A major controversy in the study of the "Analects" has been over the relation between two central concepts, ren (humanity, human excellence) and li (rites, rituals of propriety). Confucius seems to have said inconsistent things about this relation. Some passages appear to suggest that ren is more fundamental than li, while others seem to imply the contrary. It is therefore not surprising that there have been different interpretations and characterizations of this relation. Using the analogy of language grammar and mastery (...) of a language, it is proposed here that we should understand li as a cultural grammar and ren as the mastery of a culture. In this account, society cultivates its members through li toward the goal of ren, and persons of ren manifest their human excellence through their practice of li. (shrink)
This book analyses and defends the deflationist claim that there is nothing deep about our notion of truth. According to this view, truth is a 'light' and innocent concept, devoid of any essence which could be revealed by scientific inquiry. Cezary Cieśliński considers this claim in light of recent formal results on axiomatic truth theories, which are crucial for understanding and evaluating the philosophical thesis of the innocence of truth. Providing an up-to-date discussion and original perspectives on this central (...) and controversial issue, his book will be important for those with a background in logic who are interested in formal truth theories and in current philosophical debates about the deflationary conception of truth. (shrink)
The paper offers a theoretical investigation into the sources of normativity in practical argumentation. The chief question is: Do we need objectively-minded, unbiased arguers or can we count on “good” argumentative processes in which individual biases cancel each other out? I address this question by analysing a detailed structure of practical argument and its varieties, and by discussing the tenets of a comparative approach to practical reason. I argue that given the comparative structure proposed, reasoned advocacy in argumentative activity upholds (...) reasonableness whenever that activity is adequately designed. I propose some basic rules for such a design of practical argumentation. (shrink)
This article addresses the question whether skiing as a nature sport enables practitioners to develop a rapport with nature, or rather estranges and insulates them from their mountainous ambiance. To address this question, I analyse a recent skiing movie from a psychoanalytical perspective and from a neuro-scientific perspective. I conclude that Jean-Paul Sartre’s classical but egocentric account of his skiing experiences disavows the technicity involved in contemporary skiing as a sportive practice for the affluent masses, which actually represents an urbanisation (...) of the sublime, symptomatic for the current era. (shrink)
Conservativeness has been proposed as an important requirement for deflationary truth theories. This in turn gave rise to the so-called ‘conservativeness argument’ against deflationism: a theory of truth which is conservative over its base theory S cannot be adequate, because it cannot prove that all theorems of S are true. In this paper we show that the problems confronting the deflationist are in fact more basic: even the observation that logic is true is beyond his reach. This seems to conflict (...) with the deflationary characterization of the role of the truth predicate in proving generalizations. However, in the final section we propose a way out for the deflationist — a solution that permits him to accept a strong theory, having important truth-theoretical generalizations as its theorems. (shrink)
One of the popular explications of the deflationary tenet of ‘thinness’ of truth is the conservativeness demand: the declaration that a deflationary truth theory should be conservative over its base. This paper contains a critical discussion and assessment of this demand. We ask and answer the question of whether conservativity forms a part of deflationary doctrines.
Locke’s theory of property is irreconcilable with intellectual property. Property-like titles in ideal objects cannot be introduced within the framework of the natural law, because they could constrain others from acts necessary for their survival. Nevertheless, followers of Locke’s theory of politics choose to belittle this conclusion and even Locke himself supported early copyright legislation. The inconsistency is important, for it depicts the problem of legitimization of intellectual property as political and demonstrates liberal reification of various aspects of social life.
We investigate what happens when ‘truth’ is replaced with ‘provability’ in Yablo’s paradox. By diagonalization, appropriate sequences of sentences can be constructed. Such sequences contain no sentence decided by the background consistent and sufficiently strong arithmetical theory. If the provability predicate satisfies the derivability conditions, each such sentence is provably equivalent to the consistency statement and to the Gödel sentence. Thus each two such sentences are provably equivalent to each other. The same holds for the arithmetization of the existential Yablo (...) paradox. We also look at a formulation which employs Rosser’s provability predicate. (shrink)
Li Zehou stands among the most influential Chinese philosophers in the post-Mao era. His notion of subjectality is of paramount importance for current developments in contemporary Chinese philosophy. It belongs to the central concepts in Li's theoretical framework, around which his entire philosophical system is constructed. With his elaboration of this concept, Li expanded the problem of the self in post-revolutionary modernism. The present article analyzes the theoretical bases of this concept, exposes its importance in the scope of contemporary Chinese (...) theory and shows why and how it represents a call for a new humanism. Through a multidimensional comparative perspective, the author also explains why the human subject, which is based upon Li's notion of subjectality, has the potential not only to transform modern alienation into a real “human condition,” that is, into spiritually fulfilled society of autonomous individuals but also to fill up the prevailing “vacuum of values.”. (shrink)