Esse estudo examina a concepção de virtude de Kant no texto pré-crítico Observações sobre o sentimento do belo e do sublime e no período crítico assim como a concepção de virtude de Schiller em Sobre a graça e a dignidade mostrando principalmente que existem algumas continuidades entre a posição de Kant a respeito da virtude no período pré-crítico e a concepção do período crítico do pensamento moral à luz do debate entre Kant e Schiller a respeito do papel dos sentimentos (...) na concepção de virtude ou perfeição moral. Palavras-chave: Virtude. Inclinação. Dever. Sublime. (shrink)
A influência do ceticismo nos século XVI e XVII é por demais evidente para ser posta em questão. De Montaigne a Bayle, parece que o cético foi o promotor tanto de uma refutação radical dos princípios metafísicos escolásticos e depois cartesianos quanto de uma crítica feroz às autoridades religiosas e políticas. Ora, esse papel parece ter se amenizado no Século das Luzes, ou melhor, se deslocado - somente as dimensões críticas do social continuaram pertinentes. Pretende-se mostrar aqui o pressuposto de (...) uma tal leitura que leva em conta apenas o aspecto visível da crítica cética e mostrar que o ceticismo, sob uma forma particular (o solipsismo), foi uma das grandes questões da epistemologia das Luzes e que ele é indissociável, para ser compreendido em toda a sua dimensão polêmica, da recepção européia do imaterialismo berkeleyano. O objetivo de nossa intervenção se faz compreender então claramente: explicar primeiramente como uma tal concepção epistemológica pôde nascer em terra cartesiana e quais foram os seus líderes desse solipsismo das Luzes, a supor que os tenha havido, para mostrar, em seguida, porque ela pôde se tornar uma questão metafísica maior no século XVIII, antes de definir, para concluir, os interesses a que ela serviu ou desserviu. Berkeley in the land of the Enlightenment: skepticism and solipsism in the XVIIIth centuryThe influence of skepticism on the XVIth and XVIIth century is far too evident to be questioned. From Montaigne to Bayle, the skeptic seems to have been the furtherer both of a radical refutation of the metaphysical principles of scholasticism and, later, of Cartesianism, and of a fierce critique of the political and religious authority. Well, this role seems to be diminished, or displaced, in the Enlightenment: only the critical dimensions on the social aspect continue to be pertinent. We would like to show that the parti pris of such a consideration only takes into account the visible aspect of the skeptical critique, and that the skepticism, under a very particular form ( the solipsism), was one of the greatest assets of the Enlightenment epistemology and that, in order to apprehend it thoroughly in its polemical dimension, it is inseparable of the European reception of the Berkeleys immaterialism. The aim of our intervention is easily understood: it is to explain, firstly, how such a epistemological conception could have been born in the land of Descartes and who were the leaders of this solipsism in the Enlightenment, supposing that there were such people, and, secondly, why it could become a major metaphysical asset in the XVIIIth century, before defining, as a conclusion, the interests it has done service or disservice. (shrink)
At the end of I.3, 319a29ff, Aristotle asks a series of questions. This difficult and condensed passage, whose translation is controversial at some points, raises two questions: what is what is not without qualification? and is the matter of earth and fire the same or different? In this essay, I shall focus on the second question.
Matthew should be read as a traditor, one who passes along his tradition ; as a theologian, one who thinks about what he is doing; and as a churchman, one who knows that a larger circle than his immediate friends will be influenced by his acts.
Over a long career of teaching and writing in the area of moral theology Charles E. Curran has experienced large areas of agreement with John Paul II on issues of social justice even while in other areas of personal and sexual issues the two are in serious disagreement. This phenomenon of agreement/disagreement has suggested to Curran that the pope is guilty of using a double methodology in his moral theological writing. Curran's book, The Moral Theology of Pope John Paul (...) II, seeks to uncover and substantiate the root of their agreements and disagreements. This article seeks to evaluate Curran's theory. This analysis is done in two parts: first, an examination of the evidence that Curran presents to support his charge against the pope, and second, an examination of the alternative possibility that it is Curran who has the double methodology rather than the pope. (shrink)
A problem which was widely recognised during Schleiermacher's life, and one which I think is not yet satisfactorily solved, concerned the integration of feeling and concepts within human consciousness. Within the domain of philosophy of religion it may be phrased as follows: How does religious feeling relate to rational reflection such that each complements and enriches the other? Schleiermacher was convinced that religion never originates in human understanding or autonomy and that one's understanding of the world is not necessarily dependent (...) on religious faith. But he was equally convinced that reflection and religion ought to enjoy a harmony which reflects the harmony of the universe, and this ideal motivated his continuous attempt to construct a complementary philosophy and theology. His hope was to show that ‘understanding and feeling… remain distinct, but they touch each other and form a galvanic pile.… The innermost life of the spirit consists in the galvanic action thus produced in the feeling of the understanding and the understanding of the feeling, during which, however, the two poles always remain deflected from each other.’. (shrink)
Charles Butterworth's English translation of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Poetics, in which he continues to proceed as he did in previous publications, suffers from three fatal flaws. The translation as a whole is inexact and unrepresentative of what Averroes meant, because Butterworth fails to take into account the decisive influence which the garbled Arabic translation of the Poetics and earlier Arabic commentaries had on Averroes' understanding of the text. The rendering of key technical terms, which is offered wholly (...) without argument or justification, is arbitrary and idiosyncratic. Secondary literature on Aristotelian poetics in Arabic, a subject rather intensely studied in the last two decades, is almost completely ignored, and as a result both the situation described in the former two counts comes about and Butterworth's work is misrepresented as a pioneer in the field. It would appear that all this is due to Butterworth's untenable approach to the text of Averroes: wishing to understand it "on its own terms," as he says, he completely disregards its historical and semantic context, which alone gives it specific meaning, and consequently also disregards the secondary literature that analyzes and explains this context. Previous reviewers have repeatedly brought these matters to Butterworth's attention, but he has chosen to ignore them and has thus rendered his work irrelevant to the scholarly study of Averroes. (shrink)
Charles Rosenberg’s latest book is a collection of ten essays spanning twelve years’ work on the history of American medicine, and seeks to provide both the historian and the practicing physician with an understanding of the framework that lies beneath our modern medical system. He states his cause explicitly in the opening chapter: “Insofar as I have a personal agenda, it is a desire to underline the need...for physicians to think and act on an understanding of [their] unique social (...) and moral identity. It means thinking critically about...the world that informs and constrains clinical choices” (p. 11). (shrink)
For Charles Sanders Peirce , the criterion for the intellectual work and for the conduct of the life of a thinker was absolute rigor in the construction of concepts and strict experimental verification - this outlook caused a complete separation of scientific and philosophical work from any apologetic function. The view that all knowledge of the world of experience and even the knowledge elaborated by Mathematics is intrinsically probable and fallible opposed every and any dogmatism and even the "a (...) priori" of the Kantian tradition. The interest for the evolutionary theory and the unshakable coherence of Pierce's philosophy and attitudes as a professor and a researcher arose strong resistance in the university and editorial world of his time. At a time of serious crises in the North-American university which came as a consequence of the political and economic developments after the Civil War , Peirce's firm position certainly brought about his dismissal from Harvard and John Hopkins Universities, as it also made it difficult for him to publish and it also contributed to his total isolation in the last years of his life.A produção científica e filosófica de Charles Sanders PEIRCE , exigindo como critério para o trabalho intelectual e para a conduta da vida do pensador o absoluto rigor na construção dos conceitos e a estrita verificação experimental, teve por conseqüência desvincular o trabalho científico e filosófico de qualquer função apologética. A afirmação de que todo conhecimento do mundo da experiência e mesmo daquele elaborado pela matemática é intrinsecamente provável e falível se opôs a todo e qualquer dogmatismo e mesmo ao "a priori" de tradição Kantiana. O interesse pela teoria evolucionista e a coerência inabalável da filosofia e das atitudes de PEIRCE, como professor e pesquisador, encontraram profunda resistência no meio universitário e editorial de seu tempo. Num momento de grave crise na Universidade norte-americana, decorrente das transformações econômicas e políticas ocorridas com a guerra da Secessão , o posicionamento de PEIRCE contribuiu muito provavelmente para sua demissão como professor das Universidades de Harvard e de John Hopkins; para dificultar a publicação de seus escritos e para seu total isolamento nos últimos anos de vida. (shrink)
Este ensayo es una investigación sobre las relaciones entre las concepciones de modernidad e identidad en la obra del filósofo canadiense Charles Taylor. En los escritos recientes de Taylor, el concepto de identidad es una herramienta útil para percibir claramente la concepción del yo, en el contexto de una nueva visión del espacio moral. En su búsqueda de las fuentes morales del yo, Taylor centra su análisis en la modernidad. Subraya en este período el rol de la interioridad, la (...) preeminencia de la vida ordinaria de la familia y la economía y la emergencia de la naturaleza y la expresión, el giro expresivista. En sus ensayos de fines de la década de 1980 y en los 1990, Taylor le asigna gran significación al ideal expresivista de la autenticidad y explora sus relaciones con la idea de reconocimiento. Es en este lenguaje moderno de la autenticidad y el reconocimiento que podemos expresar mejor el renacimiento del nacionalismo y la religión como un símbolo de la identidad cultural. Otras consecuencias prácticas de estas distinciones y conceptos de Taylor pueden encontrarse en el multiculturalismo, la filosofía política y la filosofía del lenguaje. Al final del texto se exploran muy sintéticamente alguna críticas a las concepciones de la autenticidad de Taylor. En particular, me parece muy interesante la crítica del filósofo español José María González que se centra en la ausencia del barroco en el filósofo canadiense, y en la idea barroca de una identidad múltiple. (shrink)
It is in the failure to achieve integration ... that personalities too often make shipwreck, either breaking down (physically or mentally) under the strain of conflict or abandoning any real desire for effective synthesis.