ABSTRACTNumerous studies have found that shame increases individuals’ anger at others. However, according to recent theories about the social function of shame and anger at others, it is possible that shame controls individuals’ anger at others in specific conditions. We replicated previous findings that shame increased individuals’ anger at others’ unfairness, when others were not aware of the individual’s experience of shameful events. We also found for the first time that shame controlled or even decreased individuals’ anger at others’ unfairness, (...) when others were aware of the individual’s experience of shameful events. The results were consistent when shame was induced by either a recall paradigm or an imagination paradigm, and in either the ultimatum game or the dictator game. This suggests that shame strategically controls individuals’ anger at others to demonstrate that they are willing to benefit others, when facing the risk of social exclusion. Our findings highlight the interpersonal function of... (shrink)
Loving-kindness meditation was first practiced by Buddhists and then developed by clinical psychologist. Previous studies on LKM have mainly focused on the impact of real person-guided meditation on depression, anxiety, and other negative psychology. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this study explored the effect and mechanism of media-guided LKM on the improvement of social presence, mindfulness, spirituality, and subjective wellbeing. From the viewpoint of positive psychology, this study compared the different media effects of animated pedagogical agent -guided LKM and audio-guided LKM. (...) A total of 82 flight attendants were recruited from airlines; then, they were randomly assigned to two groups: APA group and audio group, which both underwent an 8-week LKM training intervention. The aforementioned four main variables were measured pre and post the meditation experiment. The results indicated that both APA-guided meditation and audio-guided meditation significantly improved subjects’ spirituality and SWB. Compared with audio-guided meditation, APA-guided meditation significantly improved the subjects’ spirituality, SWB, and social presence. Audio-guided meditation has no significant effect on social presence. This study highlights APA-guided meditation has a positive effect on spirituality, SWB, and social presence, which may provide individuals with a simple and easy method to improve their mental health. (shrink)
ObjectiveThis study explores the relationship between physical exercise and school adaptation of junior middle school students and constructs a chain intermediary model through the intermediary role of psychological resilience and sports learning motivation.MethodsUsing the stratified cluster sampling method, 930 junior middle school students in Anhui Province were measured in group psychology by using the physical exercise rating scale, adolescent psychological resilience scale, physical learning motivation scale and school adaptation scale. The statistical software SPSS 23.0 and process plug-in were used for (...) statistical processing, and the common method deviation test was carried out by Harman single-factor control method. Finally, the bootstrap sampling test method and process plug-in were used to test the significance of intermediary effect.Results The direct prediction effect of physical exercise on school adaptation is remarkable ; psychological resilience and sports learning motivation are the intermediary variables of the relationship between physical exercise and school adaptation; psychological resilience and sports learning motivation play a chain mediation role in the relationship between physical exercise and school adaptation. The intermediary effect is composed of three indirect effects: physical exercise → psychological resilience → school adaptation, physical exercise → physical learning motivation → school adaptation, physical exercise → psychological resilience → physical learning motivation → school adaptation.ConclusionsPhysical exercise can directly improve the school adaptation of junior middle school students, which can also affect junior middle school students’ school adaptation indirectly through psychological resilience or sports learning motivation, and it can influence school adaptation through the chain mediation of psychological resilience and sports learning motivation. (shrink)
Previous studies with Westerners have found that both the mouth and eyes are crucial in identifying and interpreting smiles. We proposed that Easterners (e.g., Chinese and Japanese) evaluate the role of the mouth and eyes in smiles differently from Westerners. Individuals in collectivistic Eastern society heavily rely on information from the eyes to identify and interpret the meaning of smiles.
We designed an experiment to test the application of optimality theory (OT) in kinship terminology studies. Specifically, we examined the OT constraints within a set of behavioral data using Chinese kin terms. The results from this behavioral approach support and extend Jones' linguistic approach by identifying underlying cognitive mechanisms that can explain and predict behavioral responses in kinship identification.
Creativity is so important for social and technological development that people are eager to find an easy way to enhance it. Previous studies have shown that mindfulness has significant effects on positive affect, working memory capacity, cognitive flexibility and many other aspects, which are the key to promoting creativity. However, there are few studies on the relationship between mindfulness and creativity. The mechanism between mindfulness and creativity is still uncertain. Meditation is an important method of mindfulness training, but for most (...) people who do not have the basic training, it’s difficult to master how to get into a state of mindfulness. Animation has been shown by many studies to help improve cognition and is often used as a guiding tool. Using animation as the guiding carrier of meditation is more convenient and easier to accept. Therefore, this study adopted the intervention method of animation-guided meditation, aiming to explore: the effect of animation-guided meditation on enhancing creativity; the role of flow and emotion in the influence of mindfulness on creativity. We advertised recruitment through the internal network of a creative industrial park, and the final 95 eligible participants were divided into two groups: animation and audio guided meditation. The animation group was given an animated meditation intervention, and the audio group was given an audio meditation intervention, both interventions were performed 3 times a week and last for 8 weeks. Results: Animation-guided meditation significantly increased participants’ mindfulness and creativity levels; Significantly reduced their cognitive load compared to audio-guided meditation. Mindfulness has a significant direct effect on creativity, and significant indirect effects on creativity; Flow and PA act as the mediating variable. Conclusion: Mindfulness, flow, and PA all helped to improve the subjects’ work creativity. In addition to the direct positive impact of mindfulness on creativity, mindfulness can also have an indirect positive impact on creativity through flow and PA. Compared with audio, animation can significantly reduce cognitive load and help improve users’ cognitive ability, which is more suitable for the guidance materials of mindfulness meditation to enhance the effect of meditation. (shrink)
This study aims to explore the relationship between physical exercise, self-control, physical exercise atmosphere, and mobile phone addiction tendency among Chinese university students. Through the quota sampling, 1,433 students complied with the requirements were surveyed from 10 universities in China. PE, SC, PEA, and MPAT were assessed using standard scales. For data analysis, common method deviation test, mean number, standard deviation, correlation analysis and structural equation model analysis were carried out in turn. The results showed PE and MPAT were negatively (...) related. The interaction item PEA and SC could significantly positively predict the tendency of MPAT. In the high PEA group, SC had a significant negative predictive effect on the tendency of MPAT ; However, in the low PEA group, the negative predictive effect was stronger. The present study shows that PE significantly negatively predicted the tendency of MPAT, and SC played a complete mediating role in the relationship between PE and MPAT; The second half of the indirect effect of PE and MPAT was regulated by the PEA. The PEA will enhance the influence of SC on MPAT, but the high PEA will increase the level of MPAT of individuals at a very high level of SC. (shrink)
Complex adaptation systems are the main development direction of China’s current green innovation research. New material industry is one of the key entry points to accelerate the construction of modern industrial system and promote innovation, green, and efficient development. Under the requirements of China’s current low-carbon development, China’s green innovation system is developing rapidly. Green innovation complicates traditional innovation models and their functions and improves economic development. The purpose of this paper is to study the theoretical analysis framework of applying (...) complex adaptive systems and to analyze and calculate the characteristics of the current status of green innovation systems in multiple industries in China’s manufacturing industry. Analysis is as follows. The experimental group and the control group are set for comparison, and the data are organized by applying complex adaptive system theory and data analysis methods. Experimental data show that the coordinated development of the green innovation systems in various industries in China is not balanced, with a difference of more than three times; the parameters of the various green innovation systems within the industry are unbalanced, and the difference is more than five times. The experimental results show that the green innovation subject can strategically interact by adjusting the ratio of resource allocation through the constructed green innovation system model. The green innovation system with complex adaptive system theory is conducive to the development of the green system. It can save about 23% of green innovation time and improve efficiency by about 15%, to promote the development of green innovation in China. (shrink)
Confronted with the decline of Western hegemony, the post-Great-War American society witnessed a prevailing trend of racism represented by Lothrop Stoddard, who proposed to suppress the nationalist movements in Asia and completely prohibit the immigration of Asians into the United States to maintain white supremacy across the world. His racist discourse also constituted the historical context of Sun Yat-sen’s speech to The Kobe Chamber of Commerce. Unlike previous studies of the speech that focused on Sun’s expression of “Greater Asianism,” this (...) paper examines his critical remarks on Stoddard, intending to explore the intellectual origin of the renewed outlook held by Sun on Chinese culture in his later years, as he intentionally misinterpreted Stoddard’s main idea as cultural revolt, neutralied such notions as biological determination and human inequality, and replaced white supremacy with the ascendancy of Chinese culture by emphasizing its originality, historical unity and moral superiority. On the very basis, Sun presented an alternative mode of modern civilization that diverged from the Euro-centric capitalist modernity. Echoing various anti-capitalist and counter-enlightenment thoughts of this period, Sun’s proposal could be taken as an integral part of the “new cultural conservatism” promoted by Chinese intellectuals in the 1920s. (shrink)
A double delayed hybrid stochastic prey-predator bioeconomic system with Lévy jumps is established and analyzed, where commercial harvesting on prey and environmental stochasticity on population dynamics are considered. Two discrete time delays are utilized to represent the maturation delay of prey and gestation delay of predator, respectively. For a deterministic system, positivity of solutions and uniform persistence of system are discussed. Some sufficient conditions associated with double time delays are derived to discuss asymptotic stability of interior equilibrium. For a stochastic (...) system, existence and uniqueness of a global positive solution are studied. By using the invariant measure theory and singular boundary theory of diffusion process, existence of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and stochastic stability are investigated. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions, asymptotic dynamic behavior of the proposed hybrid stochastic system with double time delays and Lévy jumps is discussed. Numerical simulations are provided to show consistency with theoretical analysis. (shrink)
Objective: This study aimed to contribute to understanding the mechanisms underlying the association between empowering motivational climate in physical education and social responsibility among high school students, and have important implications for interventions aimed at improving social responsibility among high school students.Methods: Through the quota sampling, 802 students that complied with the requirements were surveyed from Anhui Province in China. Empowering motivational climate in physical education, social responsibility, interpersonal disturbance, and general self-efficacy were assessed using standard scales. For data analysis, (...) Pearson’s correlation analysis, structural equation model test, and bias-corrected percentile Bootstrap method were carried out in turn.Results: Common method biases can be accepted in this study, and the correlation among empowering motivational climate in physical education, social responsibility, interpersonal disturbance, and general self-efficacy are all significant; Empowering motivational climate in physical education, interpersonal disturbance and general self-efficacy can all predict social responsibility significantly; Structural equation modeling indicates good fit: χ2/df = 2.86, RMESA = 0.068, CFI = 0.92, NNFI = 0.91, NFI = 0.90, GFI = 0.93. It indicates that interpersonal disturbance and general self-efficacy can play mediating roles between empowering motivational climate in physical education and social responsibility, respectively. After that, interpersonal disturbance as well as general self-efficacy in turn plays the chain mediating effect in the relationship between empowering motivational climate in physical education and social responsibility. The effect size of the mediating effect of interpersonal disturbance and general self-efficacy in the relationship between empowering motivational climate in physical education and social responsibility is 0.048 and 0.148, respectively, and the effect size of the chain mediating effect is 0.031.Conclusion: Empowering motivational climate in physical education not only has a direct effect on social responsibility among high school students, but also influences social responsibility by the chain mediating effect of interpersonal disturbance and general self-efficacy. (shrink)
Fraud can cause severe financial losses and affect the physical and mental health of victims. This study aimed to explore the manipulative characteristics of fraudsters and their relationship with other psychological variables. Thirty-four fraudsters were selected from a medium-security prison in China, and thirty-one healthy participants were recruited online. Both groups completed an emotional face-recognition task and self-report measures assaying emotional manipulation, psychopathy, emotion recognition, and empathy. Results showed that imprisoned fraudsters had higher accuracy in identifying fear and surprise faces (...) but lower accuracy in identifying happiness than controls. Significantly lower scores on non-prosocial factors on the Managing the Emotions of Others scale were found for imprisoned fraudsters, relative to controls. Imprisoned fraudsters had low scores in the assessment of psychopathy than the control group, especially Factor 1. For empathy, imprisoned fraudsters had significantly higher scores in perspective-taking than controls. Correlation analyses revealed that psychopathic traits were positively correlated with non-prosocial factors in both groups. However, the relationships between emotional manipulation and emotional recognition and empathy were not consistent across the groups. The results suggest that fraudsters may pretend to be as prosocial as healthy controls, who had lower antisocial tendencies, normal empathy ability, and would like to manipulate others’ emotions positively during social interaction. (shrink)