ABSTRACTNumerous studies have found that shame increases individuals’ anger at others. However, according to recent theories about the social function of shame and anger at others, it is possible that shame controls individuals’ anger at others in specific conditions. We replicated previous findings that shame increased individuals’ anger at others’ unfairness, when others were not aware of the individual’s experience of shameful events. We also found for the first time that shame controlled or even decreased individuals’ anger at others’ unfairness, (...) when others were aware of the individual’s experience of shameful events. The results were consistent when shame was induced by either a recall paradigm or an imagination paradigm, and in either the ultimatum game or the dictator game. This suggests that shame strategically controls individuals’ anger at others to demonstrate that they are willing to benefit others, when facing the risk of social exclusion. Our findings highlight the interpersonal function of... (shrink)
Previous studies with Westerners have found that both the mouth and eyes are crucial in identifying and interpreting smiles. We proposed that Easterners (e.g., Chinese and Japanese) evaluate the role of the mouth and eyes in smiles differently from Westerners. Individuals in collectivistic Eastern society heavily rely on information from the eyes to identify and interpret the meaning of smiles.
This article introduces the design and control performance of a lightweight, flexible, 4-degree-of-freedom parallel robot for percutaneous biopsy guided by computed tomography. At present, the CT guidance method allows surgeons to quickly locate the lesion area; however, it is necessary to manually adjust the position of the puncture needle for insertion. In this paper, a three-dimensional assisted method is used to infer the control input required to reach the target point through the kinematic model of the robot. A Kalman filter (...) is designed to estimate model parameters and obtain a more accurate model. To further improve the control performance of the robot system, a model-based control method—the model predictive control controller—is used to increase the accuracy of the needle position in the developed robot system. In this way, medical efficiency is improved while reducing the burden on the surgeon. (shrink)
: In order to lay the foundation for the exploration of shale gas, logging data was used to calculate the total organic carbon of the Shahezi Formation source rocks in the Xujiaweizi Fault Depression in the Songliao Basin. Because the source rocks in the study area were formed in a lacustrine basin, they are characterized by strong organic heterogeneity, making it difficult to objectively characterize any changes in the TOC of the underground source rocks based on discrete and limited sampling. (...) In addition, the logging response features of high natural gamma, medium-high interval transit time, and medium-low resistivity of the source rocks, making it easily identified. However, as the logging parameters to predict the TOC of source rocks are not universal, it is impossible to establish a prediction equation that is universally applicable. To solve the above problems, the variable-coefficient ΔLgR technique was used to predict the TOC of the source rocks in the study area. Two key parameters that affect the TOC prediction in the classic ΔLgR technique were defined as the undetermined coefficients, and were determined according to the logging and geological data of the individual well. The variable-coefficient ΔLgR technique has an average relative error of 17.5% in the prediction of the TOC, which is 16.1% lower than that of the classic ΔLgR technique. Based on the logging evaluation results for the TOC of source rocks in 35 wells throughout the study area, the thickness of the high-quality source rocks in the 4th member of the Shahezi Formation was mapped. The thickness of the high-quality source rocks in the 4th member of the Shahezi Formation is generally >30 m. There are 2 centers of greater thickness in the plane, with the maximum thickness over 70 m. (shrink)
We designed an experiment to test the application of optimality theory (OT) in kinship terminology studies. Specifically, we examined the OT constraints within a set of behavioral data using Chinese kin terms. The results from this behavioral approach support and extend Jones' linguistic approach by identifying underlying cognitive mechanisms that can explain and predict behavioral responses in kinship identification.
Confronted with the decline of Western hegemony, the post-Great-War American society witnessed a prevailing trend of racism represented by Lothrop Stoddard, who proposed to suppress the nationalist movements in Asia and completely prohibit the immigration of Asians into the United States to maintain white supremacy across the world. His racist discourse also constituted the historical context of Sun Yat-sen’s speech to The Kobe Chamber of Commerce. Unlike previous studies of the speech that focused on Sun’s expression of “Greater Asianism,” this (...) paper examines his critical remarks on Stoddard, intending to explore the intellectual origin of the renewed outlook held by Sun on Chinese culture in his later years, as he intentionally misinterpreted Stoddard’s main idea as cultural revolt, neutralied such notions as biological determination and human inequality, and replaced white supremacy with the ascendancy of Chinese culture by emphasizing its originality, historical unity and moral superiority. On the very basis, Sun presented an alternative mode of modern civilization that diverged from the Euro-centric capitalist modernity. Echoing various anti-capitalist and counter-enlightenment thoughts of this period, Sun’s proposal could be taken as an integral part of the “new cultural conservatism” promoted by Chinese intellectuals in the 1920s. (shrink)
A double delayed hybrid stochastic prey-predator bioeconomic system with Lévy jumps is established and analyzed, where commercial harvesting on prey and environmental stochasticity on population dynamics are considered. Two discrete time delays are utilized to represent the maturation delay of prey and gestation delay of predator, respectively. For a deterministic system, positivity of solutions and uniform persistence of system are discussed. Some sufficient conditions associated with double time delays are derived to discuss asymptotic stability of interior equilibrium. For a stochastic (...) system, existence and uniqueness of a global positive solution are studied. By using the invariant measure theory and singular boundary theory of diffusion process, existence of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and stochastic stability are investigated. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions, asymptotic dynamic behavior of the proposed hybrid stochastic system with double time delays and Lévy jumps is discussed. Numerical simulations are provided to show consistency with theoretical analysis. (shrink)
To lay the foundation for the exploration of shale gas, we calculated the total organic carbon of Shahezi Formation source rocks in the Xujiaweizi Fault Depression in the Songliao Basin by using the measuring data and the logging curves. Because the source rocks in the study area were formed in a lacustrine basin, they are characterized by strong organic heterogeneity, making it difficult to objectively characterize any changes in the TOC of the underground source rocks based on discrete and limited (...) sampling. In addition, because the source rock is relatively rich in shale and poor in organic matter, the logging response features of high natural gamma, medium-high interval transit time, and medium-low resistivity, making it easily identified. However, because the logging parameters to predict the TOC of source rocks are not universal, it is impossible to establish a prediction equation that is universally applicable. To solve the above problems, we used the variable-coefficient [Formula: see text] technique to predict the TOC of the source rocks in the study area. We defined the two key parameters that affect the TOC prediction in the classic [Formula: see text] technique as the undetermined coefficients, and the coefficients were determined according to the logging and geologic data of the individual wells. The application results indicate that the variable-coefficient [Formula: see text] technique has an average relative error of 17.5% in the prediction of the TOC, which is 16.1% lower than that of the classic [Formula: see text] technique. Thus, the prediction results can effectively reflect the vertical variation in the TOC of source rocks. Based on the logging evaluation results for the TOC of source rocks in 35 wells throughout the study area, the thickness of the high-quality source rocks in the fourth member of the Shahezi Formation was mapped. The thickness of the high-quality source rocks in the fourth member of the Shahezi Formation is generally [Formula: see text]. There are two centers of greater thickness in the plane, with the maximum thickness of more than 70 m. (shrink)
The so-called learned sorting, which was first proposed by Google, achieves data sorting by predicting the placement positions of unsorted data elements in a sorted sequence based on machine learning models. Learned sorting pioneers a new generation of sorting algorithms and shows a great potential because of a theoretical time complexity ON and easy access to hardware-driven accelerating approaches. However, learned sorting has two problems: controlling the monotonicity and boundedness of the predicted placement positions and dealing with placement conflicts of (...) repetitive elements. In this paper, a new learned sorting algorithm named LS is proposed. We integrate a back propagation neural network with the technique of look-up-table in LS to guarantee the monotonicity and boundedness of the predicted placement positions. We design a data structure called the self-regulating index in LS to tentatively store and duly update placement positions for eliminating potential placement conflicts. Results of three controlled experiments demonstrate that LS can effectively control the monotonicity and boundedness, achieve a better time consumption than quick sort and Google’s learned sorting, and present an excellent stability when the data size or the number of repetitive elements increases. (shrink)