Results for 'Charlotte Halpern'

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  1.  4
    Quelles Questions Émergentes Pour les Politiques Publiques de Biodiversité En France Métropolitaine? Résultats Et Perspectives.Audrey Coreau, Pauline Conversy, Laurent Mermet, Valérie Boisvert, Vincent Bretagnolle, Bernard Delay, Odile Gauthier, Arnaud Béchet, Raphaël Billé, Julie Déter, Antoine Doré, Isabelle Doussan, Marie-Agnès Dupouey, Frédéric Gosselin, Charlotte Halpern, Samuel Jolivet, Jane Lecomte, Cyrille Lefeuvre, Pascal Marty, Charlotte Michel, Claire Poinsot, Nirmala Séon-Massin, Thierry Tatoni, Emmanuel Thevenin & Julien Touroult - 2015 - Natures Sciences Sociétés 23 (3):266-274.
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  2.  52
    On the Observational Equivalence of Continuous-Time Deterministic and Indeterministic Descriptions.Werndl Charlotte - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (2):193-225.
    On the observational equivalence of continuous-time deterministic and indeterministic descriptions Content Type Journal Article Pages 193-225 DOI 10.1007/s13194-010-0011-5 Authors Charlotte Werndl, Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE UK Journal European Journal for Philosophy of Science Online ISSN 1879-4920 Print ISSN 1879-4912 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal Issue Volume 1, Number 2.
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  3.  48
    Compact Representations of Extended Causal Models.Joseph Y. Halpern & Christopher Hitchcock - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):986-1010.
    Judea Pearl (2000) was the first to propose a definition of actual causation using causal models. A number of authors have suggested that an adequate account of actual causation must appeal not only to causal structure but also to considerations of normality. In Halpern and Hitchcock (2011), we offer a definition of actual causation using extended causal models, which include information about both causal structure and normality. Extended causal models are potentially very complex. In this study, we show how (...)
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  4. Youth, Education, and the Role of Society: Rethinking Learning in the High School Years.Robert Halpern - 2013 - Harvard Education Press.
    _Youth, Education, and the Role of Society_ examines the “learning landscape” currently available to American adolescents, arguing that we need to expand, enrich, and diversify the learning opportunities available to young people today. Central to the book is Robert Halpern’s view that we depend too exclusively on schools to meet the full range of young people’s developmental needs. “High school learning as typically structured is just too fragmented, isolated, and abstract to meet young people’s developmental needs,” he argues. “It (...)
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  5.  39
    Reasoning About Uncertainty.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2003 - MIT Press.
  6. Graded Causation and Defaults.Joseph Y. Halpern & Christopher Hitchcock - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (2):413-457.
    Recent work in psychology and experimental philosophy has shown that judgments of actual causation are often influenced by consideration of defaults, typicality, and normality. A number of philosophers and computer scientists have also suggested that an appeal to such factors can help deal with problems facing existing accounts of actual causation. This article develops a flexible formal framework for incorporating defaults, typicality, and normality into an account of actual causation. The resulting account takes actual causation to be both graded and (...)
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  7. Causes and Explanations: A Structural-Model Approach. Part I: Causes.Joseph Y. Halpern & Judea Pearl - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):843-887.
    Department of Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA judea{at}cs.ucla.edu' + u + '@' + d + ''//--> We propose a new definition of actual causes, using structural equations to model counterfactuals. We show that the definition yields a plausible and elegant account of causation that handles well examples which have caused problems for other definitions and resolves major difficulties in the traditional account. Introduction Causal models: a review 2.1 Causal models 2.2 Syntax and semantics (...)
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  8. The New Science of Cognitive Sex Differences.David I. Miller & Diane F. Halpern - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (1):37-45.
  9.  16
    From Idealized Clinical Empathy to Empathic Communication in Medical Care.Jodi Halpern - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (2):301-311.
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  10.  68
    When Concretized Emotion-Belief Complexes Derail Decision-Making Capacity.Jodi Halpern - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (2):108-116.
    There is an important gap in philosophical, clinical and bioethical conceptions of decision-making capacity. These fields recognize that when traumatic life circumstances occur, people not only feel afraid and demoralized, but may develop catastrophic thinking and other beliefs that can lead to poor judgment. Yet there has been no articulation of the ways in which such beliefs may actually derail decision-making capacity. In particular, certain emotionally grounded beliefs are systematically unresponsive to evidence, and this can block the ability to deliberate (...)
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  11.  14
    “Editing” Genes: A Case Study About How Language Matters in Bioethics.Meaghan O'Keefe, Sarah Perrault, Jodi Halpern, Lisa Ikemoto & Mark Yarborough - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (12):3-10.
    Metaphors used to describe new technologies mediate public understanding of the innovations. Analyzing the linguistic, rhetorical, and affective aspects of these metaphors opens the range of issues available for bioethical scrutiny and increases public accountability. This article shows how such a multidisciplinary approach can be useful by looking at a set of texts about one issue, the use of a newly developed technique for genetic modification, CRISPRcas9.
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  12.  88
    General Cognitive Principles for Learning Structure in Time and Space.Michael H. Goldstein, Heidi R. Waterfall, Arnon Lotem, Joseph Y. Halpern, Jennifer A. Schwade, Luca Onnis & Shimon Edelman - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (6):249-258.
  13.  60
    Causes and Explanations: A Structural-Model Approach. Part II: Explanations.J. Y. Halpern - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):889-911.
    We propose new definitions of (causal) explanation, using structural equations to model counterfactuals. The definition is based on the notion of actual cause, as defined and motivated in a companion article. Essentially, an explanation is a fact that is not known for certain but, if found to be true, would constitute an actual cause of the fact to be explained, regardless of the agent's initial uncertainty. We show that the definition handles well a number of problematic examples from the literature.
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  14. Sleeping Beauty Reconsidered: Conditioning and Reflection in Asynchronous Systems.Joseph Halpern - 2004 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Proceedings of the Twentieth Conference on Uncertainty in Ai. Oxford University Press. pp. 111-142.
     
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  15.  34
    Intransitivity and Vagueness.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2008 - Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (4):530-547.
    There are many examples in the literature that suggest that indistinguishability is intransitive, despite the fact that the indistinguishability relation is typically taken to be an equivalence relation (and thus transitive). It is shown that if the uncertainty perception and the question of when an agent reports that two things are indistinguishable are both carefully modeled, the problems disappear, and indistinguishability can indeed be taken to be an equivalence relation. Moreover, this model also suggests a logic of vagueness that seems (...)
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  16.  60
    Belief Revision: A Critique. [REVIEW]Nir Friedman & Joseph Y. Halpern - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (4):401-420.
    We examine carefully the rationale underlying the approaches to belief change taken in the literature, and highlight what we view as methodological problems. We argue that to study belief change carefully, we must be quite explicit about the ontology or scenario underlying the belief change process. This is something that has been missing in previous work, with its focus on postulates. Our analysis shows that we must pay particular attention to two issues that have often been taken for granted: the (...)
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  17.  37
    From Causal Models to Counterfactual Structures.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2013 - Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (2):305-322.
    Galles & Pearl (l998) claimed that s [possible-worlds] framework.s framework. Recursive models are shown to correspond precisely to a subclass of (possible-world) counterfactual structures. On the other hand, a slight generalization of recursive models, models where all equations have unique solutions, is shown to be incomparable in expressive power to counterfactual structures, despite the fact that the Galles and Pearl arguments should apply to them as well. The problem with the Galles and Pearl argument is identified: an axiom that they (...)
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  18.  96
    Defining Knowledge in Terms of Belief: The Modal Logic Perspective.Joseph Y. Halpern, Dov Samet & Ella Segev - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):469-487.
    The question of whether knowledge is definable in terms of belief, which has played an important role in epistemology for the last 50 years, is studied here in the framework of epistemic and doxastic logics. Three notions of definability are considered: explicit definability, implicit definability, and reducibility, where explicit definability is equivalent to the combination of implicit definability and reducibility. It is shown that if knowledge satisfies any set of axioms contained in S5, then it cannot be explicitly defined in (...)
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  19.  84
    Should Knowledge Entail Belief?Joseph Y. Halpern - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (5):483 - 494.
    The appropriateness of S5 as a logic of knowledge has been attacked at some length in the philosophical literature. Here one particular attack based on the interplay between knowledge and belief is considered: Suppose that knowledge satisfies S5, belief satisfies KD45, and both the entailment property (knowledge implies belief) and positive certainty (if the agent believes something, she believes she knows it) hold. Then it can be shown that belief reduces to knowledge: it is impossible to have false beliefs. While (...)
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  20. Oxford Studies in Epistemology.Joseph Halpern - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
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  21.  19
    On the Unusual Effectiveness of Logic in Computer Science.Joseph Y. Halpern, Robert Harper, Neil Immerman, Phokion G. Kolaitis, Moshe Y. Vardi & Victor Vianu - 2001 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (2):213-236.
  22.  66
    Great Expectations. Part I: On the Customizability of Generalized Expected Utility. [REVIEW]Francis C. Chu & Joseph Y. Halpern - 2008 - Theory and Decision 64 (1):1-36.
    We propose a generalization of expected utility that we call generalized EU (GEU), where a decision maker’s beliefs are represented by plausibility measures and the decision maker’s tastes are represented by general (i.e., not necessarily real-valued) utility functions. We show that every agent, “rational” or not, can be modeled as a GEU maximizer. We then show that we can customize GEU by selectively imposing just the constraints we want. In particular, we show how each of Savage’s postulates corresponds to constraints (...)
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  23.  64
    Updating Probability: Tracking Statistics as Criterion.Bas C. van Fraassen & Joseph Y. Halpern - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv027.
    ABSTRACT For changing opinion, represented by an assignment of probabilities to propositions, the criterion proposed is motivated by the requirement that the assignment should have, and maintain, the possibility of matching in some appropriate sense statistical proportions in a population. This ‘tracking’ criterion implies limitations on policies for updating in response to a wide range of types of new input. Satisfying the criterion is shown equivalent to the principle that the prior must be a convex combination of the possible posteriors. (...)
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  24.  23
    Weighted Sets of Probabilities and Minimax Weighted Expected Regret: A New Approach for Representing Uncertainty and Making Decisions.Joseph Y. Halpern & Samantha Leung - 2015 - Theory and Decision 79 (3):415-450.
  25. What is an Inference Rule?Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern & Moshe Y. Vardi - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (3):1018-1045.
    What is an inference rule? This question does not have a unique answer. One usually finds two distinct standard answers in the literature; validity inference $(\sigma \vdash_\mathrm{v} \varphi$ if for every substitution $\tau$, the validity of $\tau \lbrack\sigma\rbrack$ entails the validity of $\tau\lbrack\varphi\rbrack)$, and truth inference $(\sigma \vdash_\mathrm{t} \varphi$ if for every substitution $\tau$, the truth of $\tau\lbrack\sigma\rbrack$ entails the truth of $\tau\lbrack\varphi\rbrack)$. In this paper we introduce a general semantic framework that allows us to investigate the notion of inference (...)
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  26. Asymptotic Conditional Probabilities: The Non-Unary Case.Adam J. Grove, Joseph Y. Halpern & Daphne Koller - 1996 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (1):250-276.
    Motivated by problems that arise in computing degrees of belief, we consider the problem of computing asymptotic conditional probabilities for first-order sentences. Given first-order sentences φ and θ, we consider the structures with domain {1,..., N} that satisfy θ, and compute the fraction of them in which φ is true. We then consider what happens to this fraction as N gets large. This extends the work on 0-1 laws that considers the limiting probability of first-order sentences, by considering asymptotic conditional (...)
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  27.  49
    The Role of the Protocol in Anthropic Reasoning.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2:195-206.
    I show how thinking in terms of the protocol used can help clarify problems related to anthropic reasoning and self-location, such as the Doomsday Argument and the Sleeping Beauty Problem.
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  28.  9
    Solid-Organ Transplantation in HIV-Infected Patients.Scott D. Halpern, Peter A. Ubel & Arthur L. Caplan - forthcoming - Center for Bioethics Papers.
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  29.  5
    Taste.Bruce P. Halpern - 2002 - In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
  30.  7
    Probability and Conditionals: Belief Revision and Rational Decision.Joseph Y. Halpern, Ellery Eells & Brian Skyrms - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (2):277.
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  31.  11
    Common Knowledge Revisited.Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern, Yoram Moses & Moshe Y. Vardi - 1999 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 96 (1-3):89-105.
  32.  14
    Genuine and Drug-Induced Synesthesia: A Comparison.Christopher Sinke, John H. Halpern, Markus Zedler, Janina Neufeld, Hinderk M. Emrich & Torsten Passie - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1419-1434.
    Despite some principal similarities, there is no systematic comparison between the different types of synesthesia . This comprehensive review compares the three principal types of synesthesia and focuses on their phenomenological features and their relation to different etiological models. Implications of this comparison for the validity of the different etiological models are discussed.Comparison of the three forms of synesthesia show many more differences than similarities. This is in contrast to their representation in the literature, where they are discussed in many (...)
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  33.  10
    Attending to Clinical Wisdom.J. Halpern - 2012 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (1):41-46.
    In response to the article by Baum-Baicker and Sisti, I will consider the kind of wisdom involved in therapeutic listening; the role of life wisdom; and the challenge of imparting clinical wisdom to young health professionals’ education.
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  34. Minimizing Regret in Dynamic Decision Problems.Joseph Y. Halpern & Samantha Leung - 2016 - Theory and Decision 81 (1):123-151.
    The menu-dependent nature of regret-minimization creates subtleties when it is applied to dynamic decision problems. It is not clear whether forgone opportunities should be included in the menu. We explain commonly observed behavioral patterns as minimizing regret when forgone opportunities are present. If forgone opportunities are included, we can characterize when a form of dynamic consistency is guaranteed.
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  35.  27
    The Law, Policy, and Ethics of Employers' Use of Financial Incentives to Improve Health.Kristin M. Madison, Kevin G. Volpp & Scott D. Halpern - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):450-468.
    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act turns to a nontraditional mechanism to improve public health: employer -provided financial incentives for healthy behaviors. Critics raise questions about incentive programs' effectiveness, employer involvement, and potential discrimination. We support incentive program development despite these concerns. The ACA sets the stage for a broad-based research and implementation agenda through which we can learn to structure incentive programs to not only promote public health but also address prevalent concerns.
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  36.  6
    The Law, Policy, and Ethics of Employers' Use of Financial Incentives to Improve Health.Kristin M. Madison, Kevin G. Volpp & Scott D. Halpern - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):450-468.
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  37.  11
    Evidence-Based Equipoise and Research Responsiveness.Scott D. Halpern - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):1 – 4.
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  38.  10
    Decisions Devoid of Data?Scott D. Halpern - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (3):55 – 56.
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  39.  7
    Narratives Hold Open the Future.Jodi Halpern - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (s1):S25-S27.
  40.  96
    Erwin Schrödinger's Views on Gravitational Physics During His Last Years at the University of Vienna and Some Research Ensuing From It.Leopold Halpern - 1987 - Foundations of Physics 17 (11):1113-1130.
    The author, who was Schrödinger's assistant during his last years in Vienna, gives an account of Schrödinger's views and activities during that time which lead him to a different approach to research on the relations between gravitation and quantum phenomena. Various features of past research are outlined in nontechnical terms. A heuristic argument is presented for the role of the zero-point energy of massive particles in counteracting gravitational collapse and the formation of horizons. Arguments are presented for the view that (...)
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  41.  3
    Reasoning About Knowledge: An Overview.Joseph Y. Halpern - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):660-661.
  42.  5
    The World of Competitive Scrabble: Novice and Expert Differences in Visuopatial and Verbal Abilities.Diane F. Halpern & Jonathan Wai - 2007 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 13 (2):79-94.
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  43.  69
    On Definability in Multimodal Logic.Joseph Y. Halpern, Dov Samet & Ella Segev - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):451-468.
    Three notions of definability in multimodal logic are considered. Two are analogous to the notions of explicit definability and implicit definability introduced by Beth in the context of first-order logic. However, while by Beth’s theorem the two types of definability are equivalent for first-order logic, such an equivalence does not hold for multimodal logics. A third notion of definability, reducibility, is introduced; it is shown that in multimodal logics, explicit definability is equivalent to the combination of implicit definability and reducibility. (...)
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  44.  23
    Theater and Democratic Thought: Arendt to Rancière.Richard Halpern - 2011 - Critical Inquiry 37 (3):545-572.
  45.  92
    Matter and Geometry in a Unified Theory.Leopold Halpern - 1994 - Foundations of Physics 24 (12):1697-1703.
    The prediction of general relativity on the gravitational collapse of matter ending in a point is viewed as an absurdity of the kind to be expected in any consistent physical theory due to ultimate conflicts of the axioms of geometry with the properties of physical objects. The necessity to introduce a probability interpretation for the solution of partial differential equations in space time for quantum theory points to similar roots. It is pointed out that quantum theory in the very small (...)
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  46.  57
    Maxmin Weighted Expected Utility: A Simpler Characterization.Joseph Y. Halpern & Samantha Leung - 2016 - Theory and Decision 80 (4):581-610.
  47.  40
    Taken by Surprise: The Paradox of the Surprise Test Revisited. [REVIEW]Joseph Y. Halpern & Yoram Moses - 1986 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 15 (3):281 - 304.
    A teacher announced to his pupils that on exactly one of the days of the following school week (Monday through Friday) he would give them a test. But it would be a surprise test; on the evening before the test they would not know that the test would take place the next day. One of the brighter students in the class then argued that the teacher could never give them the test. "It can't be Friday," she said, "since in that (...)
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  48.  31
    Testosterone and Religiosity as Predictors of Sexual Attitudes and Activity Among Adolescent Males: A Biosocial Model.Carolyn Tucker Halpern, J. Richard Udry, Benjamin Campbell, Chirayath Suchindran & George A. Mason - 1994 - Journal of Biosocial Science 26 (2):217-234.
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  49. Mental Scanning in Auditory Imagery for Songs.Ar Halpern - 1987 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (5):339-339.
     
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  50.  5
    A Partition Theorem.J. D. Halpern - 1974 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 39 (1):181-182.
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